Xinghuai Sun

Imperial College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (85)253.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We performed a genome-wide association study for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in 1,007 cases with high-pressure glaucoma (HPG) and 1,009 controls from southern China. We observed genome-wide significant association at multiple SNPs near ABCA1 at 9q31.1 (rs2487032; P = 1.66 × 10(-8)) and suggestive evidence of association in PMM2 at 16p13.2 (rs3785176; P = 3.18 × 10(-6)). We replicated these findings in a set of 525 HPG cases and 912 controls from Singapore and a further set of 1,374 POAG cases and 4,053 controls from China. We observed genome-wide significant association with more than one SNP at the two loci (P = 2.79 × 10(-19) for rs2487032 representing ABCA1 and P = 5.77 × 10(-10) for rs3785176 representing PMM2). Both ABCA1 and PMM2 are expressed in the trabecular meshwork, optic nerve and other ocular tissues. In addition, ABCA1 is highly expressed in the ganglion cell layer of the retina, a finding consistent with it having a role in the development of glaucoma.
    Nature genetics. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the in vivo changes in Schlemm's canal (SC) in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) after trabeculectomy using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: Forty eyes of 40 patients with PACG who underwent trabeculectomy were included. All participants underwent SD-OCT. The diameter and area of SC were examined and measured before and within 1 month after trabeculectomy. All SD-OCT images were processed using adaptive compensation algorithm to improve contrast and image quality. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed for predictors of percentage change in the mean SC diameter and area. Results: The mean age of participants was 60.5 ± 14.6 years. Adaptive compensation significantly increased the percentage of sections in which SC was observable in the subjects studied from 52.5% (21/40) to 75.0% (30/40), which has acceptable intraobserver and interobserver repeatability. There was a significant increase in the SC diameter and area at the follow-up examination compared with the baseline value (SC diameter: 34.2 ± 6.2 μm vs. 28.4±6.1; SC area: 8117 ± 1942 μm2 vs. 5200±996 μm2; all P < 0.001). After multivariate analysis, the only variable related to changes in SC was percentage change in IOP (SC diameter, P = 0.002; SC area, P < 0.001). In addition, the magnitude of the change in the SC area also correlated with AOD750. Conclusions: Expansion of SC was observed after trabeculectomy in PACG patients. The degree of SC expansion was related to the extent of the IOP decrease.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A 56-year-old woman with a history of disposable soft contact lens wear was referred to our university eye center for a corneal ulcer. Based on the microbial culture, the initial diagnosis was bacterial keratitis, which was unresponsive to topical fortified antibiotics. The patient was then examined using in vivo confocal microscopy, which revealed Acanthamoeba infection. This case emphasizes the need to suspect Acanthamoeba infection in soft contact lens wearers who present with progressive ulcerative keratitis or progressively worsening corneal ulcers that are not responsive to the usual antimicrobial therapy. It is also important to consider the possibility of a coinfection with bacterial and Acanthamoeba species.Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
    Diagnostic pathology. 06/2014; 9(1):105.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To investigate the association of PLEKHA7 and COL11A1 with primary angle closure glaucoma, as well as acute and chronic subphenotype, in a Han Chinese population. Methods: 984 cases, including 606 primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and 378 primary angle closure (PAC), and 922 normal controls were recruited. 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1676486, rs3753841, rs12138977, rs2126642, rs2622848, rs216489, rs1027617, rs366590, rs11024060, rs6486330, rs11024097, and rs11024102) in the PLEKHA7 gene and COL11A12 gene were genotyped. Distributions of allele frequencies were compared between cases and controls as well as in patient subgroups with or without acute attacks. Results: 4 of the 12 SNPs, including rs1676486 (P=0.0060) and rs12138977 (P=0.028) in COL11A1, as well as rs216489 (P=0.0074) and rs11024102 (P=0.038) in PLEKHA7 were found to have a statistically significant association with PAC/PACG. In the subgroup analysis, 6 out of 12 SNPs (rs1676486, rs3753841, rs12138977, rs216489, rs11024060, and rs11024102) showed statistically significant differences between acute PAC/PACG cases and controls. However, none of them showed statistically significant differences between chronic PAC/PACG cases and controls. Conclusions: Our study suggests that rs1676486 and rs12138977 in COL11A1 as well as rs216489 and rs11024102 in PLEKHA7 are associated with an increased risk of PAC/PACG in the Han Chinese population, supporting prior reports of the association of COL11A1 and PLEKH7 with angle closure glaucoma. Both COL11A1 and PLEKHA7 were shown to confer significant risk for acute PAC/PACG. Further work is necessary to confirm the importance of COL11A1 and PLEKHA7 in the pathogenesis of glaucoma.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The extent of our knowledge of the epidemiology of pediatric glaucoma in China is limited. To better characterize the epidemiology of pediatric glaucoma in eastern China, we report the clinical profile, etiologies, and treatment modalities in patients <18 years of age in Shanghai Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital. The medical records of patients presenting glaucoma between January 2003 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic characteristics, the proportion of different glaucoma subtypes and surgical precedures were collected and analyzed. A total of 1 142 eyes of 734 pediatric patients (500 males) were included. Congenital glaucoma was the leading subtype, accounting for 47.55% of all patients. The ratio of boys to girls was 2.5:1. Patients with congenital glaucoma affecting both eyes accounted for 72.5% of all patients examined. Patients with primary juvenile glaucoma were the second most common group (n = 125, 17.03%). Traumatic glaucoma was the third most common subtype (n = 81, 11.03%). The type of surgery was related to the subtype of glaucoma. Congenital glaucoma, primary juvenile glaucoma, and traumatic glaucoma are the most prevalent subtypes in pediatric glaucoma patients in Shanghai Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital. The characteristics of congenital glaucoma in China are similar to those in Western countries.
    Chinese medical journal 04/2014; 127(8):1429-33. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the only therapeutic approach in primary open-angle glaucoma. and the fixed-combination medications are needed to achieve sufficiently low target IOP. A multicenter prospective study in the Chinese population was needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of Bimatoprost/Timolol Fixed Combination Eye Drop in China. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of Bimatoprost/Timolol Fixed Combination with concurrent administration of its components in Chinese patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. In this multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel controlled study, patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were insufficiently responsive to monotherapy with either topical β-blockers or prostaglandin analogues were randomized to one of two active treatment groups in a 1:1 ratio at 11 Chinese ophthalmic departments. Bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination treatment was a fixed combination of 0.03% bimatoprost and 0.5% timolol (followed by vehicle for masking) once daily at 19:00 P.M. and concurrent treatment was 0.03% bimatoprost followed by 0.5% timolol once daily at 19:00 P.M. The primary efficacy variable was change from baseline in mean diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) at week 4 visit in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Primary analysis evaluated the non-inferiority of bimatoprost/ timolol fixed combination to concurrent with respect to the primary variable using a confidence interval (CI) approach. Bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination was to be considered non-inferior to concurrent if the upper limit of the 95% CI for the between-treatment (bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination minus concurrent) difference was ≤1.5 mmHg. Adverse events were collected and slit-lamp examinations were performed to assess safety. Between-group comparisons of the incidence of adverse events were performed using the Pearson chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Of the enrolled 235 patients, 121 patients were randomized to receive bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination and, 114 patients were randomized to receive concurrent treatment. At baseline the mean value of mean diurnal IOP was (25.20±3.06) mmHg in the bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination group and (24.87±3.88) mmHg in the concurrent group. The difference between the treatment groups was not statistically significant. The mean change from baseline in mean diurnal IOP (±standard deviation) in the bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination group was (-9.38±4.66) mmHg and it was (-8.93±4.25) mmHg in the concurrent group (P < 0.01). The difference between the two treatment groups (bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination minus concurrent) in the change from baseline of mean diurnal IOP was -0.556 mmHg (95% CI: -1.68, 0.57, P = 0.330). The upper limit of the 95% CI was less than 1.5 mmHg, the predefined margin of non-inferiority. Adverse events occurred in 26.4% (32/121) of the bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination patients and 30.7% (35/114) of the concurrent patients. The most frequent adverse event was conjunctival hyperemia, which was reported as treatment related in 16.5% (20/121) in the bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination group and 18.4% (21/114) in the concurrent group (P > 0.05). Bimatoprost/Timolol Fixed Combination administered in Chinese patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension was not inferior to concurrent dosing with the individual components. Safety profiles were similar between the treatment groups.
    Chinese medical journal 03/2014; 127(5):905-10. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To investigate effect of pressure/flow on the global protein expression profiles of normal and senescent porcine aqueous humour plexus (AAP) cells, which are the porcine equivalent of human Schlemm's canal. Methods:AAP cells were grown for two weeks in physiological (5% O2) or hyperoxic conditions (40% O2) to model cell senescence. Control and senescent AAP cells were subjected to control and elevated hydrostatic pressure gradient of 10 mmHg. Hydraulic conductivity (HC) and transendothelial electric resistance (TEER) was measured. The expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase and DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was monitored, and the protein expression profile was analyzed by iTRAQ proteomics method. The expression levels of cytoskeleton and barrier proteins were confirmed by western blot. Results:After 14 days of hyperoxia AAP cells stained positive for 8-OHdG and β-galactosidase. Pressure elevation/flow resulted in significant increase of HC in control cells (1.64 ± 0.18 uL/mmHg/min/cm2, p<0.05), but not in senescent cells (1.34 ± 0.12 uL/mmHg/min/cm2). TEER changes were consistent with the HC results. Proteomics analysis showed that the number of differentially expressed proteins significantly reduced in senescent cells (482 vs. 277 proteins, p<0.05). Cluster of Orthologous Groups analysis further revealed that pressure elevation/flow affected less protein functional groups in senescent cells. The proteins identified by proteomics was verified by western blot analysis, including myosin light chain, claudin-5, ve-cadherin which were significantly reduced in control cells but not in senescent cells. Conclusions:AAP cells are mechano-sensitive, however, cell senescence rendered the cells less responsive to mechanical stimulus which may have pathological consequences.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 02/2014; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report the clinical outcomes in Chinese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension treated with bimatoprost 0.03% therapy. Two hundred sixty-three Chinese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension who needed initial or additional intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering were recruited in this prospective, open-label, multicenter clinical study and were treated with bimatoprost 0.03%. Patients received bimatoprost 0.03% as initial, replacement or adjunctive IOP-lowering therapy, and follow-up visits were performed at week 1, and month 1 and 3 of the bimatoprost treatment. The efficacy outcome measure was the post-treatment IOP level. The safety outcome measures included the rate of medication-related symptoms, physical signs, reported adverse events, and the level of conjunctival hyperemia. Among 240 patients who could be categorized by pre-existing therapies and the bimatoprost therapy regimen in the study, IOP values observed in all medication conditions showed significant IOP reduction at all study visits compared with baseline. At 3 months, 8.0 +/- 3.7 mmHg (32.0%) reduction in IOP was observed in treatment-naive patients after bimatoprost monotherapy; in the patients previously on various therapy regimens, 1.9 +/- 2.8 mmHg (9.5%) to 6.4 +/- 6.1 mmHg (24.8%) additional IOP lowering was achieved after switching to bimatoprost monotherapy or bimatoprost combination therapy. The most common adverse event was conjunctival hyperemia, mainly of trace and mild intensity. Our results show that bimatoprost 0.03% was effective in lowering IOP with favorable safety in Chinese primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension patients.
    BMC Ophthalmology 02/2014; 14(1):21. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) in patients with infectious keratitis using the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). Sixty-five patients with infectious keratitis (IK) were enrolled in the study. The NEI VFQ-25 scores and clinical and demographic data, including age, gender, pathogen, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and duration of the disease, were collected from the subjects. The subscale and composite scores were calculated and analyzed. Correlations between the VFQ-25 scores and the clinical and demographic features were also explored. The mean age of enrolled subjects was 48.4 years (SD, 16.2), with 44 males (67.7%). The microbial pathogens were viruses (n = 48, 73.8%), fungi (n = 13, 20.0%), and bacteria (n = 4, 6.2%). The mean scores of each VFQ-25 subscale ranged from 31.9 (SD, 28.6) for role difficulties to 92.7 (SD, 13.1) for color vision; the mean composite score was 58.1 (SD, 19.2). Significant differences in scores were observed only in the subscale of dependency among educational levels and in the mental health subscale and the composite among the three pathogen groups. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that VFQ-25 composite score correlated significantly with the BCVA of the worse-seeing eye, duration of the disease, history of operation (for IK treatment), and gender. Infectious keratitis has extensive impacts on patients and VR-QOL. The BCVA of worse-seeing eye, duration, history of operation for IK treatment, and gender contributed independently to VR-QOL. Early treatment should be encouraged to obtain better visual prognosis and VR-QOL for patients with IK.
    Optometry and vision science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 01/2014; · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • Ophthalmology 12/2013; 120(12):e86. · 5.56 Impact Factor
  • Yi Dai, Jost B Jonas, Zhihong Ling, Xinghuai Sun
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the appearance of a defect in the parapapillary region of a highly myopic eye. During a routine ophthalmologic examination, in a 26-year-old man with a visual acuity of 0.80 and a refractive error of -10.25 D, a dehiscence in the parapapillary region was detected. A choroidal vessel appeared to emerge out of the dehiscence : Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed an apparent hole in the underlying scleral wall opening into a retrobulbar empty space. The latter was delimited by the dura mater as shown by a vertical bright band. Inside of the dura mater, the retrobulbar orbital cerebrospinal fluid space was widened. Interestingly, the same eye showed a parapapillary intrachoroidal cavitation almost completely hiding the main temporal inferior vessel branch. In addition, the optic disc was vertically rotated and slightly obliquely tilted so that its en face appearance was smaller than its surface as it appeared on the OCT image. The OCT revealed a parapapillary gamma zone hole in a highly myopic eye in association with a vertically rotated and slightly tilted optic disc with an inferior parapapillary intrachoroidal cavitation. The illustration may show the usefulness of the differentiation between the beta zone, gamma zone, and delta zone in the parapapillary region.
    Journal of glaucoma 12/2013; 22(9):e33-5. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological disturbances and personality traits in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. A sample of 50 PACG patients, 50 POAG patients, and 50 normal controls were enrolled in this study. All the participants were asked to complete the following questionnaires: Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ). Analysis of variance and t test were used to compare the subscores between the groups. The scores of SAS and SDS were higher in glaucoma patients than in controls, whereas the PACG group had a higher score for both scales (48.44±9.90; 53.64±9.74) than the POAG group (42.62±9.00, P=0.034; 49.02±11.47, P=0.131) and control group (37.10±6.08, P=0.000; 38.86±6.64, P=0.000). Taking an SAS score of ≥45 and an SDS score of ≥50 as cut-offs, the prevalence of anxiety and depression in the PACG group (66.0%, 56.0%) was significantly higher than in the POAG group (44.0%, P=0.002; 40.0%, P=0.033) and control group (16.0%, P=0.000; 10.0%, P=0.000). The values of psychoticism and neuroticism in EPQ for the PACG and POAG groups were significantly higher than those for controls (P<0.05). In DSQ, PACG and POAG patients adopted immature and neurotic defense styles more often than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were found between male and female participants in all the questionnaires used (P>0.05). Significant differences were found between primary glaucoma patients and normal controls in psychiatric questionnaires, whereas the level of anxiety and depression was found to be significantly higher in PACG patients than in POAG patients and controls.
    Journal of glaucoma 11/2013; · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work was to investigate CYP1B1 gene mutations in patients of Han Chinese ethnicity with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), and explore the clinical characteristics associated with operative effects. Peripheral blood genomic DNA was extracted from patients with PCG to act as a PCR template. CYP1B1 mutations were identified from the amplified coding sequences of CYP1B1. A total of 238 patients, including 116 patients described previously, were used to examine the CYP1B1 mutation frequency. Of the 238 patients, 192 patients (306 eyes) who underwent first operative treatment from January 1991 to September 2007 in the Eye, Ear, Nose & Throat Hospital of Fudan University were analysed to investigate the relationship between clinical characteristics (including CYP1B1 mutation status) and surgical effect via statistical analyses (multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression). The frequency of CYP1B1 mutation carriers in Chinese patients with PCG is 17.2%, and nine novel CYP1B1 mutations were discovered. The median of onset age for patients with CYP1B1 mutations (2 months) is earlier than in patients without mutations (6 months). We identified that the mutant CYP1B1 gene, as well as poorer corneal transparency, was associated with better surgical outcome. Patients with CYP1B1 mutations tend to have a higher operative success rate in terms of better intraocular pressure control effect. The combination of the CYP1B1 genotype (with or without mutations) and preoperative corneal opacity score can partially predict the outcome of PCG surgery.
    The British journal of ophthalmology 11/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To establish normal noninvasive tear film breakup time (NI-BUT) values in the Chinese population and investigate age-related changes in NI-BUT using a newly developed Keratograph. Forty normal volunteers with a mean age of 32.8 ± 16.7 years were recruited for this study. Clinical and demographic data, including age, gender, fluorescein tear film breakup time (FBUT), and Schirmer I test values were collected from the subjects. Noninvasive tear film breakup time was measured using a new method based on a corneal topographer equipped with a modified scan software. The correlations between the NI-BUT, age, and gender were determined. In total, a significant difference between the NI-BUT and the FBUT was found (4.9 ± 2.4 seconds vs. 9.0 ± 3.0 seconds; p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference in the NI-BUT was observed between the male and female subjects (5.5 ± 2.0 seconds vs. 4.5 ± 2.5 seconds; p = 0.137). In addition, no significant correlation was detected between the NI-BUT and age (0.143, p = 0.321). The NI-BUT values found in this study are much lower than those of previous reports. Our results show no significant differences in tear film stability with age. The tear physiology of the Chinese population may not be the same as in Western populations.
    Optometry and vision science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 11/2013; · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • Ophthalmology 09/2013; 120(9):e65-6. · 5.56 Impact Factor
  • Fei Ma, Jinhui Dai, Xinghuai Sun
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    ABSTRACT: Many clinical and fundamental studies have shown that high myopia (HM) and glaucoma are closely associated. In particular, the occurrence and progression of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) interact with the progression of HM. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the association between the two disorders: the hypertension gene theory and the collagen-related gene theory. HM and POAG patients show similar collagen changes and hypersensitive responses to glucocorticoids. Consequently, these common features may hold key information regarding their underlying mechanisms. Advances in life sciences, such as molecular genetics, provide opportunities for clarifying their association at the molecular level. This article reviews available research on the association between these two disorders from the perspectives of epidemiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and pathogenic mechanisms.
    Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 07/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Our goal was to investigate the effect of chronic oxidative stress on angular aqueous plexus (AAP, functional equivalent to human Schlemm's canal) endothelial cells from porcine eyes. Methods: AAP cells were differentially isolated from porcine outflow tissues using puromycin selection. Confluent cultures of porcine AAP cells were grown for 2 weeks in physiological (5% O2) or hyperoxic conditions (40% O2) to model elevated oxidative stress associated with ageing. Cell growth rate, size, transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and hydraulic conductivity (HC) were measured. The expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase and DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was monitored, and the levels of cytoskeletal and cell-cell adhesion proteins such as F-actin, phospho-myosin light chain (phosphor-MLC), occludin, claudin-5, ZO-1, beta-catenin and VE-cadherin were measured by immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis. RESULTS: Data showed that chronic hyperoxia inhibited cell growth rate from day 3 onward, the cell size increased by 18.2% ± 5.1%, and cells stained positive for beta-galactosidase and 8-OHdG. Hyperoxia resulted in a significant 30% increase in TEER compared with the control group (p<0.05, n=6). When perfused in the basal-to-apical direction at 4 mmHg, HC of AAP cells was 1.97±0.12 and 1.54±0.13 uL/mmHg/min/cm2 in control and hyperoxia groups, respectively (p<0.05, n=6). Stressed cells expressed a significantly greater abundance of F-actin, phospho-MLC, occludin, claudin-5, β-catenin and VE-cadherin compared to the control group by both immunofluorescence and western blot analyses. Conclusions: Chronic exposure of AAP cells to oxidative stress decreased cell monolayer permeability and up-regulated cytoskeletal and cell-cell adhesion protein expression; suggesting that, with age and increased oxidative stress, resistance at the level of Schlemm's canal increases.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 06/2013; · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • Ophthalmology 06/2013; 120(6):e28. · 5.56 Impact Factor
  • Jiaxu Hong, Jianjiang Xu, Xinghuai Sun
    The Lancet 04/2013; 381(9876):e10-1. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The effect of copolymer-1 (Cop-1)-activated T cells and microglia on RGCs protection in vitro was explored. METHODS: Cop-1-specific T cells (Tcop-1 group) were made by repeated Cop-1 stimulation of T cells, microglia (MG group) were isolated from the retinas of newborn rats, and then, they were cocultured (Tcop-1+MG group) for 48 h. RGCs were collected from the retinas of adult rats, purified, and then, the supernatants from different groups were added. After 72 h, TUNEL analysis was used to observe RGC apoptosis, and RT-PCR was used to test mRNA expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-8. The levels of cytokines, including IGF-1, BDNF, TNF-α and IL-10, in the supernatants were examined by ELISA to explore the possible mechanisms of Tcop-1 and microglia interaction. RESULTS: After 72 h, the mean RGC apoptosis rate in the Tcop-1+MG group was the lowest (25.36%) among the groups. The mRNA expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-8 in the Tcop-1+MG group was significantly lower than that of the control groups (both P<0.05). The secretion of IL-10 and BDNF in the supernatant of the Tcop-1+MG group was higher than that of the control groups (both P<0.05) after culture for 12 h, 24 h and 48 h. The secretion of IGF-1 in the Tcop-1+MG group also increased after 24 h and 48 h (P<0.05). The secretion of TNF-α in the Tcop-1+MG group showed an increase after 12 h (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The interaction of Tcop-1 with microglia could reduce RGC apoptosis. The related immune mechanisms were complicated. Upregulation of BDNF and IGF-1 and the balance of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10) may be involved in this protective autoimmunity.
    Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 04/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

255 Citations
253.52 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2013
    • Fudan University
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      • • Institute of Genetics
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • University of Western Australia
      • Lions Eye Institute
      Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • 1999
    • Shanghai Medical University
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China