J Groen

Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (138)672.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The most common type of functional bladder outlet obstruction in patients with neurogenic bladder is detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD). The lack of co-ordination between the bladder and the external urethral sphincter muscle (EUS) in DSD can result in poor bladder emptying and high bladder pressures, which may eventually lead to progressive renal damage.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 05/2014; 5:CD004927. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the non-invasive condom catheter method for diagnosing B(ladder) O(utlet) O(bstruction) in patients eligible for T(rans)U(rethral) R(esection) of the P(rostate). METHODS: A group of 71 patients eligible for TURP on clinical grounds were invasively and non-invasively studied. On the basis of invasive pressure-flow studies they were stratified into obstructed, equivocal or unobstructed, according to the International Continence Society standard. Subsequently they were diagnosed non-invasively on the basis of a free flowrate measurement, or on the basis of the free flowrate measurement plus the isovolumetric bladder pressure measured with the condom catheter method. R(eceiver) O(perating) C(haracteristic)s were calculated. RESULTS: The A(rea) U(nder) the (RO)C for discriminating unobstructed/equivocal patients from obstructed patients was 0.68 in our population. This improved to 0.84 for the 50 patients in whom the isovolumetric bladder pressure was not underestimated by the non-invasive method. CONCLUSIONS: In our population of TURP patients, the low flowrates affected the accuracy of the condom method to a degree that it did not perform better than a free flowrate measurement, which performed remarkably well. By excluding measurements in which the condom pressure underestimated the isovolumetric bladder pressure this method may contribute to a more accurate, patient friendly diagnosis of BOO in these patients. In the present study this exclusion was done by comparison with an invasive pressure measurement. A practical non-invasive test would necessitate a non-invasive exclusion criterion, which might be based on the risetime of the condom pressure. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Neurourology and Urodynamics 06/2013; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the urodynamic changes in patients treated with Adjustable Continence Therapy for men (ProACT) for postprostatectomy incontinence and to explore the clinical and urodynamic preimplantation parameters as predictors of clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients underwent urodynamic studies before and after ProACT implantation. ProACT was considered successful if patients used none or 1 dry precautionary pad and nonsuccessful if the patient reported ≥1 wet pad/d. The pre- and postimplantation assessments were retrospectively compared within and between the success and nonsuccess groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between the preimplantation variables and the clinical outcomes of ProACT implantation. RESULTS: A total of 49 patients were included, 37 with successful and 12 with nonsuccessful clinical outcome. Postimplantation urodynamic studies were performed a median of 9 months after ProACT implantation. In the successfully treated patients, maximum free flow rate, bladder contractility index, maximum of bladder contractility parameter W, and bladder voiding efficiency were significantly lower after implantation. The detrusor pressure at maximum flow rate, postvoid residual urine volume, and bladder outlet obstruction index were significantly higher. A longer duration of urinary incontinence, the use of >5 pads daily, and a smaller cystometric bladder capacity were all independently associated with nonsuccessful clinical outcome after ProACT implantation. CONCLUSION: ProACT implantation with successful clinical outcome resulted in greater urethral resistance during voiding and reduced bladder contraction strength. A longer duration of incontinence, the use of >5 pads daily, and a smaller cystometric bladder capacity were independent predictors of unsuccessful clinical outcomes, suggesting ProACT implantation should be considered sooner, rather than later, after conservative treatment of postprostatectomy incontinence has failed.
    Urology 02/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the impact of radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) on the urethral sphincter function as assessed by urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) and its relation to post-radical prostatectomy continence status. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of intensive pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) on the urethral sphincter function. Sixty-six patients were included in the study. UPP was performed before RRP and 26 weeks after catheter removal. All patients were instructed in PFME, however, the intensity of PFME varied between instructions based on an information folder only (F-PFME) and intensive guidance by a physiotherapist, in addition to the folder (PG-PFME). In 66 patients, pre- as well as postoperative UPP was evaluable. After surgery, the functional profile length and the maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) showed a median decrease of 64% and 41%, respectively. For men who had regained continence after 6 months the median MUCP was significantly higher both before and after operation as compared to men who were still incontinent. In multivariate analysis, non-nerve sparing approach was a prognostic factors for a higher relative decrease of the MUCP after RRP. Comparing the PG-PFME group with the F-PFME group there were no significant differences in changes in UPP parameters. A poor preoperative MUCP seems to be an important prognostic factor for persistent incontinence after RRP. Non-nerve sparing approach seems to be an important prognostic factor for impairment of the urethral sphincter function as measured by UPP. More intensive physiotherapy seems to have no additional effect on the postoperative urethral sphincter function as measured by UPP.
    Neurourology and Urodynamics 04/2012; 31(5):646-51. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aim to quantify changes in detrusor function and pressure-flow parameters after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and to determine the impact of the level of intensity of pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) on these changes. We also tried to identify preoperative urodynamic factors, predictive of postoperative continence status. Sixty-six patients were included in the study. An urodynamic examination was performed before surgery and 26 weeks after catheter removal. All patients were instructed in PFME. However the intensity of PFME varied between instructions based on an information folder only (F-PFME) and intensive guidance by a physiotherapist, in addition to the folder (PG-PFME). In 66 men pre- as well as postoperative urodynamic studies were available for analysis. Overall, Q(max) increased, p(det.Qmax) and the urethral resistance factor URA decreased significantly after surgery. At baseline, detrusor overactivity (DOA) was found in 34% and 5.3% of the men who were still incontinent 6 months postoperatively and those who regained continence, respectively (P = 0.015). Postoperatively, Q(max) was significantly higher (P = 0.04) and URA significantly lower (P = 0.047) in the physiotherapist-guided group. No prognostic standard urodynamic factors for post-RP incontinence (PRPI) were identified. In univariate analysis, preoperative DOA is associated with a higher risk of remaining incontinent after surgery. However, in multivariate analysis, urodynamic parameters predictive of PRPI could not be identified. Therefore, standard preoperative filling cystometry and pressure-flow studies seem to have no role as preoperative predictors of PRPI in patients with localized prostate cancer. More intensive PFME might have a lowering effect on bladder outflow resistance after RRP.
    Neurourology and Urodynamics 04/2012; 31(5):637-41. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the results of sacral neuromodulation after 5-year followup in women with refractory idiopathic urge urinary incontinence. A neuromodulation system with an original (nontined) lead was implanted by open surgery after a positive percutaneous nerve evaluation in 60 women from 1990 to 2004. Voiding incontinence diary parameters were used to evaluate efficacy. Success was defined as at least a 50% decrease in the number of incontinence episodes or pads used daily. Safety was also evaluated. The success rate gradually decreased from 52 patients (87%) at 1 month to 37 (62%) at 5 years. Complete continence persisted in 15% of patients. The system was still used by 80% of patients at 5 years. In 32 patients a total of 57 adverse events occurred, which were not severe (Clavien grade I and IIIb in 61% and 39%, respectively). Sacral neuromodulation appears to be a safe technique for refractory idiopathic urge urinary incontinence in women. The success rate gradually decreased to 62% after 5 years with 15% of patients completely continent.
    The Journal of urology 09/2011; 186(3):954-9. · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Tijdschrift voor Urologie. 05/2011; 1(3).
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the proportion of viral respiratory tract infections among acute undifferentiated fevers (AUFs) at primary health facilities in southern Vietnam during 2001-2005, patients with AUF not caused by malaria were enrolled at twelve primary health facilities and a clinic for malaria control program. Serum was collected on first presentation (t0) and after 3 weeks (t3) for serology. After exclusion of acute dengue infection, acute and convalescent serum samples from 606 patients were using enzyme-linked immunoassays to detect IgA, as well as IgM and IgG antibodies against common respiratory viruses. Paired sera showed the following infections: human parainfluenza virus (HPIV, 4.7%), influenza B virus (FLUBV, 2.2%), influenza A virus (FLUAV, 1.9%) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, 0.6%). There was no association between type of infection and age, sex or seasonality; some inter-annual differences were observed for influenza. Antibody prevalence, indicative of previous infections, was relatively low: HPV, 56.8%, FLUBV, 12.1%; FLUAV, 5.9% and HRSV, 6.8%.
    The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health 09/2010; 41(5):1116-26. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the effect on the recovery of incontinence after retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) of intensive physiotherapist-guided pelvic floor muscle exercises (PG-PFME) in addition to an information folder, with PFME explained to patients by an information folder only (F-PFME), and to determine independent predictors of failure to regain continence after RRP. We postulated that a 10% increase in the proportion of men who regained continence at 6 months with PG-PFME compared with men treated with F-PFME only would constitute a clinically relevant effect. To show statistical significance of this difference with a power of 80%, 96 men should be randomized to each of the two arms. One day before operation, all patients received verbal instruction and an information folder on PFME. Patients randomized to the F-PFME arm received no further physiotherapist guidance, whereas those in the PG-PFME arm received a maximum of nine sessions with the physiotherapist. The men underwent a 1-h pad-test at 1, 12 and 26 weeks, and a 24-h pad-test at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 26 weeks after catheter removal. We defined 'continence' as urine loss of <1 g at the 1-h and <4 g at the 24-h pad-test. During the 2-year recruitment period, the number of patients randomized fell short of the target determined by the sample size calculation, because of limitations of resources and unexpected changes in treatment preferences. Despite this, we analysed the data. Of the 82 randomized patients, 70 completed the study. Of these, 34 and 36 men had been assigned to the PG-PFME and the F-PFME group, respectively. At 6 months after RRP, 10 (30%) and nine (27%) men were completely dry on both the 1-h and 24-h pad-test in the PG-PFME and the F-PFME group, respectively (difference not significant). In a multivariate analysis the amount of urine loss at 1 week after catheter removal seemed to be an independent prognostic factor for failure to regain continence. PG-PFME seems to have no beneficial effect on the recovery of continence within the first 6 months after RRP, over an instruction folder-guided approach. However, due to under-powering there is a high risk of type II error. Nevertheless, these findings add to the knowledge base for availability in meta-analyses and can serve as a starting point for the design of new randomized studies.
    BJU International 03/2010; 106(4):515-22. · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • B. F. M. Blok, J. Groen
    European Urology Supplements - EUR UROL SUPPL. 01/2010; 9(2):105-105.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility of same session repeated urodynamic measurements in women with symptoms of urinary incontinence. Women presenting with symptoms of urinary incontinence underwent standardized urodynamic examination, which consisted of free uroflowmetry and two filling cystometries and pressure-flow studies. Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and McNemar tests were used to describe the same session reproducibility. Two evaluable urodynamic tests were available in 152 patients. Overall, reproducibility of the urodynamic parameters were good to excellent (ICC range: 0.72-0.93), except for the bladder volume at first sensation of bladder filling (ICC = 0.46) and the maximum Watt's factor (ICC = 0.68). The bladder volume at first sensation and the maximum cystometric capacity were systematically higher in the second run (mean difference (95% CI) = -45 (-73; -37) and -3 (-15; 10), respectively). Reproducibility of the diagnosis stress urinary incontinence and/or detrusor overactivity were good to excellent (median ICC = 0.76, P = 0.68 and P = 1.00, respectively). Reproducibility of the volume and amplitude at involuntary detrusor contractions, however, were only poor (ICC = 0.18 and 0.25, respectively). The reproducibility of same session repeated urodynamic measurements in women with symptoms of urinary incontinence was good to excellent. Our results provide the scientific support for guidelines that recommend the omission of repeated filling cystometries and pressure-flow studies in cases where the first test confirms the pathology expected.
    Neurourology and Urodynamics 08/2009; 29(3):428-31. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate which recent infection could have caused the present dengue-like symptoms, in adult patients clinically fulfilling the WHO criteria for dengue, in which serologically were not confirmed for dengue virus infections. Prospective study. During an outbreak of dengue (between May 1995 and May 1996) 118 consecutive adults (>13 years) suspected by the WHO 1997 case definition of DF or DHF were investigated. Patients were examined for history of illness, physical and laboratory findings consisting of full blood counts, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), liver function (bilirubin, ASAT, ALAT), renal function (creatinine), and serological assays included dengue, hantavirus, chikungunya, R. typhi, R. tsutsugamuchi, rubella virus, influenza A virus, and leptospira. In 58 of the total 118 patients, recent dengue virus infection was serologically confirmed. In 20 of the remaining 60 patients, we found serological evidence of another recent infection: hantavirus (5), chikungunya virus (2), R. typhi (5), R. tsutsugamuchi (2), rubella virus (3), influenza A virus (1), and leptospira (2). No evidence for recent infection with any of the mentioned agents was detected in the remaining 40 specimens. We conclude that based on clinical characteristics alone, it is not easy to diagnose dengue. Specific laboratory tests to differentiate dengue from other febrile illnesses are needed. Among these, in Indonesia hantavirus infection should be considered as well.
    Acta medica Indonesiana 05/2009; 41(2):75-80.
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosing dengue in febrile patients is challenging. Of a total of 459 patients with acute undifferentiated fever, randomly selected from 12 primary health facilities and 1 clinic of the provincial malaria station in southern Vietnam, dengue-specific antibody (Ab) and NS1Ag enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Platelia, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA 94547, US) were performed on acute (t0) and convalescent (t3 weeks) sera. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for confirmation. Based on a composite of the NS1Ag-ELISA, Ab-ELISA, and PCR results, 54 (12%) patients had acute dengue. Positive and negative predictive values were 65% and 98% for the Ab-based diagnosis and 91% and 92% for NS1Ag, respectively. The agreement between Ab- and NS1Ag-based diagnosis was poor (kappa value, 0.2). Two patients without dengue had detectable NS1Ag on t0 and t3, 1 just above the cutoff value and 1 with very high values. For 5 dengue patients, NS1Ag was still detectable at very high levels at t3. Dengue NS1Ag can be used for early diagnosis of dengue; infrequent false-positive results need further clarification.
    Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 03/2009; 63(4):372-8. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), using positron emission tomography (PET), during chronic and acute sacral neuromodulation (SN). SN is an effective long-term treatment for chronic urge incontinence due to urinary bladder hyperactivity, as sensory nerves, spinal and supraspinal structures are probably responsible for the action of SN. It is not known which brain areas are involved, and the optimum benefit of SN is not immediate, suggesting that induced plasticity of the brain is necessary. Brain activity was measured in two groups: 12 urge incontinent patients (11 women and one man; mean age 52 years) in whom an implanted unilateral S3 nerve neurostimulator had been effective for >6 months (mean time after implantation 4.5 years); and eight urge incontinent patients (seven women and one man; mean age 49 years) in whom the neurostimulator was activated for the first time in the PET scanner. During SN in chronically implanted patients, there were significant decreases in rCBF in the middle part of the cingulate gyrus, the ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, midbrain and adjacent midline thalamus, and rCBF increases in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. During acute SN in newly implanted patients, there were significant decreases in rCBF the medial cerebellum, and increases in the right postcentral gyrus cortex, the right insular cortex and the ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex. Group analysis between chronic and newly implanted patients showed significant differences in the associative sensory cortex, premotor cortex and the cerebellum, all three involved in learning behaviour. These findings suggests that chronic SN influences, presumably via the spinal cord, brain areas previously implicated in detrusor hyperactivity, awareness of bladder filling, the urge to void and the timing of micturition. Furthermore, SN affects areas involved in alertness and awareness. Acute SN modulates predominantly areas involved in sensorimotor learning, which might become less active during the course of chronic SN.
    BJU International 01/2007; 98(6):1238-43. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of sacral (S3) nerve neuromodulation on voiding in women with idiopathic detrusor overactivity incontinence. Urodynamic measurements in all patients implanted in 1990 to 2003 were reconsidered. Patients were included if these measurements, which were done at baseline and after 6 months, could be analyzed completely and reliably. Maximum detrusor pressure, amplitude of the highest involuntary detrusor contraction and end fill volume were used as parameters characterizing the degree of detrusor overactivity. Urethral resistance and bladder contraction strength during voiding were characterized by the bladder outlet obstruction index, the urethral resistance factor, average pressure, the slope of the low pressure side of the pressure flow plot, the bladder contractility index and the bladder contraction strength parameter. A total of 33 women were included. Detrusor overactivity parameters were significantly improved at followup. In addition, the supine position of the patient during filling in followup measurements proved less provocative with respect to overactivity than the standing position in the majority of measurements at baseline. Consequently bladder volumes at which voiding was initiated were considerably higher at followup. Changes in the parameters characterizing urethral resistance and bladder contraction strength during voiding were not unambiguous. However, exactly those parameters that appeared volume independent in a previous study were not significantly different. Our study confirmed the depressant effect of sacral (S3) nerve neuromodulation on detrusor overactivity. No effect on urethral resistance and bladder contraction strength during voiding could be demonstrated using volume independent parameters.
    The Journal of Urology 03/2006; 175(3 Pt 1):1005-9; discussion 1009. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reproducibilty of dengue IgM and IgG ELISA was studied in serum and filter paper blood spots from Vietnamese febrile patients. 781 pairs of acute (t0) and convalescent sera, obtained after three weeks (t3) and 161 corresponding pairs of filter paper blood spots were tested with ELISA for dengue IgG and IgM. 74 serum pairs were tested again in another laboratory with similar methods, after a mean of 252 days. Cases were classified as no dengue (10 %), past dengue (55%) acute primary (7%) or secondary (28%) dengue. Significant differences between the two laboratories' results were found leading to different diagnostic classification (kappa 0.46, p < 0.001). Filter paper results correlated poorly to serum values, being more variable and lower with a mean (95% CI) difference of 0.82 (0.36 to 1.28) for IgMt3, 0.94 (0.51 to 1.37) for IgGt0 and 0.26 (-0.20 to 0.71) for IgGt3. This also led to differences in diagnostic classification (kappa value 0.44, p < 0.001) The duration of storage of frozen serum and dried filter papers, sealed in nylon bags in an air-conditioned room, had no significant effect on the ELISA results. Dengue virus IgG antibodies in serum and filter papers was not affected by duration of storage, but was subject to inter-laboratory variability. Dengue virus IgM antibodies measured in serum reconstituted from blood spots on filter papers were lower than in serum, in particular in the acute phase of disease. Therefore this method limits its value for diagnostic confirmation of individual patients with dengue virus infections. However the detection of dengue virus IgG antibodies eluted from filter paper can be used for sero-prevalence cross sectional studies.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2006; 6:13. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study in relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) whether exacerbations and brain activity as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with plasma levels of anti-Epstein Barr (EBV) antibodies and EBV DNA. This was a prospective study with 73 RR MS patients followed for an average of 1.7 years with frequent neurological examination and blood sampling. Antibodies to various EBV proteins were measured by ELISA and plasma EBV DNA was measured by PCR. All MS patients had IgG antibodies to EBV (viral capsid antigen (VCA) and/or EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)), irrespective whether samples were taken at stable disease or exacerbation. A significantly elevated percentage of the patients (48%) had antibodies against EBV antigens (early antigen, EA) that indicate active viral replication, compared with the age matched healthy controls (25%). Antibodies against a control herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, were similar between the two groups. The percentage of EA positive individuals and EA titres did not differ between stable disease or exacerbation. Anti-VCA IgM was positive in three cases, unrelated to disease activity. Using a highly sensitive PCR on 51 samples taken at exacerbation visits, only three patients were found to have one timepoint with viraemia, and this viraemia was unrelated to disease activity. Of special note was the fact that anti-EA seropositive patients remained seropositive during follow up, with stable titres over time. We hypothesised that these patients may constitute a subgroup with higher disease activity, due to the triggering effect of a chronic attempt of the virus to reactivate. The EA positive group did not differ from the EA negative with respect to clinical disease activity or other characteristics. However, in the EA positive group, analysis with gadolinium enhanced MRI indicated more MRI disease activity. There was no evidence for increased clinical disease activity in the subgroup of MS patients with serological signs of EBV reactivation. However, the observation that chronic EBV reactivation may be associated with increased inflammatory activity as assessed by gadolinium enhanced MRI lesions should be reproduced in a larger and independent dataset.
    Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 11/2005; 76(10):1377-81. · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue is highly endemic in southern Vietnam and all four serotypes of dengue virus have already been identified. To determine the age-specific prevalence of dengue and associated risk factors, we conducted a serological study at two primary schools and assessed risk factors by analysing children's questionnaires and household surveys. Sera were collected from 961 primary schoolchildren in Binh Thuan Province and tested for the presence of dengue virus serum antibodies using an indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antibody prevalence of the total population was 65.7% (n=631) which increased from 53.0 to 88.2% with age. The annual incidence of a first dengue infection, estimated by binary regression of the seroprevalence by age, was 11.7%. Interestingly, the prevalence of dengue IgG antibodies was significantly higher in children who confirmed using a pit latrine (RR 1.467, 95% CI: 1.245-1.730) and whose domestic environment contained discarded cans (RR 1.238, 95% CI: 1.042-1.470) and pigs (RR 1.228, 95% CI: 1.002-1.504). The epidemiology of dengue in southern Vietnam is stable with a constantly high annual incidence of first infections. Transmission occurs mainly peri-domestically, which has important public health implications.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 05/2005; 10(4):379-86. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the results of chronic pudendal nerve neuromodulation with a novel technique in a pilot study on women with idiopathic refractory detrusor overactivity incontinence. A percutaneous screening test (PST) was performed in patients with urodynamically demonstrated detrusor overactivity incontinence. Such a test includes the performance of a cystometrogram without and with percutaneous pudendal nerve stimulation and is considered positive if stimulation results in a more than 50% increase in the bladder volume at the first involuntary detrusor contraction or the maximum cystometric capacity. Patients with a positive PST qualified for the implantation of a mini-neurostimulator with an integrated electrode, a so-called bion(R), adjacent to the pudendal nerve at Alcock's Canal. Five-day voiding-incontinence diaries were the main tool for the evaluation of therapy. A PST was performed in 14 women. Six patients responded positively and received a bion. The degree of incontinence decreased significantly in this group, which also included patients in whom sacral neuromodulation had failed. There were no severe adverse events. Chronic pudendal nerve stimulation may reduce the degree of detrusor overactivity incontinence, even in patients in whom sacral neuromodulation fails. Bion therapy is relatively simple and minimally invasive and is well tolerated by the patient.
    Neurourology and Urodynamics 02/2005; 24(3):226-30. · 2.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
672.45 Total Impact Points


  • 1999–2012
    • Erasmus MC
      • • Department of Urology
      • • Department of Virology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2005–2010
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2004
    • University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
  • 1993–2002
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • • Department of Dermatology
      • • Department of Urology
      • • Department of Virology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2001
    • University of Khartoum
      • Institute of Endemic Diseases
      Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
  • 2000
    • Institut Pasteur
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1989–2000
    • National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1998
    • HagaZiekenhuis van Den Haag
      's-Gravenhage, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1991–1995
    • Medisch Spectrum Twente
      • Hospital Medical Spectrum Twente
      Enschede, Overijssel, Netherlands
  • 1987
    • National Veterinary Institute, Sweden
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden