Roger B Cohen

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (56)526.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: LCL161 antagonizes the function of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), thereby promoting cancer cell death. This first-in-human dose-escalation study assessed the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of LCL161 in patients with advanced solid tumors. A second part of the study assessed the relative bioavailability of a tablet versus solution formulation.
    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The IGF-1R signaling pathway has been implicated in multiple cancers as important for cell survival, proliferation, invasion and metastasis. BIIB022 is a non-glycosylated human IgG4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) with specificity for IGF-1R. Unlike other anti-IGF1R antibodies, BIIB022 has no effector functions. Additionally, inhibition is via an allosteric rather than competitive mechanism, which further differentiates this antibody from others. We sought to determine the safety and tolerability of BIIB022 and determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile of this antibody. Methods A multi-institutional phase I study evaluated the safety of escalating doses of BIIB022 given IV q3wk until progression or unacceptable toxicity in patients with advanced solid tumors. Five sequential BIIB022 dose cohorts were evaluated using a standard 3 + 3 dose-escalation design (1.5, 5. 10, 20, 30 mg/kg); 10 additional patients were treated at the recommended phase 2 dose. Results 34 patients were treated. Toxicities were manageable and mostly low grade; grade 3-4 hyperglycemia was not observed. No RECIST responses were observed, although three patients had metabolic responses associated with prolonged stable disease. The PK of BIIB022 was nearly linear in the dose range from 10 to 30 mg/kg, with some nonlinearity at lower doses (1.5-5.0 mg/kg), likely due to target-mediated drug disposition of BIIB022 at low serum concentrations. PD analyses showed decrease in IGF-1R levels on leucocytes, with stable serum values of IGF-1 and IGF-2. Conclusions BIIB022 can be safely given at 30 mg/kg IV every 3 weeks with preliminary evidence of biological activity in selected patients.
    Investigational New Drugs 01/2014; · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Roger B Cohen
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    ABSTRACT: Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a common characteristic of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Cetuximab is a chimeric anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb) with multiple approved indications in HNSCC, including with radiation therapy (RT) for locoregionally advanced disease, as monotherapy after platinum progression, and with platinum/5-fluorouracil for recurrent or metastatic disease. There remain, however, numerous unanswered questions regarding the optimal use of cetuximab in HNSCC, including patient selection, its mechanisms of action and resistance, the effect of human papillomavirus status on outcomes, its role when combined with induction chemotherapy or adjuvant radiation, and optimal management of skin toxicity and hypersensitivity reactions. In addition, a variety of other anti-EGFR agents (the multitargeted small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors [TKIs] lapatinib, dacomitinib, and afatinib and the anti-EGFR mAbs zalutumumab, nimotuzumab, and panitumumab) are currently under investigation in phase II and III clinical trials in different HNSCC therapeutic settings. The anti-EGFR TKI erlotinib is currently in phase III development for oral cancer prevention. Numerous other drugs are in earlier stages of development for HNSCC treatment, including novel anti-EGFR mAbs (MEHD7945A, necitumumab, and RO5083945), small-molecule TKIs (vandetanib, icotinib, and CUDC-101), EGFR antisense, various add-on therapies to radiation and chemotherapy (bevacizumab, interleukin-12, lenalidomide, alisertib, and VTX-2337), and drugs (temsirolimus, everolimus, OSI-906, dasatinib, and PX-866) intended to overcome resistance to anti-EGFR agents. Overall, a wealth of clinical trial data is expected in the coming years, with the potential to modify significantly the approach to anti-EGFR therapy for HNSCC.
    Cancer Treatment Reviews 10/2013; · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the overall safety, including rare events, of intravenous (IV) abatacept treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Data from 8 clinical trials of IV abatacept in RA were pooled. Safety events were assessed during the short-term (duration ≤ 12 months) and cumulative (short-term plus longterm extensions) abatacept treatment periods. Incidence rates per 100 patient-years were calculated. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for hospitalized infections and malignancies were compared with external RA cohorts and, for malignancies, with the US general population. RESULTS: There were 3173 IV abatacept-treated patients with 2331 patient-years of exposure in the short-term periods, and 4149 IV abatacept-treated patients with 12,132 patient-years of exposure in the cumulative period. Incidence rates for serious infections were low and consistent over time (3.68 for abatacept vs 2.60 for placebo during the short-term, and 2.87 for abatacept during the cumulative period). Hospitalized infections were generally similar to external RA patient cohorts and were consistent over time. Incidence rates of malignancies were similar for abatacept- and placebo-treated patients during the short-term period (0.73 vs 0.59) and remained low during the abatacept cumulative period (0.73). SIR of some tissue-specific malignancies (e.g., colorectal and breast) in the cumulative period tended to be lower, while others (lymphoma and lung) tended to be higher, compared with the general population; however, incidence rates were comparable with RA cohorts. Autoimmune events were rare and infusion reactions uncommon. CONCLUSION: Longterm safety of IV abatacept was consistent with the short-term, with no unexpected events and low incidence rates of serious infections, malignancies, and autoimmune events.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 04/2013; · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This is the first clinical study of the MEK1/2 inhibitor AZD8330 (ARRY-424704). This phase I study defined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assessed the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of AZD8330 in patients with advanced malignancies. METHODS: Patients with refractory cancer or cancer with no standard therapy received either once-daily (OD) or twice-daily (BID) oral AZD8330 on day 1 followed by a 7-day washout period and continuous dosing from day 8. The starting dose was 0.5mg with dose escalations in subsequent cohorts until a non-tolerated dose was reached. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients received AZD8330 across 11 cohorts. The most frequent AZD8330-related adverse events were acneiform dermatitis (13/82, 16%), fatigue (11/82, 13%), diarrhoea (11/82, 13%) and vomiting (9/82, 11%). Four patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities: mental status changes (40mg OD; 2/9 patients and 60mg OD; 1/3) and rash (20mg BID; 1/9). The MTD was defined as 20mg BID. AZD8330 exposure increased approximately proportionally with dose across the dose range 0.5-60mg OD. Dose-dependent modulation of phosphorylated ERK in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was observed at doses ⩾3mg. One patient had a partial response and thirty-two (39%) had stable disease, with a duration >3months in 22 patients, assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. CONCLUSION: AZD8330 has a manageable toxicity profile at the MTD of 20mg BID, and target inhibition was confirmed in PBMCs. One patient with malignant melanoma had a partial response.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 02/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cancer patients and their oncologists often report differing perceptions of consultation discussions and discordant expectations regarding treatment outcomes. CONNECT, a computer-based communication aid, was developed to improve communication between patients and oncologists. METHODS: CONNECT includes assessment of patient values, goals, and communication preferences; patient communication skills training; and a preconsultation physician summary report. CONNECT was tested in a 3-arm, prospective, randomized clinical trial. Prior to the initial medical oncology consultation, adult patients with advanced cancer were randomized to the following arms: 1) control; 2) CONNECT with physician summary; or 3) CONNECT without physician summary. Outcomes were assessed with postconsultation surveys. RESULTS: Of 743 patients randomized, 629 completed postconsultation surveys. Patients in the intervention arms (versus control) felt that the CONNECT program made treatment decisions easier to reach (P = .003) and helped them to be more satisfied with these decisions (P < .001). In addition, patients in the intervention arms reported higher levels of satisfaction with physician communication format (P = .026) and discussion regarding support services (P = .029) and quality of life concerns (P = .042). The physician summary did not impact outcomes. Patients with higher levels of education and poorer physical functioning experienced greater benefit from CONNECT. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective randomized clinical trial demonstrates that computer-based communication skills training can positively affect patient satisfaction with communication and decision-making. Measurable patient characteristics may be used to identify subgroups most likely to benefit from an intervention such as CONNECT. Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 01/2013; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background A Phase I study to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics of afatinib (BIBW 2992), a novel irreversible ErbB Family Blocker, administered orally once daily in a 3-week-on/1-week-off dosing schedule. Methods Patients with advanced solid tumors received single-agent afatinib at 10, 20, 40, 55 or 65 mg/day. Safety, antitumor activity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic modulation of biomarkers were assessed. Results: Forty-three patients were enrolled. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) occurred in five patients in the dose escalation phase (1/8 at 40 mg/day; 1/6 at 55 mg/day; 3/6 at 65 mg/day). The MTD was established at 55 mg/day. In the expansion cohort at the MTD, 6 patients experienced a DLT in the first 28-day treatment period. The most frequent DLT was diarrhea. The most common adverse events were diarrhea, rash, nausea, vomiting and fatigue. Overall, the afatinib safety profile in a 3-week-on/1-week-off dose schedule was similar to that of our daily-continuous schedule. Afatinib displayed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics at doses up to and including 55 mg/day, with a terminal half-life suitable for once-daily dosing. Signs of clinical antitumor activity were observed. In biopsies taken from clinically normal forearm skin, afatinib caused a reduced proliferation rate, with a concomitant increase in differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. Conclusion Afatinib in a 3-week-on/1-week-off schedule showed a good safety profile. The MTD was 55 mg/day, although excess DLTs in the expansion cohort indicated that the 40 mg/day dose would have an acceptable safety profile for future studies. Dose cohorts between 40 and 55 mg/day were not examined in this study.
    Investigational New Drugs 11/2012; · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSETo determine whether patients' expectations of benefit in early-phase oncology trials depend on how patients are queried and to explore whether expectations are associated with patient characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS Participants were 171 patients in phase I or II oncology trials in the United States. After providing informed consent for a trial but before receiving the investigational therapy, participants answered questions about expectations of benefit. We randomly assigned participants to one of three groups corresponding to three queries about expectations: frequency type, belief type, or both. Main outcomes were differences in expectations by question type and the extent to which expectations were associated with demographic characteristics, numeracy, dispositional optimism, religiousness/spirituality, understanding of research, and other measures.ResultsThe belief-type group had a higher mean expectation of benefit (64.4 of 100) than the combination group (51.6; P = .01) and the frequency-type group (43.1; P < .001). Mean expectations in the combination and frequency groups were not significantly different (P = .06). Belief-type expectations were associated with a preference for nonquantitative information (r = -0.19; 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.36), knowledge about research (r = -0.21; 95% CI, -0.38 to -0.03), dispositional optimism (r = 0.20; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.37), and spirituality (r = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.38). Frequency-type expectations were associated with knowledge about clinical research (r = -0.27; 95% CI, -0.27 to -0.51). CONCLUSION In early-phase oncology trials, patients' reported expectations of benefit differed according to how patients were queried and were associated with patient characteristics. These findings have implications for how informed consent is obtained and assessed.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2012; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) and neuroblastoma v-ras oncogene homolog (NRAS) mutations in melanoma provides a strong rationale to test the clinical efficacy of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibition in this disease. The authors hypothesized that the presence of BRAF or NRAS mutations would correlate with clinical benefit among patients who received treatment with combination regimens that included the MEK inhibitor selumetinib. METHODS: BRAF and NRAS mutation status was determined retrospectively in available tissue specimens from patients with melanoma who were enrolled in a phase 1 trial of selumetinib in combination with 1 of 4 drugs (dacarbazine, docetaxel, temsirolimus, or erlotinib). The clinical response rate and the time to progression (TTP) were assessed as a function of BRAF and NRAS mutation status. RESULTS: Among 18 patients analyzed, 9 patients (50%) harbored a BRAF mutation (8 had a valine-to-glutamic acid substitution at residue 600 [V600E]; 1 had an arginine nonsense mutation at residue 603 [R603]), 4 patients (22%) harbored an NRAS mutation (2 had a glutamine-to-arginine substitution at residue 61 [Q61R], 1 had a glutamine-to-lysine substitution at residue 61 [Q61K], and 1 had a glycine-to-lysine substitution at residue 12 [G12S]), and 5 patient (28%) had the wild type of both genes. These mutations were mutually exclusive. Among the 9 patients who had BRAF mutations, 5 patients (56%) achieved a partial response, and 4 patients (44%) achieved stable disease for at least 6 weeks. No patient with the wild-type BRAF gene achieved a clinical response (P = .01 vs patients with BRAF mutations). The presence of an NRAS mutation did not correlate with the clinical response rate. The presence of a BRAF mutation was correlated significantly with the TTP in a multivariate model (hazard ratio, 0.22; P = .02 vs wild-type BRAF). CONCLUSIONS: Higher response rates and longer TTP were observed with selumetinib-containing regimens in patients who had tumors that harbored a BRAF mutation compared with patients who had wild-type BRAF. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 09/2012; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This phase I study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of the investigational oral drug MLN8237 (alisertib), a small-molecule Aurora A kinase (AAK) inhibitor, in 87 adult patients with advanced solid tumors. Sequential cohorts of patients received MLN8237 5 to 150 mg orally once daily or twice daily for 7, 14, or 21 days, followed by 14 days' rest per cycle. MLN8237 pharmacokinetics was characterized, and the relative bioavailability of an enteric-coated tablet (ECT) formulation was evaluated in reference to the original powder-in-capsule (PIC) formulation. Pharmacodynamic effects of MLN8237 on inhibition of AAK activity were evaluated in skin biopsies. Tolerability and response to treatment were assessed. Common toxicities included fatigue, nausea, and neutropenia. Plasma exposures increased dose proportionally (5-150 mg/d), and were similar for PIC and ECT. The terminal half-life was 23 hours. At the maximum tolerated dose of 50 mg twice daily on the 7-day schedule, the mitotic index of the skin basal epithelium was increased within 24 hours after MLN8237 administration on days 1 and 7, a finding consistent with AAK inhibition. One (1%) patient achieved a partial response lasting for more than 1 year and received MLN8237 for 51 cycles; 20 (23%) patients achieved stable disease for ≥3 months. This first-in-human trial of MLN8237 showed tolerability and favorable pharmacokinetics in this patient population. The recommended phase II dose of MLN8237 is 50 mg twice daily orally for 7 days in 21-day cycles, which is being evaluated further in the treatment of various solid tumors and hematologic malignancies.
    Clinical Cancer Research 07/2012; 18(17):4775-84. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    Roger B Cohen, Stéphane Oudard
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has evolved rapidly over the last two decades as major pathways involved in pathogenesis have been elucidated. These include the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) axis and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Therapies targeting the VEGF pathway include bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, pazopanib, and axitinib, whereas temsirolimus and everolimus inhibit the mTOR pathway. All of these novel therapies-VEGF and mTOR inhibitors-are associated with a variety of unique toxicities, some of which may necessitate expert medical management, treatment interruption, or dose reduction. Common adverse events with newer drugs include hypertension, skin reactions, gastrointestinal disturbances, thyroid dysfunction, and fatigue. Skilled management of these toxicities is vital to ensure optimal therapeutic dosing and maximize patient outcomes, including improved survival and quality of life. This review describes and compares the toxicity profiles of novel molecularly targeted agents used in the treatment of mRCC and presents guidance on how best to prevent and manage treatment-related toxicities. Particular attention is given to axitinib, the newest agent to enter the armamentarium. Axitinib is a second-generation receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent VEGF receptor inhibition that provides durable responses and superior progression-free survival in advanced RCC compared with sorafenib.
    Investigational New Drugs 02/2012; 30(5):2066-79. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The role of angiogenic inhibitors is clearly established in the treatment of diverse malignancies. The field of antiangiogenesis is expanding rapidly, with an increasing number of agents currently approved by the FDA. Axitinib is a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-specific inhibitor currently being developed for the treatment of various malignancies. The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of axitinib may provide a selective treatment effect while minimizing adverse reactions and enhancing safety. It is paramount that health-care providers understand the properties and nuances of each agent inclusive of PK variability in the patient population as well as current safety and tolerability data. AREAS COVERED: This article provides a comprehensive and critical review of the PK properties of axitinib as they relate to safety and tolerability, as well as potential pharmacodynamic and efficacy parameters. EXPERT OPINION: Axitinib is a unique VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), which acts through greater receptor specificity compared with many other VEGFR TKIs. An understanding of axitinib's PK characteristics and common adverse events may allow for a tailored dosing approach in patients with cancer, in an attempt to maximize efficacy while minimizing toxicity.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism &amp Toxicology 02/2012; 8(2):259-70. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A multicenter, open-label, phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of selumetinib in iodine-refractory papillary thyroid cancer (IRPTC). Patients with advanced IRPTC with or without follicular elements and documented disease progression within the preceding 12 months were eligible to receive selumetinib at a dose of 100 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was objective response rate using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Secondary endpoints were safety, overall survival, and progression-free survival (PFS). Tumor genotype including mutations in BRAF, NRAS, and HRAS was assessed. Best responses in 32 evaluable patients out of 39 enrolled were 1 partial response (3%), 21 stable disease (54%), and 11 progressive disease (28%). Disease stability maintenance occurred for 16 weeks in 49%, 24 weeks in 36%. Median PFS was 32 weeks. BRAF V600E mutants (12 of 26 evaluated, 46%) had a longer median PFS compared with patients with BRAF wild-type (WT) tumors (33 versus 11 weeks, respectively, HR = 0.6, not significant, P = 0.3). The most common adverse events and grades 3 to 4 toxicities included rash, fatigue, diarrhea, and peripheral edema. Two pulmonary deaths occurred in the study and were judged unlikely to be related to the study drug. Selumetinib was well tolerated but the study was negative with regard to the primary outcome. Secondary analyses suggest that future studies of selumetinib and other mitogen-activated protein (MAP)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK; MEK) inhibitors in IRPTC should consider BRAF V600E mutation status in the trial design based on differential trends in outcome.
    Clinical Cancer Research 01/2012; 18(7):2056-65. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: XL184 (cabozantinib) is a potent inhibitor of MET, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and RET, with robust antiangiogenic, antitumor, and anti-invasive effects in preclinical models. Early observations of clinical benefit in a phase I study of cabozantinib, which included patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), led to expansion of an MTC-enriched cohort, which is the focus of this article. A phase I dose-escalation study of oral cabozantinib was conducted in patients with advanced solid tumors. Primary end points included evaluation of safety, pharmacokinetics, and maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) determination. Additional end points included RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) response, pharmacodynamics, RET mutational status, and biomarker analyses. Eighty-five patients were enrolled, including 37 with MTC. The MTD was 175 mg daily. Dose-limiting toxicities were grade 3 palmar plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE), mucositis, and AST, ALT, and lipase elevations and grade 2 mucositis that resulted in dose interruption and reduction. Ten (29%) of 35 patients with MTC with measurable disease had a confirmed partial response. Overall, 18 patients experienced tumor shrinkage of 30% or more, including 17 (49%) of 35 patients with MTC with measurable disease. Additionally, 15 (41%) of 37 patients with MTC had stable disease (SD) for at least 6 months, resulting in SD for 6 months or longer or confirmed partial response in 68% of patients with MTC. Cabozantinib has an acceptable safety profile and is active in MTC. Cabozantinib may provide clinical benefit by simultaneously targeting multiple pathways of importance in MTC, including MET, VEGFR2, and RET. A global phase III pivotal study in MTC is ongoing (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00215605).
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2011; 29(19):2660-6. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aurora A kinase is critical in assembly and function of the mitotic spindle. It is overexpressed in various tumor types and implicated in oncogenesis and tumor progression. This trial evaluated the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of MLN8054, a selective small-molecule inhibitor of Aurora A kinase. In this first-in-human, dose-escalation study, MLN8054 was given orally for 7, 14, or 21 days followed by a 14-day treatment-free period. Escalating cohorts of 3-6 patients with advanced solid tumors were treated until DLT was seen in ≥2 patients in a cohort. Serial blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetics and skin biopsies were collected for pharmacodynamics. Sixty-one patients received 5, 10, 20, 30, or 40 mg once daily for 7 days; 25, 35, 45, or 55 mg/day in four divided doses (QID) for 7 days; or 55, 60, 70, or 80 mg/day plus methylphenidate or modafinil with daytime doses (QID/M) for 7-21 days. DLTs of reversible grade 3 benzodiazepine-like effects defined the estimated MTD of 60 mg QID/M for 14 days. MLN8054 was absorbed rapidly, exposure was dose proportional, and terminal half-life was 30-40 h. Three patients had stable disease for >6 cycles. MLN8054 dosing for up to 14 days of a 28-day cycle was feasible. Reversible somnolence was dose limiting and prevented achievement of plasma concentrations predicted necessary for target modulation. A recommended dose for investigation in phase 2 trials was not established. A second-generation Aurora A kinase inhibitor is in development.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 04/2011; 67(4):945-54. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mitotic kinase Aurora A is an important therapeutic target for cancer therapy. This study evaluated new mechanism-based pharmacodynamic biomarkers in cancer patients in two phase I studies of MLN8054, a small-molecule inhibitor of Aurora A kinase. Patients with advanced solid tumors received MLN8054 orally for 7 consecutive days in escalating dose cohorts, with skin and tumor biopsies obtained before and after dosing. Skin biopsies were evaluated for increased mitotic cells within the basal epithelium. Tumor biopsies were assessed for accumulation of mitotic cells within proliferative tumor regions. Several patients in the highest dose cohorts showed marked increases in the skin mitotic index after dosing. Although some tumors exhibited increases in mitotic cells after dosing, others displayed decreases, a variable outcome consistent with dual mechanisms of mitotic arrest and mitotic slippage induced by antimitotics in tumors. To provide a clearer picture, mitotic cell chromosome alignment and spindle bipolarity, new biomarkers of Aurora A inhibition that act independently of mitotic arrest or slippage, were assessed in the tumor biopsies. Several patients, primarily in the highest dose cohorts, had marked decreases in the percentage of mitotic cells with aligned chromosomes and bipolar spindles after dosing. Evidence existed for an exposure-effect relationship for mitotic cells with defects in chromosome alignment and spindle bipolarity that indicated a biologically active dose range. Outcomes of pharmacodynamic assays from skin and tumor biopsies were concordant in several patients. Together, these new pharmacodynamic assays provide evidence for Aurora A inhibition by MLN8054 in patient skin and tumor tissues.
    Cancer Research 02/2011; 71(3):675-85. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and antitumor activity of sunitinib combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Successive cohorts of patients with advanced solid tumors received oral sunitinib (25, 37.5, or 50 mg) for 2 consecutive weeks of a 3-week cycle (Schedule 2/1) or as a continuous daily dose for 3-week cycles (CDD schedule) in combination with paclitaxel (175-200 mg/m(2)) plus carboplatin (AUC 6 mg min/ml) on day one of each of 4 cycles. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated to determine the MTD. Efficacy parameters were analyzed in patients with measurable disease. Forty-three patients were enrolled (n = 25 Schedule 2/1; n = 18 CDD schedule). Across all doses, 6 DLTs were observed [grade 4 papilledema, grade 5 GI hemorrhage, grade 3 neutropenic infection, and grade 4 thrombocytopenia (n = 3)]. The MTD for Schedule 2/1 was sunitinib 25 mg plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) and carboplatin AUC 6 mg min/ml. The MTD was not determined for the CDD schedule. Treatment-related AEs included neutropenia (77%), thrombocytopenia (56%), and fatigue (47%). Of 38 evaluable patients, 4 (11%) had partial responses and 12 (32%) had stable disease. PK data indicated an increase in maximum and total plasma exposures to sunitinib and its active metabolite when given with paclitaxel and carboplatin compared with sunitinib monotherapy. Myelosuppression resulting in prolonged dose delays and frequent interruptions was observed, suggesting that this treatment combination is not feasible in the general cancer population.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 12/2010; 68(3):703-12. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the pattern of failures following intensity modulated radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. A retrospective single institution study. Between May 2001 and June 2008, 176 patients with head and neck cancer were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy at Fox Chase Cancer Center. Ninety-five (54%) were squamous cell carcinoma treated with curative intent. Tumor and nodal stage, tobacco history, definitive versus postoperative therapy (PORT), addition of chemotherapy and RT duration were analyzed for association with patterns of failure. In patients treated with definitive radiation, high-risk PTV (PTV1) was prescribed to 70 Gy and low-risk PTV (PTV2) to 56 Gy. In the PORT setting, PTV1 was prescribed to 60 to 66 Gy and PTV2 to 54 Gy. Patterns of failure were assessed. Local failure (LF) was defined as the persistence of disease or recurrence within PTV1, marginal failure as recurrence at the region of high-dose falloff, and regional failure as nodal recurrence within PTV2. Median follow-up was 20 months (range: 1-117). Median age was 60 years (range: 28-88), with 80% smokers and 81% stage III or IV. PORT was given to 29% and 71% were treated definitively, with concurrent Cisplatin used in the majority. Three-year local and locoregional (LR) failure rates were 9% and 16%, respectively. Failures occurred in 14 patients: 8 local, 3 regional, 1 LR, and 2 distant. Five of the 8 LF and all 3 marginal failures were observed in PORT cohort. On univariate analysis, the only predictor of LF was the use of PORT (P = 0.06). LR control was 66% for PORT versus 87%, 97% for definitive RT and chemoRT. Local, regional failures were more common following PORT related to an increased risk of marginal failures.
    American journal of clinical oncology 11/2010; 33(6):599-603. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase kinase inhibitor PD-0325901 in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients who had experienced treatment failure after, or were refractory to, standard systemic therapy. This open-label, phase II study initially evaluated 15 mg PD-0325901 twice daily administered intermittently (3 weeks on/1 week off; schedule A). As this schedule was not well tolerated, a second schedule was introduced as follows: 5 days on/2 days off for 3 weeks, followed by 1 week off (schedule B). The primary end point was objective response. All patients had received prior systemic therapy (median of two regimens, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in 26%). Of 13 patients treated on schedule A, three discontinued due to adverse events (blurred vision, fatigue, and hallucinations, respectively). Twenty-one patients received schedule B. Main toxicities included diarrhea, fatigue, rash, vomiting, nausea, and reversible visual disturbances. Hematologic toxicity consisted mainly of mild-to-moderate anemia, without neutropenia. Chemistry abnormalities were rare. Mean (coefficient of variation) PD-0325901 trough plasma concentrations were 100 ng/mL (52%) and 173 ng/mL (73%) for schedules A and B, respectively, above the minimum target concentration established in preclinical studies (16.5 ng/mL). There were no objective responses. Seven patients had stable disease. Median (95% confidence interval) progression-free survival was 1.8 months (1.5-1.9) and overall survival was 7.8 months (4.5-13.9). PD-0325901 did not meet its primary efficacy end point. Future studies should focus on PD-0325901 schedule, rational combination strategies, and enrichment of patient selection based on mode of action.
    Clinical Cancer Research 03/2010; 16(8):2450-7. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE To evaluate the safety, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PKs), pharmacodynamics, and preliminary anticancer activity of ramucirumab (IMC-1121B), a fully human immunoglobulin G(1) monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated once weekly with escalating doses of ramucirumab. Blood was sampled for PK studies throughout treatment. The effects of ramucirumab on circulating vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), soluble VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, tumor perfusion, and vascularity using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were assessed. Results Thirty-seven patients were treated with 2 to 16 mg/kg of ramucirumab. After one patient each developed dose-limiting hypertension and deep venous thrombosis at 16 mg/kg, the next lower dose (13 mg/kg) was considered the MTD. Nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, and proteinuria were also noted. Four (15%) of 27 patients with measurable disease had a partial response (PR), and 11 (30%) of 37 patients had either a PR or stable disease lasting at least 6 months. PKs were characterized by dose-dependent elimination and nonlinear exposure consistent with saturable clearance. Mean trough concentrations exceeded biologically relevant target levels throughout treatment at all dose levels. Serum VEGF-A increased 1.5 to 3.5 times above pretreatment values and remained in this range throughout treatment at all dose levels. Tumor perfusion and vascularity decreased in 69% of evaluable patients. CONCLUSION Objective antitumor activity and antiangiogenic effects were observed over a wide range of dose levels, suggesting that ramucirumab may have a favorable therapeutic index in treating malignancies amenable to VEGFR-2 inhibition.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2010; 28(5):780-7. · 18.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
526.46 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2013
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • "Abramson" Cancer Center
      • • Division of Hematology/Oncology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2003–2013
    • Fox Chase Cancer Center
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2010
    • Cross Cancer Institute
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2009
    • University of Colorado
      • Division of Medical Oncology
      Denver, CO, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Medicine
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 2008
    • Roswell Park Cancer Institute
      • Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets
      Buffalo, New York, United States
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Medicine
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Human Oncology
      Madison, MS, United States