Michela Battistelli

Università degli Studi di Urbino "Carlo Bo", Urbino, The Marches, Italy

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Publications (48)151.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Skin cells can respond to UVB-induced damage by counteracting it through antioxidant activation and DNA repair mechanisms or, when damage is massive by undergoing programmed cell death. Antioxidant factors, and, in particular, food compounds, have attracted much interest because of their potential use in new protective strategies for degenerative skin disorders. Melatonin, creatine and hydroxytyrosol show a variety of pharmacological and clinical benefits including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, the potential protective actions of antioxidant compounds against UVB-induced apoptosis were investigated in human keratinocytes. The cells were pre-treated with antioxidants before UVB exposure and their effect evaluated by means of ultrastructural and molecular analyses. After UVB radiation typical morphological apoptotic features and in situ DNA fragmentation after TUNEL reaction, appeared. A significant numerical decrease of apoptotic patterns could be observed when antioxidants were administrated before cell death induction. Moreover, both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways appeared activated after UVB radiation, and their down-regulation has been shown when antioxidants were added to cells before death induction. In conclusion, these compounds are able to prevent apoptotic cell death in human keratinocytes exposed to UVB, suggesting, for these molecules, an important role in preventing skin damage.
    Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study we investigated the behavior of an Aeromonas hydrophila strain in prolonged nutrient deprivation condition analyzing the possible link among survival, cell morphology and adhesive characteristics and correlating them with the expression of the 43kDa outer membrane protein (OMP). The strain was inoculated in mineral and drinking chlorinated water, and in Nutrient Broth as a control with incubation at 4 and 24°C for 176days. Specimens were analyzed at different times during starvation stress. Viability was assessed by flow cytometry and growth by plate count technique; morphology and adhesivity were detected by optical and electron microscopy. The 43kDa OMP expression at different times was determined after immunoblotting assay using a polyclonal antibody produced in rabbit. The results showed a long-term viability as evidenced by cytofluorimetric analysis; however, the prolonged starvation led to the shift from the normal rod shaped cells to spherical forms in the last phases of incubation especially at 24°C. Concomitantly with the appearance of spherical cells we noted a reduction of the 43kDa OMP content and adhesive ability. Therefore, our results suggest a role of the 43kDa OMP as adhesin in A. hydrophila. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the bacterium can long survive under stress conditions, however adopting strategies which can lead to a loss of some cell surface components involved in the interactions with eukaryotic cells, therefore modifying its virulence properties.
    International journal of food microbiology. 07/2014; 188C:1-10.
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    ABSTRACT: Chondrocyte death and loss of extracellular matrix are the central features in articular cartilage degeneration during osteoarthritis pathogenesis. Cartilage diseases and, in particular, osteoarthritis are widely correlated to apoptosis but, chondrocytes undergoing apoptosis "in vivo" more often display peculiar features that correspond to a distinct process of programmed cell death termed "chondroptosis". Programmed cell death of primary human chondrocyte has been here investigated in micromasses, a tridimensional culture model, that represents a convenient means for studying chondrocyte biology. Cell death has been induced by different physical or chemical apoptotic agents, such as UVB radiation, hyperthermia and staurosporine delivered at both 1 and 3 weeks maturation. Conventional electron microscopy was used to analyse morphological changes. Occurrence of DNA fragmentation and caspase involvement were also investigated. At Transmission Electron Microscopy, control cells appear rounding or slightly elongated with plurilobated nucleus and diffusely dispersed chromatin. Typically UVB radiation and staurosporine induce chromatin apoptotic features, while hyperthermia triggers the "chondroptotic" phenotype. A weak TUNEL positivity appears in control, correlated to the well known cell death patterns occurring along cartilage differentiation. UVB radiation produces a strong positivity, mostly localized at the micromass periphery. After hyperthermia a higher number of fluorescent nuclei appears, in particular at 3 weeks. Staurosporine evidences a diffuse, but reduced, positivity. Therefore, DNA fragmentation is a common pattern in dying chondrocytes, both in apoptotic and "chondroptotic" cells. Moreover, all triggers induce caspase pathway activation, even if to a different extent, suggesting a fundamental role of apoptotic features, in chondrocyte cell death.
    APOPTOSIS 07/2014; · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to test the effect of Carvacrol against oral pathogens and their preformed biofilms on titanium disc surface. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC) were performed to evaluate Carvacrol antibacterial activity, while flow cytometry (FCM) was used to verify the Carvacrol effect on esterase activity and membrane permeability. Carvacrol was tested in vitro on single- and multi-species biofilms formed on titanium disc by Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 or Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586, in different combinations, comparing its effect to that of chlorhexidine. The pathogens were sensitive to Carvacrol with MICs and MBCs values of 0.25 % and 0.50 % and BICs of 0.5 % for S. mutans ATCC 25175 and 1 % for P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and F. nucleatum ATCC 25586. FCM analysis showed that treatment of planktonic cultures with Carvacrol caused an increase of damaged cells and a decrement of bacteria with active esterase activity. Moreover, Carvacrol demonstrated greater biofilm formation preventive property compared to chlorhexidine against titanium-adherent single- and multi-specie biofilms, with statistically significant values. Carvacrol showed inhibitory activity against the tested oral pathogens and biofilm formation preventive property on their oral biofilm; then, it could be utilized to control and prevent the colonization of microorganisms with particular significance in human oral diseases. This natural compound may be proposed in daily hygiene formulations or as an alternative agent supporting traditional antimicrobial protocols to prevent periodontal diseases in implanted patients.
    Clinical Oral Investigations 01/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin (MEL), a methoxyindole synthesized by the pineal gland, is a powerful antioxidant in tissues as well as within cells, with a fundamental role in ameliorating homeostasis in a number of specific pathologies. It acts both as a direct radical scavenger and by stimulating production/activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. In this work, some chemical triggers, with different mechanisms of action, have been chosen to induce cell death in U937 hematopoietic cell line. Cells were pre-treated with 100 µM MEL and then exposed to hydrogen peroxide or staurosporine. Morphological analyses, TUNEL reaction and Orange/PI double staining have been used to recognize ultrastructural apoptotic patterns and to evaluate DNA behavior. Chemical damage and potential MEL anti-apoptotic effects were quantified by means of Tali® Image-Based Cytometer, able to monitor cell viability and apoptotic events. After trigger exposure, chromatin condensation, micronuclei formation and DNA fragmentation have been observed, all suggesting apoptotic cell death. These events underwent a statistically significant decrease in samples pre-treated with MEL. After caspase inhibition and subsequent assessment of cell viability, we demonstrated that apoptosis occurs, at least in part, through the mitochondrial pathway and that MEL interacts at this level to rescue U937 cells from death.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 15(4):6625-40. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis plays an active role in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Its deregulation is involved in several skeletal muscle disorders such as dystrophies, myopathies, disuse and sarcopenia. The aim of this work was to study in vitro the apoptotic behavior induced by etoposide, staurosporine and hydrogen peroxide in the C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line, comparing myoblast vs myotube sensitivity, investigated by means of morphological and cytofluorimetric analyses. Myotubes appeared more resistant than myoblasts to apoptotic induction. In myoblasts treated with etoposide, nuclei with chromatin condensation were observed, in the presence of a diffuse DNA fragmentation, as shown by confocal microscopy. The latter also appeared in myotubes, where apoptotic and normal nuclei coexisted inside the same syncytium. After staurosporine treatment, myobalsts evidenced late apoptotic features and a high number of TUNEL-positive nuclei. Secondary necrosis appeared in myotubes, where myonuclei with cleaved DNA again coexisted with normal myonuclei. After H2O2 exposure, myotubes, differently from myoblasts, showed a poor sensitivity to cell death. Intriguingly, autophagic granules appeared abundantly in myotubes after each treatment. In myotubes, mitochondria were better preserved than in myoblasts since those which were damaged were probably degraded through autophagic processes. These findings demonstrate a scarce sensitivity of myotubes to apoptotic stimuli due to acquisition of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype during differentiation. The presence of nuclear-dependent "territorial" death domains in the syncytium could explain a slower death of myotubes compared to mononucleated cells. In addition, autophagy could preserve and protect muscle cell integrity against chemical stimuli, making C2C12 cells, in particular myotubes, more resistant to apoptosis induction.
    Histology and histopathology 02/2013; 28(8):1073-87. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present review discusses the apoptotic behavior induced by chemical and physical triggers in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, comparing myoblast to myotube sensitivity, and investigating it by means of morphological, biochemical and cytofluorimetric analyses. After all treatments, myotubes, differently from myoblasts, showed a poor sensitivity to cell death. Intriguingly, in cells exposed to staurosporine, etoposide and UVB radiation, apoptotic and normal nuclei within the same fibercould be revealed. The presence of nuclear-dependent "territorial" death domains in the syncytium could explain a delayed cell death of myotubes compared to mononucleated cells. Moreover, autophagic granules abundantly appeared in myotubes after each treatment. Autophagy could protect muscle cell integrity against chemical and physical stimuli, making C2C12 myotubes, more resistant to cell death induction.
    Muscles, ligaments and tendons journal. 01/2013; 3(4):267-274.
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    ABSTRACT: Salvia x jamensis J. Compton is a hybrid between Salvia greggii A. Gray and Salvia microphylla Kunt. In this study, we describe three hair types identified by Scanning Electron Microscopy. In the essential oil of the aerial parts of S. jamensis 56 different compounds were identified. The two main constituents were β-caryophyllene (14.8%) and β-pinene (6.8%). Cytotoxic-apoptotic activity of S. x jamensis essential oil has been investigated by using U937 cell line. The essential oil EC(50) for cell number and for cell apoptosis have been shown to be 360 and 320 µg mL(-1), respectively. Among the constituents of the oil examined, only β-caryophyllene, β-pinene and α-pinene displayed cytotoxic and apoptotic activities. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that some of the pure constituents identified within S. x jamensis essential oil are responsible for its cytotoxic-apoptotic activity when properly combined.
    Natural product research 10/2012; · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stressful environmental conditions influence both bacterial growth and expression of virulence factors. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of NaCl on Aeromonas hydrophila adhesiveness at two temperatures. This agent is often involved in clinical cases; however, its pathogenic potential is still not fully understood. Bacteria were grown in presence of 1·7%, 3·4%, 6·0% NaCl over a 188 day period and then reinoculated in fresh Nutrient Broth with incubation at 4 and 24°C. Bacterial adhesiveness was tested on Hep-2 cells, and specimens were processed for light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Adhesive capacity decreased over time with an increase in reduction percentages depending on NaCl concentrations. At 1·7% NaCl, the reduction was apparently temporary and adhesiveness rapidly recovered in revitalized bacteria, while 3·4%, 6·0% NaCl seemed to be detrimental. Normal, elongated and filamentous bacteria retained adhesiveness capability, although with reduced expression, while in spherical cells, this property seemed to be lost or dramatically reduced. Our study shows that high osmolarity plays a significant role in adhesion inhibition, therefore having possible implications in the pathogenesis of the infections by Aer. hydrophila. This study intends to give a contribution to a better understanding of the pathogenic role of this bacterium whose pathogenicity is still under debate.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 07/2012; 113(4):974-82. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation acts as a strong apoptotic trigger in many cell types, in tumor and normal cells. Several studies have demonstrated that UVB-induced cell death occurs through the generation of reactive oxygen species. The consequent oxidative stress includes the impairment of cellular antioxidants, the induction of DNA damage and the occurrence of apoptosis. In this review, we investigated UVB apoptotic action in various cell models by using ultrastructural, molecular and cytofluorimetric techniques. Myeloid leukemia HL-60, T-lymphoblastoid Molt-4 and myelomonocytic U937 human cells, generally affected by apoptotic stimuli, were studied. Human chondrocytes and C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, known to be more resistant to damage, were also considered. All of them, when exposed to UVB radiation, revealed a number of characteristic apoptotic markers. Membrane blebbing, cytoplasm shrinkage and chromatin condensation were detected by means of electron microscopy. DNA cleavage, investigated by using agarose gel electrophoresis and TUNEL reaction, was observed in suspended cells. Differently, in chondrocytes and in skeletal muscle cells, oligonucleosomic DNA fragmentation did not appear, even if a certain TUNEL positivity was detected. These findings demonstrate that UVB radiation appears to be an ideal tool to study the apoptotic behavior.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 14(1):532-46. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) serine/threonine kinase is the catalytic subunit of two multi-protein complexes, referred to as mTORC1 and mTORC2. Signaling downstream of mTORC1 has a critical role in leukemic cell biology by controlling mRNA translation of genes involved in both cell survival and proliferation. mTORC1 activity can be downmodulated by upregulating the liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (LKB1/AMPK) pathway. Here, we have explored the therapeutic potential of the anti-diabetic drug, metformin (an LKB1/AMPK activator), against both T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell lines and primary samples from T-ALL patients displaying mTORC1 activation. Metformin affected T-ALL cell viability by inducing autophagy and apoptosis. However, it was much less toxic against proliferating CD4(+) T-lymphocytes from healthy donors. Western blot analysis demonstrated dephosphorylation of mTORC1 downstream targets. Unlike rapamycin, we found a marked inhibition of mRNA translation in T-ALL cells treated with metformin. Remarkably, metformin targeted the side population of T-ALL cell lines as well as a putative leukemia-initiating cell subpopulation (CD34(+)/CD7(-)/CD4(-)) in patient samples. In conclusion, metformin displayed a remarkable anti-leukemic activity, which emphasizes future development of LKB1/AMPK activators as clinical candidates for therapy in T-ALL.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 01/2012; 26(1):91-100. · 10.16 Impact Factor
  • 10th Multinational Congress on Microscopy, Urbino; 09/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past 20 years, survival rates of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients have improved, mainly because of advances in polychemotherapy protocols. Despite these improvements, we still need novel and less toxic treatment strategies targeting aberrantly activated signaling networks which increase proliferation, survival, and drug resistance of T-ALL cells. One such network is represented by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt axis. PI3K inhibitors have displayed some promising effects in preclinical models of T-ALL. Here, we have analyzed the therapeutic potential of the Akt inhibitor, triciribine, in T-ALL cell lines. Triciribine caused cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Western blots demonstrated a dose-dependent dephosphorylation of Akt1/Akt2, and of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 downstream targets in response to triciribine. Triciribine induced autophagy, which could be interpreted as a defensive mechanism, because an autophagy inhibitor (chloroquine) increased triciribine-induced apoptosis. Triciribine synergized with vincristine, a chemotherapeutic drug employed for treating T-ALL patients, and targeted the side population of T-ALL cell lines, which might correspond to leukemia initiating cells. Our findings indicate that Akt inhibition, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, may serve as an efficient treatment towards T-ALL cells requiring upregulation of this signaling pathway for their proliferation and survival.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 03/2011; 226(3):822-31. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR) serine/threonine kinase belongs to two multi-protein complexes, referred to as mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTOR-generated signals have critical roles in leukemic cell biology by controlling mRNA translation of genes that promote proliferation and survival. However, allosteric inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin has only modest effects in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Recently, ATP-competitive inhibitors specific for the mTOR kinase active site have been developed. In this study, we have explored the therapeutic potential of active-site mTOR inhibitors against both T-ALL cell lines and primary samples from T-ALL patients displaying activation of mTORC1 and mTORC2. The inhibitors affected T-ALL cell viability by inducing cell-cycle arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase, apoptosis and autophagy. Western blot analysis demonstrated a Ser 473 Akt dephosphorylation (indicative of mTORC2 inhibition) and a dephosphorylation of mTORC1 downstream targets. Unlike rapamycin, we found a marked inhibition of mRNA translation in T-ALL cell lines treated with active-site mTOR inhibitors. The inhibitors strongly synergized with both vincristine and the Bcl-2 inhibitor, ABT-263. Remarkably, the drugs targeted a putative leukemia-initiating cell sub-population (CD34(+)/CD7(-)/CD4(-)) in patient samples. In conclusion, the inhibitors displayed remarkable anti-leukemic activity, which emphasizes their future development as clinical candidates for therapy in T-ALL.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 02/2011; 25(5):781-91. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes mitochondrial behaviour during the C2C12 myoblast differentiation program and proposes a proteomic approach to mitochondria integrated with classical morphofunctional and biochemical analyses. Mitochondrial ultrastructure variations were determined by transmission electron microscopy; mitochondrial mass and membrane potential were analysed by Mitotracker Green and JC-1 stains and by epifluorescence microscope. Expression of PGC1α, NRF1α, and Tfam genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis was studied by real-time PCR. The mitochondrial functionality was tested by cytochrome c oxidase activity and COXII expression. Mitochondrial proteomic profile was also performed. These assays showed that mitochondrial biogenesis and activity significantly increase in differentiating myotubes. The proteomic profile identifies 32 differentially expressed proteins, mostly involved in oxidative metabolism, typical of myotubes formation. Other notable proteins, such as superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a cell protection molecule, and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein (VDAC1) involved in the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, were found to be regulated by the myogenic process. The integration of these approaches represents a helpful tool for studying mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis, and functionality in comparative surveys on mitochondrial pathogenic or senescent satellite cells.
    Journal of aging research 01/2011; 2011:845379.
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is a form of cell death crucial for normal development and tissue homeostasis. Its typical features include chromatin changes, nuclear breakdown, plasma membrane blebbing and splitting of cellular content into apoptotic bodies, that progressively undergo phagocytosis. Apoptosis is considered essential for skeletal muscle development, where defective cells are deleted during differentiation. In addition, it plays a relevant role in several muscle myopathies, as well as in denervation and disuse. The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle cell sensitivity to different apoptotic triggers, acting through different mechanisms of action. Chemical agents, active against distinct intracellular targets, such as mitochondrial respiratory chain and DNA, have been chosen to better highlight cell death mechanisms. To induce apoptosis, C2C12 myoblasts have been exposed to H(2)O(2), staurosporine, cisplatin and etoposide, at different doses and incubation times, and they have been analysed by flow cytometry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a certain subdiploid peak after all treatments. The best apoptotic effect was observable, as confirmed at reverted microscope, at minimum doses and after the major exposure time. At ultrastructural level programmed cell death has been observed. Characteristic chromatin condensation and margination, as well as apoptotic bodies, frequently appeared, even if in the presence of secondary necrosis; surface blebs were also observed during scanning microscopic observation. In particular, exposure to H(2)O(2) or staurosporine showed the largest number of myoblasts in late apoptotic stages and in secondary necrosis. Cisplatin treatments revealed few early apoptotic cells. The analysis of etoposide-induced apoptosis was in agreement with data obtained from flow cytometry, indicating a significant increase of apoptotic cell number. These results suggest that all conditions are able to induce apoptosis in C2C12 myoblasts, which occurs, considering trigger mechanisms of action, mostly following the mitochondrial pathway, if not excluding that due to DNA damage. Therefore, mitochondria permeability alteration is an important step in skeletal muscle programmed cell death. This last conclusion seems to have a significant relevance in understanding the mechanisms involved in muscle disorders, denervation and chronic muscle disuse, conditions frequently characterized by a decline in mitochondrial content and by an increase of mitochondrial apoptosis susceptibility.
    Micron 12/2010; 41(8):966-73. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent findings have highlighted that constitutively active phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is a common feature of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), where it upregulates cell proliferation, survival, and drug resistance. These observations lend compelling weight to the application of PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors in the therapy of T-ALL. Here, we have analyzed the therapeutic potential of the novel dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235, an orally bioavailable imidazoquinoline derivative, which has entered clinical trials for solid tumors, on both T-ALL cell lines and patient samples. NVP-BEZ235 was cytotoxic to a panel of T-ALL cell lines as determined by MTT assays. NVP-BEZ235 treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Western blots showed a dose- and time-dependent dephosphorylation of Akt and mTORC1 downstream targets in response to NVP-BEZ235. Remarkably, NVP-BEZ235 targeted the side population of both T-ALL cell lines and patient lymphoblasts, which might correspond to leukemia-initiating cells, and synergized with chemotherapeutic agents (cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, dexamethasone) currently used for treating T-ALL patients. NVP-BEZ235 reduced chemoresistance to vincristine induced in Jurkat cells by coculturing with MS-5 stromal cells, which mimic the bone marrow microenvironment. NVP-BEZ235 was cytotoxic to T-ALL patient lymphoblasts displaying pathway activation, where the drug dephosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, at variance with rapamycin. Taken together, our findings indicate that longitudinal inhibition at two nodes of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR network with NVP-BEZ235, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, may be an efficient treatment of those T-ALLs that have aberrant upregulation of this signaling pathway for their proliferation and survival.
    Cancer Research 09/2010; 70(20):8097-107. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To link matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) activity and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling to alterations in regulatory factors leading to a disruption in chondrocyte homeostasis. MMP-13 expression was ablated in primary human chondrocytes by stable retrotransduction of short hairpin RNA. The effects of MMP-13 knockdown on key regulators of chondrocyte differentiation (SOX9, runt-related transcription factor 2 [RUNX-2], and beta-catenin) and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) were scored at the protein level (by immunohistochemical or Western blot analysis) and RNA level (by real-time polymerase chain reaction) in high-density monolayer and micromass cultures under mineralizing conditions. Effects on cellular viability in conjunction with chondrocyte progression toward a hypertrophic-like state were assessed in micromass cultures. Alterations in SOX9 subcellular distribution were assessed using confocal microscopy in micromass cultures and also in osteoarthritic cartilage. Differentiation of control chondrocyte micromasses progressed up to a terminal phase, with calcium deposition in conjunction with reduced cell viability and scant ECM. MMP-13 knockdown impaired ECM remodeling and suppressed differentiation in conjunction with reduced levels of RUNX-2, beta-catenin, and VEGF. MMP-13 levels in vitro and ECM remodeling in vitro and in vivo were linked to changes in SOX9 subcellular localization. SOX9 was largely excluded from the nuclei of chondrocytes with MMP-13-remodeled or -degraded ECM, and exhibited an intranuclear staining pattern in chondrocytes with impaired MMP-13 activity in vitro or with more intact ECM in vivo. MMP-13 loss leads to a breakdown in primary human articular chondrocyte differentiation by altering the expression of multiple regulatory factors.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 08/2010; 62(8):2370-81. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Micro-vesicles can be released by different cell types and operate as 'safe containers' mediating inter-cellular communication. In this work we investigated whether cultured myoblasts could release exosomes. The reported data demonstrate, for the first time, that C2C12 myoblasts release micro-vesicles as shown by the presence of two exosome markers (Tsg101 and Alix proteins). Using real-time PCR analysis it was shown that these micro-vesicles, like other cell types, carry mtDNA. Proteomic characterization of the released micro-vesicle contents showed the presence of many proteins involved in signal transduction. The bioinformatics assessment of the Disorder Index and Aggregation Index of these proteins suggested that C2C12 micro-vesicles mainly deliver the machinery for signal transduction to target cells rather than key proteins involved in hub functions in molecular networks. The presence of IGFBP-5 in the purified micro-vesicles represents an exception, since this binding protein can play a key role in the modulation of the IGF-1 signalling pathway. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that skeletal muscle cells release micro-vesicles, which probably have an important role in the communication processes within skeletal muscles and between skeletal muscles and other organs. In particular, the present findings suggest possible new diagnostic approaches to skeletal muscle diseases.
    Experimental Cell Research 07/2010; 316(12):1977-84. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:We evaluated the effects of the TransFixTM short-term stabilization technique on leukocyte subpopulations in both optimal and adverse storage temperatures and on different cellular concentrations. Particularly, we analyzed DNA cell content and membrane structure also for erythrocytes using a multiparametric approach.Methods:We studied biomolecular and morphological aspects of transfixed cells, by means of SEM, TEM, Western blotting, and by flow cytometry (FC). Furthermore, FC, Tunel, and electrophoresis were applied to evaluate DNA behavior.Results:We confirm preservation of scatter characteristics and immunophenotyping, extending such evaluations to cells stored in suboptimal conditions (25°C and 37°C) and in high density. Data demonstrate for lymphomonocytic cells an optimal conservation, slightly decreasing at higher temperatures for both 1/5 and 1/10 ratio (TransFix™/sample), with enhanced autofluorescence. Eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils are shown to preserve differently over time. The three different cellular concentrations evaluated (30,000–120,000 cell/μl) demonstrate substantial stability in FI values. Furthermore DNA content analysis attests the absence of any apoptotic pattern. Transfixed red cell protein profile as well as their morphological features appears almost unaltered.Conclusions:Cytometric performance is suboptimal in aged unfixed specimens because of apoptosis that affects light scatter properties. Our findings highlight that lymphomonocytic cells are well stabilized even at suboptimal temperature and cell density. TransFix™ is able to abolish any apoptotic features and acts as an optimal blood preservative for appropriate preanalytical stabilization. © 2010 Clinical Cytometry Society
    Cytometry Part B Clinical Cytometry 03/2010; 78B(4):267 - 278. · 2.23 Impact Factor