Hans-Jürgen Wester

Technische Universität München, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (175)798.85 Total impact

  • Alzheimer's and Dementia 07/2013; 9(4):P336-P337. DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2013.04.195 · 17.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been used to treat relapsed/refractory CD20+ Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Myeloablative anti-CD20 RIT followed by autologous stem cell infusion (ASCT) enables high radiation doses to lymphoma sites. We performed a phase I/II trial to assess feasibility and survival. Methods Twenty-three patients with relapsed/refractory NHL without complete remission (CR) to salvage chemotherapy were enrolled to evaluate RIT with Iodine-131 labelled rituximab (131I-rituximab) in a myeloablative setting. Biodistribution and dosimetric studies were performed to determine 131I activity required to induce a total body dose of 21-27Gy to critical organs. In 6/23 patients RIT was combined with high-dose chemotherapy. 8/23 patients received a sequential high-dose chemotherapy with a second ASCT. The median follow-up is 9.5 years. Results 6.956-19.425GBq of 131I was delivered to achieve the limiting organ dose to lungs or kidneys. No grade III/IV non-hematologic toxicity was seen with RIT alone. Significant grade III/IV toxicity (mucositis, fever, infection, one therapy related death) was observed in patients treated with RIT combined with high-dose chemotherapy. The overall response rate was 87% (64% CR). The median progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) is 47.5 and 101.5 months. An international prognostic index score >1 was predictive for OS. Conclusion Myeloablative RIT with 131I-rituximab followed by ASCT is feasible, well-tolerated and effective in high risk CD20+ NHL. Combination of RIT and high-dose chemotherapy increased toxicity significantly. Long-term results for PFS and OS are encouraging.
    Oncotarget 06/2013; 4(6). · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cyclen-based tetraphosphinate chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetrakis[methylene(2-carboxyethyl)phosphinic acid] (DOTPI) comprises four additional carboxylic acid moieties for bioconjugation. The thermodynamic stability constants (logKML ) of metal complexes, as determined by potentiometry, were 23.11 for Cu(II) , 20.0 for Lu(III) , 19.6 for Y(III) , and 21.0 for Gd(III) . DOTPI was functionalized with four cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys) (RGD) peptides through polyethylene glycol (PEG4 ) linkers. The resulting tetrameric conjugate DOTPI(RGD)4 was radiolabeled with (177) Lu and (64) Cu and showed improved labeling efficiency compared with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). The labeled compounds were fully stable in transchelation challenges against trisodium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (ETDA), in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and human plasma. Integrin αv β3 affinities of the non-radioactive Lu(III) and Cu(II) complexes of DOTPI(RGD)4 were 18 times higher (both IC50 about 70 picomolar) than that of the c(RGDfK) peptide (IC50 =1.3 nanomolar). Facile access to tetrameric conjugates and the possibility of radiolabeling with therapeutic and diagnostic radionuclides render DOTPI suitable for application in peptide receptor radionuclide imaging (PRRI) and therapy (PRRT).
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2013; 19(24). DOI:10.1002/chem.201300338 · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Expression of αvβ3 integrin is increased after myocardial infarction as part of the repair process. Increased expression of αvβ3 has been shown by molecular imaging with 18F-galacto-RGD in a rat model. The 68Ga-labelled RGD compounds 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD and 68Ga-TRAP(RGD)3 have high specificity and affinity, and may therefore serve as alternatives of 18F-galacto-RGD for integrin imaging. Methods Left coronary artery ligation was performed in rats. After 1 week, rats were imaged with [13N]NH3, followed by 18F-galacto-RGD, 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD or 68Ga-TRAP(RGD)3 using a dedicated animal PET/CT device. Rats were killed, and the activity in tissues was measured by gamma counting. The heart was sectioned for autoradiography and histology. Immunohistochemistry was performed on consecutive sections using CD31 for the endothelial cells and CD61 for β3 expression (as part of the αvβ3 receptor). Results In vivo imaging showed focal RGD uptake in the hypoperfused area of infarcted myocardium as defined with [13N]NH3 scan. In autoradiography images, augmented uptake of all RGD tracers was observed within the infarct area as verified by the HE staining. The tracer uptake ratios (infarct vs. remote) were 4.7 ± 0.8 for 18F-galacto-RGD, 5.2 ± 0.8 for 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD, and 4.1 ± 0.7 for 68Ga-TRAP(RGD)3. The 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD ratio was higher compared to 68Ga-TRAP(RGD)3 (p = 0.04), but neither of the 68Ga tracers differed from 18F-galacto-RGD (p > 0.05). The area of augmented 68Ga-RGD uptake was associated with β3 integrin expression (CD61). Conclusion 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD and 68Ga-TRAP(RGD)3 uptake was equally increased in the infarct area at 1 week post infarction as 18F-galacto-RGD. These results show the potential of 68Ga-labelled RGD peptides to monitor integrin expression as a part of myocardial repair and angiogenesis after ischaemic injury in vivo.
    EJNMMI Research 05/2013; 3(1):38. DOI:10.1186/2191-219X-3-38
  • Jakub Simeček · Petr Hermann · Hans-Jürgen Wester · Johannes Notni
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the influence of Zn(2+) , Cu(2+) , Fe(3+) , Al(3+) , Ti(IV) , and Sn(IV) on incorporation of (68) Ga(3+) into pendant-arm macrocyclic chelators, the (68) Ga labeling of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-tris[methyl(2-carboxyethyl)phosphinic acid]) (TRAP), and 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1-[methyl(2-carboxyethyl)phosphinic acid]-4,7-bis[methyl(2-hydroxymethyl)phosphinic acid] (NOPO), as well as their peptide conjugates, was investigated in the presence of varying concentrations of these metal ions. The (68) Ga labeling yield for carboxylate-type chelators NOTA and DOTA is decreased at lower metal ion contaminant concentrations compared with phosphinate-type chelators TRAP and NOPO. The latter are able to rapidly exchange coordinated Zn(II) with (68) Ga(3+) , as confirmed by mass spectrometry and (31) P NMR spectroscopy. (68) Ga labeling of Zn(II) complexes of TRAP and NOPO proceeds as efficient as labeling of neat NOTA; this applies also to the corresponding peptide conjugates of these chelators. This behavior results in substantially improved selectivity for Ga(3+) and, therefore, in more robust and reliable (68) Ga labeling procedures. In addition, none of the investigated chelators binds (68) Ge, rendering post-labeling purification protocols, for example, solid-phase extraction, a reliable means of removal of (68) Ge contamination from (68) Ga radiopharmaceuticals.
    ChemMedChem 01/2013; 8(1). DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201200471 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1,2-diamino-propionic acid (Dap) is a very strong chelator for the [99mTc(CO)3]+ core, yielding small and hydrophilic complexes. We prepared the lysine based Dap derivative L-Lys(Dap) in which the -NH2 group was replaced by the tripod through conjugation to its -carbon. The synthetic strategy produced an orthogonally protected bifunctional chelator (BFC). The -NH2 group of the -amino acid portion is Fmoc- and the -NH2 of Dap are Boc-protected. Fmoc-L-Lys(Dap(Boc)) was either conjugated to the N- and C-terminus of bombesin BBN(7-14) or integrated into the sequence using solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). We also replaced the native lysine in a cyclic RGD peptide with L-Lys(Dap). For all peptides, quantitative labeling with the [99mTc(CO)3]+ core at a 10 M concentration in PBS buffer (pH=7.4) was achieved. For comparison, the rhenium homologues were prepared from [Re(OH2)3(CO)3]+ and Lys(Dap)-BBN(7-14) or cyclo-(RGDyK(Dap)) respectively. Determination of integrin receptor binding showed low to medium nM affinities for various receptor subtypes. The IC50 of cyclo-(RGDyK(Dap[Re(CO)3])) for v3 is 7.1 nM as compared to 3.1 nM for non-ligated RGD derivative. Biodistribution studies in M21 melanoma bearing nude mice showed reasonable v3-integrin specific tumor uptake. Altogether, orthogonally protected L-Lys(Dap) represents a highly versatile building block for integration in any peptide sequence. Lys(Dap)-precursors allow high yield 99mTc-labeling with [99mTc(OH2)3(CO)3]+, forming small and hydrophilic complexes, which in turn leads to peptide radiopharmaceuticals with excellent in vivo characteristics.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 12/2012; 24(1). DOI:10.1021/bc3003327 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • Jakub Simeček · Hans-Jürgen Wester · Johannes Notni
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    ABSTRACT: The 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-tris(methylenephosphinic acid) chelators TRAP and NOPO are complexing copper-64 with similar efficiency as 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA). The kinetic stability of Cu-64-labelled TRAP-peptides is sufficient for PET imaging at early time points (1-2 h post injection). For labelling of TRAP conjugates, Cu-64 can be recommended as an alternative to Ga-68 to achieve higher resolution of PET images.
    Dalton Transactions 10/2012; 41(45). DOI:10.1039/c2dt31880f · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography (PET) with the thymidine analogue [(18)F]fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) has been shown to detect early response to chemotherapy in high-grade lymphoma. In this preclinical in vitro and in vivo study we compared [(18)F]FLT to the glucose analogue [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) regarding dose-dependent visualization and prediction of early therapy response. METHODS: Immunodeficient mice bearing human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (SUDHL-4) xenotransplants were treated intraperitoneally with increasing doses of the cytotoxic agent doxorubicin. Metabolic and antiproliferative effects were assessed 2 days after therapy by [(18)F]FLT and [(18)F]FDG PET. Explanted lymphomas were analysed histologically and by immunostaining against Ki67 and caspase 3. In vitro, lymphoma cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of doxorubicin and analysed using the tetrazolium assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and [(18)F]FLT and [(18)F]FDG uptake 48 h later. RESULTS: In vivo, tumour growth was inhibited by doses of doxorubicin ranging from 25 μg to 200 μg. The mean tumour-to-background ratio (TBR) of [(18)F]FLT on day +2 was significantly reduced in all dose groups compared to control and baseline values and preceded changes in tumour volume. Importantly, there was a significant inverse correlation between reduction in TBR and dose of chemotherapy (r = -0.54, p = 0.021). The mean TBR of [(18)F]FDG, however, increased after therapy and differed considerably between groups (r = -0.13, p = 0.668). Explanted tumours showed a dose-dependent decrease in the proliferation marker Ki67, but no change in the apoptotic marker caspase 3. In vitro, doxorubicin led to a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability and a decrease in S phase. Lymphoma cells showed a dose-dependent reduction in [(18)F]FLT uptake, in contrast to a variable and decelerated reduction in [(18)F]FDG uptake. Thus, the increase in [(18)F]FDG uptake in vivo presumably reflected nonspecific glucose metabolism of inflammatory cells, as confirmed by histology of explanted lymphomas. CONCLUSION: Early responses to dose-dependent antiproliferative treatment in high-grade lymphoma are more accurately visualized with [(18)F]FLT PET than with [(18)F]FDG PET.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 10/2012; 40(1). DOI:10.1007/s00259-012-2255-0 · 5.38 Impact Factor
  • Johannes Notni · Karolin Pohle · Hans-Jürgen Wester
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    ABSTRACT: Gallium-68 is rapidly gaining importance, as this generator-produced PET isotope is available independent of on-site cyclotrons, enabling radiopharmaceutical production with comparably simple techniques at low cost. The recently introduced TRAP chelator combines the advantage of straightforward design of multimeric (68)Ga-radiopharmaceuticals with very fast and efficient (68)Ga-labeling. We synthesized a series of five cyclo(RGDfK) peptide trimers and determined their α(v)β(3) integrin affinities in competition assays on α(v)β(3)-expressing M21 human melanoma cells against (125)I-echistatin. The compound with highest IC(50), Ga-TRAP(RGD)(3), showed more than 7-fold higher affinity compared to the monomers F-Galacto-RGD and Ga-NODAGA-c(RGDyK). TRAP(RGD)(3) was radiolabeled with (68)Ga in a fully automated GMP compliant manner. CD-1 athymic nude mice bearing M21/M21L human melanoma xenografts were used for biodistribution studies, blockade experiments, metabolite studies and PET imaging. (68)Ga-TRAP(RGD)(3) exhibited high M21 tumor uptake (6.08±0.63% ID/g, 60min p.i.), was found to be fully stable in vivo, and showed a fast renal clearance. Blockade studies showed that uptake in the tumor, as well as in all other tissues, is highly integrin specific. A comparison of biodistribution and PET data of (68)Ga-TRAP(RGD)(3) with those of (68)Ga-NODAGA-c(RGDyK) and (18)F-Galacto-RGD showed that the higher affinity of the trimer effects a larger dynamic response of tracer uptake to integrin expression, i.e., enhanced integrin-specific uptake in all tissues. We conclude that (68)Ga-TRAP(RGD)(3) could allow for imaging of low-level integrin expression in tissues which are not visible with the two competitors. Overall, the study constitutes proof of concept for the favourable in vivo properties of TRAP-based (68)Ga radiopharmaceuticals.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 09/2012; 40(1). DOI:10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2012.08.006 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Similar regional anatomical distributions were reported for fibrillary amyloid deposition [measured by (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) positron emission tomography (PET)] and brain hypometabolism [measured by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET] in numerous Alzheimer's disease (AD) studies. However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies evaluating the interrelationships of these two different pathological markers in the same AD population. Our most recent AD study suggested that the longitudinal pattern of hypometabolism anatomically follows the pattern of amyloid deposition with temporal delay, which indicates that neuronal dysfunction may spread within the anatomical pattern of amyloid pathology. Based on this finding we now hypothesize that in early AD patients quantitative longitudinal decline in hypometabolism may be related to the amount of baseline amyloid deposition during a follow-up period of 2 years. METHODS: Fifteen patients with mild probable AD underwent baseline (T1) and follow-up (T2) examination after 24 ± 2.1 months with [(18)F]FDG PET, [(11)C]PIB PET, structural T1-weighted MRI and neuropsychological testing [Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery]. Longitudinal cognitive measures and quantitative PET measures of amyloid deposition and metabolism [standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs)] were obtained using volume of interest (VOI)-based approaches in the frontal-lateral-retrosplenial (FLR) network and in predefined bihemispheric brain regions after partial volume effect (PVE) correction of PET data. Statistical group comparisons (SUVRs and cognitive measures) between patients and 15 well-matched elderly controls who had undergone identical imaging procedures once as well as Pearson's correlation analyses within patients were performed. RESULTS: Group comparison revealed significant cognitive decline and increased mean PIB/decreased FDG SUVRs in the FLR network as well as in several AD-typical regions in patients relative to controls. Concurrent with cognitive decline patients showed longitudinal increase in mean PIB/decrease in mean FDG SUVRs over time in the FLR network and in several AD-typical brain regions. Correlation analyses of FLR network SUVRs in patients revealed significant positive correlations between PIB T1 and delta FDG (FDG T1-T2) SUVRs, between PIB T1 and PIB T2 SUVRs, between FDG T1 and PIB T2 SUVRs as well as between FDG T1 and FDG T2 SUVRs, while significant negative correlations were found between FDG T1 and delta PIB (PIB T1-T2) SUVRs as well as between FDG T2 and delta FDG (FDG T1-T2) SUVRs. These findings were confirmed in locoregional correlation analyses, revealing significant associations in the same directions for two left hemispheric regions and nine right hemispheric regions, showing the strongest association for bilateral precuneus. CONCLUSION: Baseline amyloid deposition in patients with mild probable AD was associated with longitudinal metabolic decline. Additionally, mildly decreased/relatively preserved baseline metabolism was associated with a longitudinal increase in amyloid deposition. The latter bidirectional associations were present in the whole AD-typical FLR network and in several highly interconnected hub regions (i.e. in the precuneus). Our longitudinal findings point to a bidirectional quantitative interrelationship of the two investigated AD pathologies, comprising an initial relative maintenance of neuronal activity in already amyloid-positive hub regions (neuronal compensation), followed by accelerated amyloid deposition, accompanied by functional neuronal decline (neuronal breakdown) along with cognitive decline.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 08/2012; 39(12). DOI:10.1007/s00259-012-2230-9 · 5.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There can be only one: Using a peptoid motif obtained by shifting the arginine side chain of a pentapeptide previously developed by Fujii et al. to the neighboring nitrogen atom restricts the conformational freedom and yields a conformationally homogeneous peptide with a 100-fold higher binding affinity to the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in the picomolar range. Its efficiency to inhibit HIV-1 infections is also demonstrated.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 08/2012; 51(32):8110-3. DOI:10.1002/anie.201202090 · 11.26 Impact Factor
  • Jakub Simeček · Ondřej Zemek · Petr Hermann · Hans-Jürgen Wester · Johannes Notni
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    ABSTRACT: Gallium-68 preferred: The macrocyclic phosphinate chelator NOPO exhibits pronounced affinity and selectivity for the Ga(3+) ion, rendering it highly useful for applications in (68) Ga radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography.
    ChemMedChem 08/2012; 7(8):1375-8. DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201200261 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of novel phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines was evaluated in the context of developing improved imaging agents for β-amyloid (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and as a useful probe for in vitro studies. The results from binding expts. in vitro, together with biodistribution studies, autoradiog. and in vivo stability studies demonstrated that radioiodinated 2-(4'-bromophenyl)-6-iodoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (BrIMPY, 4b) is promising for preclin. and clin. imaging of Aβ. The no-carrier-added radioiodination of 4b was successfully performed through an iododestannylation reaction from the corresponding trimethyltin deriv. [125I]4b and [124I]4b selectively labeled Aβ-plaques in brain tissue of an APP/PS1 mouse model of AD and their pattern of uptake showed excellent correlation with Aβ plaque pathol. as measured by ex vivo immunohistochem. The present results suggest that radioiodinated 4b possesses the properties needed as a tracer suitable for in vivo and in vitro studies, with potential for both PET and SPECT imaging of β-amyloid plaques in the living brain. [on SciFinder(R)]
    Medicinal Chemistry Communication 07/2012; 3(7-7):775-779. DOI:10.1039/c2md20115a · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease with respect to lesion pathology, course of disease, and treatment response. Imaging modalities are needed that allow better definition of MS lesions in vivo. The aim of this study was to establish an MRI- and PET/CT-based imaging modality and to evaluate approved and promising PET tracers in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS. MRI and PET/CT scans were obtained in Dark agouti rats with EAE and healthy control rats. The PET tracers 2-(18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG), 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT), and O-(2-(18)F-fluoro-ethyl)-l-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) were used as surrogate markers of glucose utilization, proliferative activity, and amino acid transport and protein biosynthesis. Immediately after the PET/CT scan, animals were sacrificed for autoradiography, histologic work-up, or RNA expression analysis. EAE lesions were predominantly located in the spinal cord. With MRI, we were able to detect inflammatory lesions in diseased rats, which correlated well with inflammatory infiltrates as determined by histology. Increased (18)F-FDG uptake was observed in spinal cord lesions in all diseased rats. Further investigation by volume-of-interest analysis demonstrated a correlation between the density of histologically proven cellular infiltrates and the (18)F-FDG signal intensity in PET (F(DF=3) = 5.9, P = 0.001) and autoradiography (F(DF=3) = 4.2, P = 0.008). With (18)F-FET and (18)F-FLT, no definite uptake could be observed on PET scans, whereas autoradiography showed slight radiotracer accumulation in some lesions. Spinal cord inflammatory lesions in the EAE model can be noninvasively visualized in vivo using MRI and (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Localized (18)F-FDG uptake correlates better with a histologically proven abundance of inflammatory cells as a critical marker of disease activity than MRI. Neither (18)F-FET nor (18)F-FLT seems to be a suitable marker for the in vivo detection of inflammatory lesions.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 06/2012; 53(8):1269-76. DOI:10.2967/jnumed.111.102608 · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    Johannes Notni · Karolin Pohle · Hans-Jürgen Wester
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    ABSTRACT: Background Currently, 68Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-peptides are the most widely used class of 68Ga radiotracers for PET, although DOTA is not optimal for 68Ga complexation. More recently, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA) and particularly triazacyclononane-phosphinate (TRAP) chelators have been shown to possess superior 68Ga binding ability. Here, we report on the efficiency, reproducibility, and achievable specific activity for fully automated 68Ga labeling of DOTA-, NOTA-, and TRAP-peptide conjugates. Findings Compared to NOTA- and DOTA-peptides, achievable specific activity (AS) for TRAP-peptide is approximately 10 and 20 times higher, respectively. AS values in the range of 5,000 GBq/μmol were routinely obtained using 1 GBq of 68Ga, equivalent to 0.11 μg of cold mass for a 185-MBq patient dose of a 3-kDa conjugate. The TRAP-peptide could be 68Ga-labeled with excellent reproducibility and > 95% radiochemical yield for precursor amounts as low as 1 nmol. Conclusions High 68Ga labeling efficiency of TRAP-peptides could facilitate realization of kit labeling procedures. The good reproducibility of the automated synthesis is of relevance for GMP production, and the possibility to provide very high specific activities offers a high degree of safety in first clinical trials, due to reduction of cold mass content in tracer formulations.
    EJNMMI Research 06/2012; 2(1):28. DOI:10.1186/2191-219X-2-28
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    ABSTRACT: The human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is highly expressed in a variety of clinical tumour entities. Although an antibody against EpCAM has successfully been used as an adjuvant therapy in colon cancer, this therapy has never gained wide-spread use. We have therefore investigated the possibilities and limitations for EpCAM as possible molecular imaging target using a panel of preclinical cancer models. Twelve human cancer cell lines representing six tumour entities were tested for their EpCAM expression by qPCR, flow cytometry analysis and immunocytochemistry. In addition, EpCAM expression was analyzed in vivo in xenograft models for tumours derived from these cells. Except for melanoma, all cell lines expressed EpCAM mRNA and protein when grown in vitro. Although they exhibited different mRNA levels, all cell lines showed similar EpCAM protein levels upon detection with monoclonal antibodies. When grown in vivo, the EpCAM expression was unaffected compared to in vitro except for the pancreatic carcinoma cell line 5072 which lost its EpCAM expression in vivo. Intravenously applied radio-labelled anti EpCAM MOC31 antibody was enriched in HT29 primary tumour xenografts indicating that EpCAM binding sites are accessible in vivo. However, bound antibody could only be immunohistochemically detected in the vicinity of perfused blood vessels. Investigation of the fine structure of the HT29 tumour blood vessels showed that they were immature and prone for higher fluid flux into the interstitial space. Consistent with this hypothesis, a higher interstitial fluid pressure of about 12 mbar was measured in the HT29 primary tumour via "wick-in-needle" technique which could explain the limited diffusion of the antibody into the tumour observed by immunohistochemistry.
    PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e36258. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0036258 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of α(v)β(3) integrin has been proposed as a marker for atherosclerotic lesion inflammation. We studied whether diet intervention reduces uptake of α(v)β(3) integrin-targeted positron emission tomography tracer (18)F-galacto-RGD in mouse atherosclerotic plaques. Hypercholesterolemic LDLR(-/-) ApoB(100/100) mice on high-fat diet for 4 months were randomized to further 3 months on high-fat diet (high-fat group, n = 8) or regular mouse chow (intervention group, n = 7). Intima-media ratio describing plaque burden was comparable between intervention and high-fat groups (2.0 ± 0.5 vs 2.3 ± 0.8, P = .5). Uptake of (18)F-galacto-RGD in the aorta was lower in the intervention than high-fat group (%ID/g 0.16 vs 0.23, P < .01). Autoradiography showed 35% lower uptake of (18)F-galacto-RGD in the atherosclerotic plaques in the intervention than high-fat group (P = .007). Uptake of (18)F-galacto-RGD in plaques correlated with uptake of (3)H-deoxyglucose and nuclear density, which was lower in the intervention than high-fat group (P = .01). Flow cytometry demonstrated macrophages expressing α(v) and β(3) integrins in the aorta. Uptake of (18)F-galacto-RGD in mouse atherosclerotic lesions was reduced by lipid-lowering diet intervention. Expression of α(v)β(3) integrin is a potential target for evaluation of therapy response in atherosclerosis.
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 04/2012; 19(4):775-84. DOI:10.1007/s12350-012-9554-5 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    Johannes Notni · Jan Plutnar · Hans-Jürgen Wester
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates possess strong affinity to bone. 99mTc bisphosphonate complexes are widely used for bone scintigraphy. For positron emission tomography (PET) bone imaging, Ga-68-based PET tracers based on bisphosphonates are highly desirable. Two trimeric bisphosphonate conjugates of the triazacyclononane-phosphinate (TRAP) chelator were synthesized, labeled with Ga-68, and used for microPET imaging of bone in male Lewis rats. Both Ga-68 tracers show bone uptake and, thus, are suitable for PET bone imaging. Surprisingly, Ga-71 nuclear magnetic resonance data prove that Ga(III) is not located in the chelating cavity of TRAP and must therefore be bound by the conjugated bisphosphonate units. The intrinsic Ga-68 chelating properties of TRAP are not needed for Ga-68 PET bone imaging with TRAP-bisphosphonate conjugates. Here, TRAP serves only as a trimeric scaffold. For preparation of Ga-68-based bone seekers for PET, it appears sufficient to equip branched scaffolds with multiple bisphosphonate units, which serve both Ga-68-binding and bone-targeting purposes.
    EJNMMI Research 03/2012; 2(1):13. DOI:10.1186/2191-219X-2-13
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    ABSTRACT: In vivo imaging and quantification of amyloid-β plaque (Aβ) burden in small-animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a valuable tool for translational research such as developing specific imaging markers and monitoring new therapy approaches. Methodological constraints such as image resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) and lack of suitable AD models have limited the feasibility of PET in mice. In this study, we evaluated a feasible protocol for PET imaging of Aβ in mouse brain with [(11)C]PiB and specific activities commonly used in human studies. In vivo mouse brain MRI for anatomical reference was acquired with a clinical 1.5 T system. A recently characterized APP/PS1 mouse was employed to measure Aβ at different disease stages in homozygous and hemizygous animals. We performed multi-modal cross-validations for the PET results with ex vivo and in vitro methodologies, including regional brain biodistribution, multi-label digital autoradiography, protein quantification with ELISA, fluorescence microscopy, semi-automated histological quantification and radioligand binding assays. Specific [(11)C]PiB uptake in individual brain regions with Aβ deposition was demonstrated and validated in all animals of the study cohort including homozygous AD animals as young as nine months. Corresponding to the extent of Aβ pathology, old homozygous AD animals (21 months) showed the highest uptake followed by old hemizygous (23 months) and young homozygous mice (9 months). In all AD age groups the cerebellum was shown to be suitable as an intracerebral reference region. PET results were cross-validated and consistent with all applied ex vivo and in vitro methodologies. The results confirm that the experimental setup for non-invasive [(11)C]PiB imaging of Aβ in the APP/PS1 mice provides a feasible, reproducible and robust protocol for small-animal Aβ imaging. It allows longitudinal imaging studies with follow-up periods of approximately one and a half years and provides a foundation for translational Alzheimer neuroimaging in transgenic mice.
    PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e31310. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0031310 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (18)F-galacto-RGD ((18)F-RGD) is a PET tracer binding to α(v)β(3) integrin receptors that are upregulated after myocardial infarction (MI) as part of the healing process. We studied whether myocardial (18)F-RGD uptake early after MI is associated with long-term left-ventricle (LV) remodeling in a rat model. Wistar rats underwent sham operation (n = 9) or permanent coronary ligation (n = 25). One week after MI, rats were injected with (18)F-RGD to evaluate α(v)β(3) integrin expression using a preclinical PET system. In the same rats, LV volumes and defect size were measured 1 and 12 wk after MI by (13)N-ammonia PET and MRI, respectively. One week after MI, (18)F-RGD uptake was increased in the defect area as compared with the remote myocardium of MI rats or sham-operated controls (percentage injected dose per cubic centimeter, 0.20 ± 0.05 vs. 0.06 ± 0.03 and 0.07 ± 0.04, P < 0.001). At this time, (18)F-RGD uptake was associated with capillary density in histologic sections. Average (18)F-RGD uptake in the defect area was lowest in the rats demonstrating greater than 20% relative increase in the LV end-diastolic volume from 1 to 12 wk (percentage injected dose per centimeter cubed, 0.15 ± 0.07 vs. 0.21 ± 0.05, P < 0.05). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, low (18)F-RGD uptake was a significant predictor of increase in end-diastolic volume (r = 0.51, P < 0.05). High levels of (18)F-RGD uptake in the perfusion defect area early after MI were associated with the absence of significant LV remodeling after 12 wk of follow-up. These results suggest that α(v)β(3) integrin expression is a potential biomarker of myocardial repair processes after MI and enables the monitoring of these processes by molecular imaging to derive possible prognostic information.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/2012; 53(2):318-23. DOI:10.2967/jnumed.111.091652 · 5.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
798.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2015
    • Technische Universität München
      • • Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik
      • • Section of Radiochemistry and Pharmaceutical Radiochemistry
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2002–2009
    • Deutsches Herzzentrum München
      • Department of Cardiovascular Surgery
      München, Bavaria, Germany