Peter Nickel

University of Bonn, Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Are you Peter Nickel?

Claim your profile

Publications (50)160.95 Total impact

    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 08/2010; 28(33). DOI:10.1002/chin.199733162
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 07/2010; 29(27). DOI:10.1002/chin.199827141
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Selective and potent P2Y(11) receptor antagonists have yet to be developed, thus impeding an evaluation of this G protein-coupled receptor mainly expressed on immune cells. Taking suramin with moderate inhibitory potency as a template, 18 ureas with variations of the methyl groups of suramin and their precursors were functionally tested at P2Y(11), P2Y(1), and P2Y(2) receptors. Fluorine substitution of the methyl groups of suramin led to the first nanomolar P2Y(11) antagonist (8f, NF157, pK(i): 7.35). For selectivity, 8f was also tested at various P2X receptors. 8f displayed selectivity for P2Y(11) over P2Y(1) (>650-fold), P2Y(2) (>650-fold), P2X(2) (3-fold), P2X(3) (8-fold), P2X(4) (>22-fold), and P2X(7) (>67-fold) but no selectivity over P2X(1). QSAR studies confirm that residues with favored resonance and size parameters in the aromatic linker region can indeed lead to an increased potency as is the case for 8f. A symmetric structure linking two anionic clusters seems to be required for bioactivity. 8f may be helpful for studies evaluating the physiological role of P2Y(11) receptors.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2005; 48(22):7040-8. DOI:10.1021/jm050301p · 5.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of ATP-stimulated P2X1 receptors in human platelets is still unclear. They may act alone or in synergy with other pathways, such as P2Y1 or P2Y12 receptors, to accelerate and enhance calcium mobilisation, shape change and aggregation. To date very few pharmacological means of selectively inhibiting platelet P2X1 receptors have been described, although recent work has shown that suramin is a useful lead compound for the development of high-affinity P2X1 antagonists. We therefore investigated the effects of a series of bivalent and tetravalent suramin analogues on alphabeta meATP (P2X1 receptors)-induced or ADP (P2Y1 receptors)-induced intracellular calcium increases and shape change, as well as on ADP-induced aggregation (P2Y1 & P2Y12 receptors) in human platelets. Changes in intracellular calcium were measured using standard fluorescence techniques, while shape change and aggregation were determined by turbidimetry. The novel tetravalent compound NF864 (8,8',8'',8'''-(carbonylbis(imino-5,1,3-benzenetriyl-bis(carbonylimino)))tetrakis-naphthalene-1,3,5-trisulfonic acid-dodecasodium salt) proved to be the most potent platelet P2X1 antagonist reported to date, blocking alphabeta meATP-induced Ca2+ increases and shape change in a concentration-dependent manner, with a pA2 of 8.17 and 8.49, respectively. The ability to inhibit the platelet P2X1 receptor displayed the following order : NF864 > NF449 > or = NF110 > NF023 = MK-HU1 = suramin. A different antagonistic profile was observed for ADP-induced Ca2+ increases, shape change and aggregation; however, overall four compounds showed sufficient ability to selectively inhibit P2X1 responses, with the order NF110 > NF449 > or = NF864 > or = MK-HU1. Therefore, these compounds should prove useful tools for investigating the functional significance of platelet P2X1 receptors in thrombosis and haemostasis, NF864 being the most promising compound.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 08/2005; 372(1):1-13. DOI:10.1007/s00210-005-1085-z · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: P2X receptors are cation channels gated by extracellular ATP and related nucleotides. Because of the widespread distribution of P2X receptors and the high subtype diversity, potent and selective antagonists are needed to dissect their roles in intact tissues. Based on suramin as a lead compound, several derivates have been described that block recombinant P2X receptors with orders of magnitude higher potency than suramin. Here we characterized the suramin analogue 4,4',4'',4'''-(carbonylbis(imino-5,1,3-benzenetriylbis(carbonylimino)))tetrakis-benzene-1,3-disulfonic acid (NF449) with respect to its potency to antagonize ATP or alphabeta-methyleneadenosine 5'-trisphosphate-induced inward currents of homomeric rat P2X(1)-P2X(4) receptors or heteromeric P2X(1 + 5) and P2X(2+3) receptors, respectively. NF449 most potently blocked P2X(1) and P2X(1 + 5) receptors with IC(50) values of 0.3 nM and 0.7 nM, respectively. Three to four orders of magnitude higher NF449 concentrations were required to block homomeric P2X(3) or heteromeric P2X(2 + 3) receptors (IC(50) 1.8 and 0.3 microM, respectively). NF449 was least potent at homomeric P2X(2) receptors (IC(50) 47 microM) and homomeric P2X(4) receptors (IC(50) > 300 microM). Altogether, these results characterize NF449 as the so far most potent and selective antagonist of receptors incorporating the P2X(1) subunit such as the P2X(1) homomer and the P2X(1 + 5) heteromer.
    Neuropharmacology 03/2005; 48(3):461-8. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2004.11.003 · 5.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: NF449 [4,4',4",4"'-(carbonylbis(imino-5,1,3-benzenetriyl-bis(carbonylimino)))tetrakisbenzene-1,3-disulfonic acid-octasodiumsalt)] was recently described to inhibit recombinant rP2X(1) receptors (Naunyn Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 364 (2001) 285). The purpose of this study was to examine structure-activity-relationships at P2 receptors of a series of NF449 analogues. Thus, compounds containing various arylaminemono-, di-, or trisulfonic acids and a replacement of the central urea bridge were synthesized. NF449 displayed a pIC(50) at P2X(1) receptors (rat vas deferens) of 6.31 +/- 0.04 being at least 19-fold more potent at P2X(1) than at P2X(3), P2Y(1), P2Y(2), or P2Y(11). Any deletion or change of position of sulfonic acid groups or replacing the central urea bond by the bisamide of terephthalic acid reduced the potency at P2X(1) by at least 90%. All compounds were very weak antagonists at P2Y(2) or P2Y(11) receptors (pIC(50) < 4.5). In conclusion, NF449 remains the most potent and selective P2X(1) antagonist known. Potential lead compounds among the suramin class for P2X(3) (16d) and P2Y(1) (16a) receptors were identified.
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2004; 39(4):345-57. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2004.01.007 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are important signaling enzymes that have emerged within the last decade as a new class of drug targets. It has previously been shown that suramin is a potent, reversible, and competitive inhibitor of PTP1B and Yersinia PTP (YopH). We therefore screened 45 suramin analogs against a panel of seven PTPs, including PTP1B, YopH, CD45, Cdc25A, VHR, PTPalpha, and LAR, to identify compounds with improved potency and specificity. Of the 45 compounds, we found 11 to have inhibitory potency comparable or significantly improved relative to suramin. We also found suramin to be a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 1.5 microm) of Cdc25A, a phosphatase that mediates cell cycle progression and a potential target for cancer therapy. In addition we also found three other compounds, NF201, NF336, and NF339, to be potent (IC(50) < 5 microm) and specific (at least 20-30-fold specificity with respect to the other human PTPs tested) inhibitors of Cdc25A. Significantly, we found two potent and specific inhibitors, NF250 and NF290, for YopH, the phosphatase that is an essential virulence factor for bubonic plague. Two of the compounds tested, NF504 and NF506, had significantly improved potency as PTP inhibitors for all phosphatases tested except for LAR and PTPalpha. Surprisingly, we found that a significant number of these compounds activated the receptor-like phosphatases, PTPalpha and LAR. In further characterizing this activation phenomenon, we reveal a novel role for the membrane-distal cytoplasmic PTP domain (D2) of PTPalpha: the direct intramolecular regulation of the activity of the membrane-proximal cytoplasmic PTP domain (D1). Binding of certain of these compounds to PTPalpha disrupts D1-D2 basal state contacts and allows new contacts to occur between D1 and D2, which activates D1 by as much as 12-14-fold when these contacts are optimized.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2004; 279(15):14713-25. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M312488200 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The antagonistic effects of the novel suramin analogue 4,4',4",4"'-(carbonylbis(imino-5,1,3-benzenetriylbis(carbonylimino)))tetrakis-benzene-1,3-disulfonic acid (NF449) were analyzed at homomeric human P2X(1) and P2X(7) receptor subtypes (hP2X(1) and hP2X(7)) heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. At activating ATP concentrations of 1 microM (hP2X(1)) and 100 microM (hP2X(7)), IC(50) values of 0.05 nM and 40 microM were found for hP2X(1) and hP2X(7) receptors, respectively. The Schild analysis revealed a pA(2) of 10.7 at hP2X(1). Wash-in and wash-out of 10 nM NF449 were nearly complete within 16 s and 4 min, respectively, at the hP2X(1) receptor. An increase in the activating ATP concentration to 100 microM shifted the NF449 concentration-inhibition curve rightwards for the hP2X(1) receptor. NF449 decelerated activation as well as desensitization of hP2X(1). It is concluded that NF449 acts as a reversible competitive antagonist at the hP2X(1) with much higher potency at hP2X(1) than at hP2X(7) receptors. NF449 may hence be excellently suited to discriminate between both receptors in native human tissues.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 06/2003; 470(1-2):1-7. DOI:10.1016/S0014-2999(03)01761-8 · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The interface between receptors and G proteins can be considered as a drug target. Various classes of low molecular weight inhibitors have been identified that block the ability of receptors to interact with G proteins (e.g. peptides, suramin analogues and amphiphilic cations). Here we have tested if there are compounds that differentially affect the interaction of one receptor with two different (related) G protein alpha-subunits. Fusion proteins comprising the human A1-adenosine receptor and Galphai-1 (A1/Galphai-1) or Galphao (A1/Galphao) were expressed in HEK293 cells. Suramin analogues were screened for their ability to differentially affect high affinity binding of the agonist (-) N6-3-[125I](iodo-4-hydroxyphenylisopropyl) adenosine (IHPIA). One compound [NF326 = 8,8'-(carbonylbis-(imino-3,1-phenylenecarbonylimino))bis-(1-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid, disodium salt)] was identified that inhibited high affinity agonist binding to the fusion protein A1/Galphai-1 but modestly enhanced binding of IHPIA to A1/Galphao. This action was specific because NF326 did not affect antagonist binding to either fusion protein. In addition, it was unrelated to a difference in affinity of the receptor for the G protein fusion moiety because the stability of ternary complexes formed by IHPIA + A1/Galphai-1 and IHPIA + A1/Galphao) is comparable and because lowering the affinity of the receptor for the G protein (by introducing point mutations at cys351 of Galphai-1) enhanced the uncoupling effect of NF326. Finally, NF326 did not discriminate between a fusion protein comprising the alpha2A-adrenoceptor and Galphai-1 (alpha2A)/Galphai-1) or Galphao-1 (alpha2A)/Galphao-1); binding of the agonist [3H]UK14304 (bromoxidine) to both fusion proteins was inhibited over a comparable concentration range while binding of the antagonist [3H]yohimbine was unaffected. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that the contact sites that are formed between individual receptors and G proteins differ. These differences suffice to allow for selective disruption by G protein inhibitors of different classes. Using NF326 we show that the bulk of the A1-adenosine receptors in human cerebrocortical membranes interacts with Galphao rather than Galphai.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2002; 365(1):8-16. DOI:10.1007/s00210-001-0493-y · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Extracellular adenine and uracil 5'-nucleotides are important signalling molecules that exert a great variety of effects in numerous tissues and cell types through the activation of P2 receptors. In the past eight years, an extended series of P2 receptors (P2X(17), ionotropic subunits; P2Y(1,2,4,6,11,12), metabotropic receptors) has been cloned from vertebrate tissues. In this rapidly expanding field, one of the main current challenges is to relate the cloned P2 receptor subtypes to the diverse physiological responses mediated by the pharmacological phenotypes of native P2 receptors. Unfortunately, subtype-selective P2 ligands, especially potent and selective antagonists, have been only slowly forthcoming, and this acts as a considerable impediment to progress. However, a number of new P2 receptor antagonists have recently been described which to some degree are more potent and more selective than earlier antagonists like suramin or pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS). This work moves us closer to the ideal goal of classifying the recombinant and native P2 receptor subtypes on the basis of antagonist profiles. This review begins with a brief account of the current status of P2 receptors and their ligands. It then focuses on structure-activity relationships of PPADS and suramin analogues and will finish with a brief discussion of some related therapeutic possibilities.
    Current Pharmaceutical Design 02/2002; 8(26):2371-99. DOI:10.2174/1381612023392973 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antagonistic effects of the novel suramin analogue 4,4',4'',4'''-(carbonylbis(imino-5,1,3-benzenetriylbis(carbonylimino)))tetrakis-benzene-1,3-disulfonic acid (NF449) were studied on contractions of the rat vas deferens elicited by &#33,&#35-methylene ATP (&#33&#35meATP; mediated by P2X1 receptors), contractions of the guinea-pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle elicited by &#33&#35meATP (mediated by P2X3 receptors) or adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (ADP&#35S; mediated by P2Y1 receptors), ATP-induced increases of [Ca2+]i in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells (mediated by P2Y2 receptors), inward currents evoked by ATP in follicle cell-free Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing rP2X1 or rP2X3 receptors and degradation of ATP by ecto-nucleotidases in folliculated Xenopus laevis oocytes. In addition, NF449 was examined for its P2 receptor specificity in rat vas deferens (&#331A-adrenoceptors) and guinea-pig ileum (histamine H1 and muscarinic M3 receptors). At native (pIC50=7.15) and recombinant (pIC50=9.54) P2X1 receptors, NF449 was a highly potent antagonist. The P2X3 receptors present in guinea-pig ileum (pIC50=5.04) or expressed in oocytes (pIC50&#445.6) were much less sensitive for NF449. It also was a very weak antagonist at P2Y1 receptors in guinea-pig ileum (pIC50=4.85) and P2Y2 receptors in HEK 293 cells (pIC50=3.86), and showed very low inhibitory potency on ecto-nucleotidases (pIC50<3.5). NF449 (100 M) did not interact with &#331A-adrenoceptors or histamine H1 and muscarinic M3 receptors. Thus, the antagonism by NF449 is highly specific for P2 receptors. In conclusion, the subnanomolar potency at rP2X1 receptors and the rank order of potency, P2X1 >> P2X3 > P2Y1 > P2Y2 > ecto-nucleotidases, make NF449 unique among the P2 receptor antagonists reported to date. NF449 may fill the long-standing need for a P2X1-selective radioligand.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 08/2001; 364(3):285-290. DOI:10.1007/s002100100463 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The suramin analogue 8,8'-(carbonylbis(imino-4, 1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)) bis(1,3,5-naphthalenetrisul fonic acid) (NF279) was analysed with respect to its potency and P2X receptor subtype selectivity. Two-electrode voltage-clamp measurements were performed with Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing homomultimeric rat P2X(1), P2X(2), P2X(3) and human P2X(4) receptors. For the fast desensitising P2X(1) and P2X(3) receptors, IC(50) values strongly depended on whether oocytes were pre-incubated with NF279 prior to ATP superfusion or exposed to NF279 simultaneously with ATP. With a 10 s pre-incubation period of NF279, IC(50) values of 19 nM and 1.62 microM were obtained for rat P2X(1) and P2X(3), respectively. Without pre-incubation, IC(50) values amounted to 2 microM and 85.5 microM for P2X(1) and P2X(3), respectively. For the non-desensitising rat P2X(2) receptor NF279 appeared to act as a competitive antagonist with an IC(50) value of 0.76 microM and a K(B) value of 0.36 microM, as derived from Schild analysis. P2X(4) receptors were the least sensitive subtypes for NF279 (IC(50)>300 microM). The antagonism was fully reversible at all P2X subtypes analysed. Our results indicate that NF279 is a potent P2X(1) receptor-selective and reversible antagonist.
    Neuropharmacology 08/2000; 39(11):2044-53. DOI:10.1016/S0028-3908(00)00022-8 · 5.11 Impact Factor
  • S Dhar · J Gullbo · K Csoka · E Eriksson · K Nilsson · P Nickel · R Larsson · P Nygren ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Suramin has shown promising antitumour activity against several tumour types, both in vitro and in vivo, but the clinical utility of this compound is hampered by its unfavourable toxicity profile. In the present study, the semi-automated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) was employed for evaluation of the cytotoxicity of seven suramin analogues in vitro in a panel of human tumour cell lines and in primary cultures of tumour cells from patients. Like suramin, the analogues showed little sensitivity to resistance mechanisms involving P-glycoprotein, topoisomerase II, multidrug resistance associated protein and glutathione-mediated drug resistance. In the cell line panel, NF067 and FCE 26644 showed activity comparable with suramin. All analogues were less potent than suramin in patient cells except for FCE 26644. Correlation to suramin activity patterns in the cell line panel was highest for NF037 and low to moderate for the remaining analogues. In patient cells, high correlation coefficients were obtained for FCE 26644, NF110, NF031 and NF037. The results indicate that the cytotoxic activity of suramin on patient tumour cells is shared by the analogues with FCE 26644 being the most active. The pharmacophore for cytotoxicity in patient cells may be different from that observed in the cell lines.
    European Journal of Cancer 05/2000; 36(6):803-9. DOI:10.1016/S0959-8049(00)00024-1 · 5.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intracellular microelectrodes were used to record the transmembrane potential and excitatory junction potentials (e.j.p.s) produced by sympathetic nerve stimulation (1 Hz) in smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig isolated vas deferens. The symmetrical 3′-urea of 8-(benzamido)naphthalene-1,3,5-trisulphonic acid (NF023) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of e.j.p. magnitude (IC50=4.8×10−6 M), but had no effect on the resting membrane potential of the smooth muscle cells. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P-5-P) also depressed e.j.p. magnitude in a concentration-dependent manner, but was less potent than NF023 (IC50=2.2×10−5 M). At 10−4 M and above P-5-P significantly depolarized the smooth muscle cells. The nucleoside triphosphatase inhibitor 6-N,N-diethyl-D-β,γ-dibromomethyleneATP (ARL 67156) (5×10−5 M) significantly increased e.j.p. amplitude. ARL 67156 (10−4 M) further increased e.j.p. amplitude such that they often reached threshold for initiation of action potentials, causing muscle contraction and expulsion of the recording electrode. After reduction of e.j.p.s by NF023 or P-5-P (both 10−5 M), subsequent co-addition of ARL 67156 (10−4 M) significantly increased their magnitude. The overflow of endogenous ATP evoked by field stimulation of sympathetic nerves (8 Hz, 1 min) was measured by HPLC and flurometric detection. ARL 67156 (10−4 M) enhanced ATP overflow by almost 700% compared to control. We conclude that for electrophysiological studies NF023 is preferable to other P2X receptor antagonists such as pyridoxalphosphate -6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulphonic acid (PPADS), suramin or P-5-P. Furthermore, breakdown of endogenous ATP by nucleoside triphosphatases is an important modulator of purinergic neurotransmission in the guinea-pig vas deferens. British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 129, 1089–1094; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0703163
    British Journal of Pharmacology 04/2000; 129(6):1089-94. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0703163 · 4.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Suramin analogs are polyanionic naphthylureas structurally related to suramin, an antitumor agent with a narrow therapeutic window. The angiostatic activities of suramin and 16 suramin analogs were investigated using an easily quantifiable in vitro angiogenesis system. In addition, the antiproliferative activities of the analogs were studied in four different human tumor cell lines and in porcine aortic endothelial cells. The suramin analogs encompassed two main structural variations, i.e. their molecular size, and the number and substitution pattern of the sulfonate groups. Some suramin analogs with a reduced number of sulfonate groups (NF062, NF289 and NF326) showed significant dose-dependent angiostatic and also antiproliferative activities. The disulfonate NF062 was superior to suramin in inhibiting HT29 and T47D tumor cells while demonstrating a similar angiostatic potential as suramin. Therefore, the sulfonate groups in the para position of the amino groups of the naphthyl residues of suramin seem to be of special importance. The very small disulfonates (NF108, NF109, NF499, NF500 and NF241) and the asymmetric compound NF520, one half of the suramin molecule, are inactive. Therefore, a minimal molecule size seems to be essential for the biological activity. Suramin is a rather rigid molecule. The highly flexible analogs (NF527, NF528 and NF529) are inactive. This indicates that the molecular rigidity is important for the biological activity.
    Anti-Cancer Drugs 03/2000; 11(2):69-77. DOI:10.1097/00001813-200002000-00002 · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of the suramin analogue 8,8'-(carbonylbis(imino-4, 1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino))bis(1,3 , 5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid) (NF279) was analyzed on human P2X(1) and P2X(7) receptor subtypes (human P2X(1) and human P2X(7)) heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. At activating ATP concentrations of 1 microM (human P2X(1)) and 10 microM ATP (human P2X(7)), IC(50) values of 0.05 microM and 2.8 microM were found for human P2X(1) and human P2X(7) receptors, respectively. An increase in the activating [ATP] shifted the NF279 concentration-inhibition curve rightwards for both receptors. NF279 slowed the activation of both human P2X(1) and human P2X(7) as well as the desensitization of human P2X(1). The data support a model in which desensitization of P2X(1) is dependent on preceding activation of these P2X receptors. It is concluded that NF279 acts as a competitive antagonist with much higher potency at human P2X(1) than at P2X(7) receptors. NF279 may hence be suited to discriminate between both receptors in native tissues.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 02/2000; 387(3):245-52. DOI:10.1016/S0014-2999(99)00826-2 · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The title compound is one of a large number of compounds related to the drug suramin which have been found to have anti-HIV properties. However, its toxicity to uninfected cells is high. We crystallized the compound, determined its structure, and investigated the molecular basis for its high toxicity. The crystals are monoclinic, C2/c, a = 28.614(1), b = 10.031(0), c = 24.051(1) Å, β = 98.36(2)°, Z = 8, convergence at R = 0.066 for 4264 reflections with I > 2σ(I). The oxygen atoms of one of the sulfonate groups are disordered, as are several water molecules. Stereochemical comparisons with a segment of B-DNA have yielded a plausible explanation for the molecule's toxicity.
    Canadian Journal of Chemistry 01/2000; 78(1):26-30. DOI:10.1139/v99-222 · 1.06 Impact Factor

  • Canadian Journal of Chemistry 01/2000; 78(1):26-30. DOI:10.1139/cjc-78-1-26 · 1.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The studies with novel P2 receptor agonists and antagonists point out that the P2Y receptor in the taenia coli is different from the P2Y, receptor in turkey erythrocytes. Among suramin analogs, the properties of P2 receptor subtype blockade and ecto-nucleotidase inhibition appear to be controlled by different structural parameters: the molecular size of the compounds, the position of the sulfonic acid residues in the naphthalene rings, the substitution pattern of the benzoyl moieties, and the 3′- or 4′-aminobenzoyl-linkages of the phenyl rings “1” and “2.” As a result, compounds with different receptor selectivity profiles were obtained. A maximum in potency at and selectivity for P2X, receptors is reached in NF279, which is a specific P2 receptor antagonist and the compound with the highest P2X1 vs. P2Y receptor and ecto-nucleotidase selectivity presently available.
    Progress in brain research 12/1999; 120:107-117. DOI:10.1016/S0079-6123(08)63549-9 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Contraction of skeletal muscle is triggered by the rapid release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum via the ryanodine receptor/calcium-release channel. The trypanocidal drug suramin is an efficient activator of the ryanodine receptor. Here, we used high-affinity [3H]ryanodine binding to sarcoplasmic reticulum from rabbit skeletal muscle to screen for more potent analogs of suramin. This approach resulted in the identification of NF307, which accelerates the association rate of [3H]ryanodine binding with an EC50 = 91 +/- 7 microM at 0.19 microM calculated free Ca2+. In single-channel recordings with the purified ryanodine receptor, NF307 increased mean open probability at 0.6 microM Ca2+ from 0.020 +/- 0.006 to 0.53 +/- 0.07 with no effect on current amplitude and unitary conductance. Like caffeine, NF307 exerts a very pronounced Ca2+-sensitizing effect (EC50 of Ca2+ shifted approximately 10-fold by saturating NF307 concentrations). Conversely, increasing concentrations of free Ca2+ sensitized the receptor for NF307 (EC50 = 14.6 +/- 3.5 microM at 0.82 microM estimated free Ca2+). The effects of NF307 and caffeine on [3H]ryanodine binding were additive, irrespective of the Ca2+ concentration. In contrast, the effects of calmodulin, which activates and inhibits the ryanodine receptor in the absence and presence of Ca2+, respectively, and of NF307 were mutually antagonistic. If the purified ryanodine receptor was prebound to a calmodulin-Sepharose matrix, 100 microM NF307 and 300 microM suramin eluted the purified ryanodine receptor to an extent that was comparable to the effect of 10 microM calmodulin. We conclude that NF307 and suramin interact directly with a calmodulin binding domain of the ryanodine receptor. Because of its potent calcium-sensitizing effect, NF307 may represent a lead compound in the search of synthetic ryanodine receptor ligands.
    Molecular Pharmacology 04/1999; 55(3):462-72. · 4.13 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
160.95 Total Impact Points


  • 1989-2010
    • University of Bonn
      • Pharmaceutical Institute
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2003
    • Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
      • Julius Bernstein Institute for Physiology
      Halle-on-the-Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
  • 2002
    • University of Turku
      Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, Finland
  • 1998
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      Dallas, Texas, United States