Virginia Carbone

National Research Council, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (44)77.55 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido extraer y aislar los alcaloides de las hojas de Croton baillonianus, desde el extracto metanólico, mediante cromatografía de exclusión, con Sephadex LH-20 seguida de una purificación en cromatografía líquida de alta performance (HPLC); se aislaron no menos de seis alcaloides. Dos alcaloides de baja polaridad y dos alcaloides en la forma de glicósidos fueron analizados por espectrometría de masa de impacto electrónico (ESI-MS); estos alcaloides pertenecen al tipo bencilisoquinolínico. El estudio tiene conexión con la determinación de sus propiedades como antioxidante, antiulcerosa y citotóxica.
    Revista de la Sociedad Química del Perú. 04/2012; 78(2):138-143.
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    ABSTRACT: In Annurca apples, a southern Italian variety, polyphenols were studied. The phenolic composition of Annurca apple peel was determined by HPLC coupled with electrospray negative ionisation multistage ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI–ITMSn). In addition, the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of peel extracts enriched in polyphenols and prepared from Annurca (APE), Red Delicious (RDPE) and Golden Delicious (GPE) varieties were evaluated on an HL-60 cell line. APE exhibited the highest total phenol content among the three apple cultivars tested, as determined by Folin–Ciocalteau’s procedure and HPLC–UV analysis. APE also showed higher amounts of chlorogenic acid, procyanidins, flavonols, dihydrochalcones and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside than GPE or RDPE. All three apple extracts were able to significantly decrease cell viability, from 50% to 80%, with APE appearing the most effective, while GPE was the least cytotoxic among the three samples. Similarly, APE and RDPE induced a significant increase of caspase-3 activity, whose activation represents a hallmark of apoptosis.
    Food Chemistry. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization multistage ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-MS(n)) was used to analyze the secondary metabolites in the methanol extract of the capitulae of Eriocaulon ligulatum. The major components were mono- and diglycosides of flavonoids and naphthopyranones. Eleven compounds, including four new flavonol glycosides, were identified based on their fragmentation patterns in MS experiments and on NMR analysis of the isolated compounds. The described data may contribute to a better understanding of the taxonomic classification of the Eriocaulaceae family.
    Natural product communications 12/2009; 4(12):1651-6. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hb Cardarelli [β86(F2)Ala→Pro] is a new unstable and high oxygen affinity variant found in several members of a family from Naples, Southern Italy. A detailed structural and functional characterization of the variant was performed on two subjects, at both the protein and DNA level. The first patient exhibited 43% of the variant hemoglobin (Hb) without major hematological problems. The proband showed 82% of the abnormal Hb in association with β+‐thalassemia (thal) that caused relevant erythrocytosis requiring frequent phlebotomies. Structural investigation of the Hb variant by mass spectrometric methodologies identified the amino acid replacement as Ala→Pro at β86. The corresponding DNA mutation GCC→CCC at codon 86 of the β‐globin gene was assessed by both DNA sequencing and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) techniques. Functional studies carried out on whole blood and diluted hemolysates from both patients demonstrated increased oxygen affinity, decreased Bohr effect, reduced heme–heme interaction and nearly halved 2,3‐diphosphoglycerate (2,3‐DPG) and chloride effects.
    Hemoglobin 08/2009; 28(2). · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hb Villejuif [β123(H1)Thr→Ile] is a silent and asymptomatic variant described in 1989 in an 87-year-old woman of French origin suffering from coincidental polycythemia vera. This paper reports the second observation of Hb Villejuif in three related subjects from Montesarchio, Southern Italy. All routine techniques for hemoglobin analysis yielded normal results with the exception of a slight increase in the Hb A2 value. The occurrence of a variant β-globin was rapidly assessed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis and the abnormal chain purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid replacement Thr→Ile at β123 was determined by tandem electrospray mass spectrometric analysis of the tryptic digest of the variant β chain. The corresponding DNA mutation was established as C→T at the second position of codon 123 (ACC → ATC) by polymerase chain reaction amplification techniques.
    07/2009; 25(1):67-78.
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    ABSTRACT: The simultaneous presence of two hemoglobin variants has been detected in a 14-month-old patient affected by thalassemia intermedia. The two variants were characterized by a combination of allele-specific amplification methods and mass spectrometric procedures carried out on isolated globins. These were identified as Hb Lepore-Boston and Hb Neapolis (also known as Hb Dhonburi) or β126(H4)ValàGly. Hb Lepore-Boston is the most common hybrid variant detected in Campania and several cases of Hb Neapolis which causes a mild hypochromic microcytic anemia have been identified in this region in the last few years. This is the first report of a double heterozygosity involving Hb Lepore-Boston and Hb Neapolis.
    07/2009; 21(1):1-15.
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    ABSTRACT: Four novel oxylipins (1-4) were isolated from the n-butanol extract of the corms of Dracontium loretense. Their structures were assigned by 1D and 2D NMR analyses and electrospray ionization multistage ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-ITMS(n)) data. Relative configurations were assigned on the basis of combined analysis of homonuclear and heteronuclear (2,3)J couplings, along with ROE data. Oxylipin 2 exhibited an immunostimulatory effect on human PBMC proliferation.
    Journal of Natural Products 05/2009; 72(5):813-7. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro interaction of the antineoplastic drug 1, 3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) and acrolein with model peptides has been investigated in order to provide a detailed description of their electrophilic reactivity towards biological macromolecules. Following incubation with these substances, the modified species were separated by HPLC and identified by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, whereas the reactive amino acids within the peptide structure were assigned by tandem mass spectrometry. Incubation with BCNU led essentially to the formation of an N-terminal carbamoyl derivative that slowly decomposed to form three isomeric structures and a very minor ethylated adduct. Alkylation with acrolein gave rise to a mixture of different adducts due to the reaction of both the double bond and the carbonyl group. Two species containing intramolecular cross-links were also observed. These results constitute the prerequisite for in vitro and in vivo studies on the modification of haemoglobin in patients following treatment with antineoplastic drugs. © Munksgaard 1997.
    European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 01/2009; 49(6):586 - 595. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phytochemical investigation from the stems of Alibertia edulis led to the isolation and identification of a new iridoid 6β-hydroxy-7-epigardoside methyl ester (1) and a new saponin 3β-O-[-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside pomolate (2), along with three known compounds, shanzhiside methyl ester (3), ixoside (4), and 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl 1-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). The structures of 1 and 2 were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Iridoid 1 and saponin 2 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against Candida albicans and C. krusei in a dilution assay.
    Helvetica Chimica Acta 07/2008; 91(7):1355 - 1362. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The possibility of altering the unsaturation level of fatty acids in plant lipids by genetic transformation has implications for the stress tolerance of higher plants as well as for their nutritional value and industrial utilisation. While the integration and expression of transgenes in the plastome has several potential advantages over nuclear transformation, very few attempts have been made to manipulate fatty acid biosynthesis using plastid transformation. We produced transplastomic tobacco plants that express a Delta(9) desaturase gene from either the wild potato species Solanum commersonii or the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans, using PEG-mediated DNA uptake by protoplasts. Incorporation of chloroplast antibiotic-insensitive point mutations in the transforming DNA was used to select transformants. The presence of the transcript and the Delta(9) desaturase protein in transplastomic plants was confirmed by northern and western blot analyses. In comparison with control plants, transplastomic plants showed altered fatty acid profiles and an increase in their unsaturation level both in leaves and seeds. The two transgenes produced comparable results. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of using plastid transformation to engineer lipid metabolic pathways in both vegetative and reproductive tissues and suggest an increase of cold tolerance in transplastomic plants showing altered leaf fatty acid profiles. This is the first example of transplastomic plants expressing an agronomically relevant gene produced with the "binding-type" vectors, which do not contain a heterologous marker gene. In fact, the transplastomic plants expressing the S. commersonii gene contain only plant-derived sequences, a clear attraction from a public acceptability perspective.
    Transgenic Research 02/2008; 17(5):769-82. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Planta Medica - PLANTA MED. 01/2008; 74(09).
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    ABSTRACT: Sixteen novel and ten known galactolipids have been isolated and characterized from the leaves of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) using an analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Using this technique, the structures and regiochemistries of the fatty acyl groups and the positions of the double bonds on the acyl chains were determined. Sugar moieties were identified by analysis of one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The positions of the double bonds of polyunsaturated fatty acids were confirmed, and in some cases their geometries determined, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This is the first report of galactolipids in the leaves of sweet potato.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 01/2008; 55(25):10289-97. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dry olive mill residue (DOR) from the olive oil production by two phase centrifugation system was fractionated by a consecutive continuous solid-liquid extraction obtaining the EAF, PF, MF and WF fractions with ethyl acetate, n-propanol, methanol and water, respectively. The chemical, chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses showed EAF, PF and MF to be mainly composed of simple phenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids and glycosilated phenols (glycosides of phenols, secoiridoids and flavonoids), whereas WF was mainly consisting of polymerin, the metal organic polymeric mixture previously identified in olive oil mill waste waters and composed of carbohydrates, melanin, proteins and metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg and Fe). The identification in DOR of oleoside, 6'-beta-glucopyranosyl-oleoside and 6'-beta-rhamnopyranosyl-oleoside, and of its organic polymeric component, known as polymerin, are reported for the first time in this paper. The inoculation of the previously mentioned fractions with saprobe fungi Coriolopsis rigida, Pycnoporus cynnabarinus or Trametes versicolor indicated these fungi to be able to metabolize both the phenols and glycosilated phenols, but not polymerin. In correspondence, EAF, PF, MF and WF, which proved to be toxic on Lepidium sativum, decreased their toxicity after incubation with the selected fungi, WF showing to be also able to stimulate the growth of the selected seeds. The phytotoxicity appeared mainly correlated to the monomeric phenols and, to a lesser extent, to the glycosilated phenols, whereas polymerin proved to be non toxic. However, the laccase activity was not associated with the decrease of phytotoxicity. The valorization of DOR as a producer of high added value substances of industrial and agricultural interest in native form and after their bioremediation for a final objective of the total DOR recycling is also discussed.
    Chemosphere 10/2007; 69(2):229-39. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid analytical approach suitable to achieve a comprehensive characterization of the compounds present in the infusion prepared from the leaves of Byrsonima fagifolia Niedenzu (Malpighiaceae), a Brazilian plant used as an infusion to treat gastric disorders, was developed. The method was based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray negative ionisation multistage ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-ITMSn). The main ions in the ESI-ITMS spectra were attributed to a quinic acid core containing from one to five galloyl units. Quercetin derivatives containing one and two sugar moieties as well as galloyl esterification were also detected. These results indicated that HPLC/ESI-ITMSn is easily applicable to infusions of this plant and allows the rapid and direct identification of these compounds in crude plant extracts.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 02/2007; 21(8):1393-1400. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some saprobe fungi (Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, Coriolopsis rigida, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Fomes sclerodermus or Pleurotus pulmonarius) were able to bioconvert the ethyl acetate fraction (DEAF) and the corresponding aqueous exhausted fraction (EAF) of dry olive mill residue (DOR), reducing their phytotoxicity on Lepidium sativum seeds. Large amount of hydroxytyrosol together with other eight monomeric phenols were found in the native DEAF fraction, which represents a good source of antioxidants. P. radiata, T. versicolor and F. sclerodermus caused an effective phytotoxicity reduction of EAF in the concentration range of 25-3 gl(-1). In particular, in the range between 12.5 and 3 gl(-1), the EAF samples inoculated with P. radiata and F. sclerodermus surprisingly stimulated the germinability of L. sativum, suggesting their use as a potential biofertilizer. This is the first report which showed the bioconversion of the above fractions in shorter time with respect to the previous findings concerning DOR. The possible implications of laccase in the decrease of DEAF and EAF phytotoxicity was also discussed.
    Chemosphere 02/2007; 66(1):67-74. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis impairment in hyperglycemic patients represents a leading cause of severe vascular complications of both type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Angiogenesis dysfunction in DM is related to glycemic control; however, molecular mechanisms involved are still unclear. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a potent angiogenic factor and, according to previous evidence, may represent a key target of molecular modifications triggered by high-sugar exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether short incubation with hyperglycemic levels of glucose affected FGF-2 and whether glucose-modified FGF-2 was detectable in vivo. Biochemical analyses carried out with SDS-PAGE, fluorescence emission, mass-spectrometry, immunoblot, and competitive ELISA experiments demonstrated that human FGF-2 undergoes a rapid and specific glycation upon 12.5-50 mm glucose exposure. In addition, FGF-2 exposed for 30 min to 12.5 mm glucose lost mitogenic and chemotactic activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Under similar conditions, binding affinity to FGF receptor 1 was dramatically reduced by 20-fold, as well as FGF receptor 1 and ERK-1/2 phosphorylation, and FGF-2 lost about 45% of angiogenic activity in two different in vivo angiogenic (Matrigel and chorioallantoic-membrane) assays. Such glucose-induced modification was specific, because other angiogenic growth factors, namely platelet-derived growth factor BB and placental-derived growth factor were not significantly or markedly less modified. Finally, for the first time, glycated-FGF-2 was detected in vivo, in tissues from hyperglycemic nonobese diabetic mice, in significantly higher amounts than in normoglycemic mice. In conclusion, hyperglycemic levels of glucose may strongly affect FGF-2 structure and impair its angiogenic features, and endogenous glycated-FGF-2 is present in diabetic mice, indicating a novel pathogenetic mechanism underlying angiogenesis defects in DM.
    Molecular Endocrinology 12/2006; 20(11):2806-18. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The main molecular factors involved in the complex interactions occurring between plants (bean), two different fungal pathogens (Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani) and an antagonistic strain of the genus Trichoderma were investigated. Two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis was used to analyze separately collected proteomes from each single, two- or three-partner interaction (i.e., plant, pathogenic and antagonistic fungus alone and in all possible combinations). Differential proteins were subjected to mass spectrometry and in silico analysis to search for homologies with known proteins. In the plant proteome, specific pathogenesis-related proteins and other disease-related factors (i.e., potential resistance genes) seem to be associated with the interaction with either one of the two pathogens and/or T. atroviride. This finding is in agreement with the demonstrated ability of Trichoderma spp. to induce systemic resistance against various microbial pathogens. On the other side, many differential proteins obtained from the T. atroviride interaction proteome showed interesting homologies with a fungal hydrophobin, ABC transporters, etc. Virulence factors, like cyclophilins, were up-regulated in the pathogen proteome during the interaction with the plant alone or with the antagonist too. We isolated and confidently identified a large number of protein factors associated to the multi-player interactions examined.
    Current Genetics 12/2006; 50(5):307-21. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to compare/contrast the colostrum lipid composition of 53 Burkinabe women, collected in 2005 at the Maternity of Centre Medical Saint Camille in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), with similar data obtained in breast milk, five years ago and then to show the evolution of this important aliment. The fatty acid composition of colostrum samples was determined by Gas-liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Saturated lipids (C8:0-C:14-0) showed a progressive increasing trend in the Burkinabe woman colostrum with respect those already measured five years ago. The C15:0-C24:0 fractions were found costantly higher, but their trends were in progressive decrement. The 18:2n-6 fraction (linoleic acid) reached the highest value in the third day post partum. The 18:3n-3 was constantly higher in the second and third days. The 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid) and LC n-6 PUFA were lower ever since the first day, but with a trend to increase. Also 22: 6n-3 and LC n-3 PUFA were costantly lower. The 18:2n-6/18:3n-3 and LC n-6/LC n-3 ratios were lower and higher, respectively, if compared with those already measured five years ago. These results suggest the need to improve alimentary habits of mothers in order to restore the balanced n-6/n3 PUFA ratio in their colostrums.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 01/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: In a search for bacteria having putative probiotic activity, we screened a collection of food-isolated microorganisms for the ability to survive at low pH in the presence of bile salts and for the production of antimicrobial compounds active against a number of animal pathogens. Among these, we found a strain that we classified as a member of Lactobacillus fermentum sp., and we further investigated its features. This organism was able to adhere to human enterocyte-like (Caco-2) cells with high efficiency as compared to that of a well known indicator strain. Chromatographic analysis indicated that at least two small (less than 3 kDa) factors were involved in mediating the in vitro interaction of L. fermentum with Caco-2 cells. Adhesion activity could be abolished by mild treatment of the bacterial cells in buffer and rescued by incubating them with either the same buffer after its use in the treatment or with chromatographic fractions containing each of the two factors, which indicated that these factors were loosely associated with the cell wall and that each of them was sufficient to warrant the adhesiveness of L. fermentum to Caco-2 cells. These data are suggestive of a novel mechanism of bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells.
    Research in Microbiology 09/2005; 156(7):830-6. · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • Paola Montoro, Virginia Carbone, Cosimo Pizza
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    ABSTRACT: Reversed-phase HPLC coupled with electrospray MS has been used for the simultaneous separation and determination of flavonoid metabolites in leaves of Cyclanthera pedata, an edible Peruvian plant mainly used in South America for its anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolaemic properties. The flavonoid content of the leaves of C. pedata was compared qualitatively and quantitatively with that of the fruits. The isolation and structural characterisation by MS and NMR of two new minor components of the fruits, namely, 6-C-fucopyranosyl-(3-malonyl)-chrysin and 6-C-fucopyranosyl-(4-malonyl)-chrysin, are described.
    Phytochemical Analysis 01/2005; 16(3):210-6. · 2.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

354 Citations
77.55 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2012
    • National Research Council
      • Institute of Food Sciences ISA
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2002–2009
    • Università degli Studi di Salerno
      • Department of BioMedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences FARMABIOMED
      Avellino, Campania, Italy
  • 1995–2009
    • University of Naples Federico II
      • • International Centre of Mass Spectrometry Services
      • • Department of Agriculture
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1992
    • Policlinico Federico II di Napoli
      Napoli, Campania, Italy