[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in cerebellar subregions in patients with stroke.
The total counts and ADCs were bilaterally measured on cerebellar white matter, gray matters of medial (G1), intermediate (G2), and lateral zones (G3) on SPECT and ADC maps from 20 patients with supratentorial ischemic stroke within the first 48 h and on day 8 after onset. ADCs were also obtained from 15 age-matched controls.
Within 48 h, the ADCs were significantly increased bilaterally in the G3, and tended to be increased bilaterally in the white matter and G1, and contralateral G2 compared with controls. On day 8, the ADCs were significantly increased in all contralateral cerebellar subregions and in ipsilateral G1 and G2, and tended to be increased in ipsilateral G3. The ADC value was significantly higher in contralateral than in ipsilateral white matter on day 8. The interhemispheric asymmetry indices (AIs) of ADC and SPECT were significantly associated with each other in G2 and G3 within 48 h, but not on day 8. The AIs of ADC and SPECT were significantly related to each other in the G3 within 48 h and on day 8.
Supratentorial ischemic stroke may cause mild cerebellar vasogenic edema.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purposes of the present study were to compare the flow defect volumes on perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (PWI) and (99m)Tc-labeled ethylcysteinate dimer ((99m)Tc-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at acute and subacute stages of ischemic stroke and to analyze the relationship between the detected flow defects on the two methods and neurological status and clinical outcomes.
Perfusion defects on PWI and SPECT were measured within 48 h and on day 8 of the onset of stroke from 22 patients with their first-ever acute supratentorial ischemic stroke. The primary neurological status was evaluated prior to the imaging. Clinical outcome was assessed at 3 months after the onset of the stroke.
The volumes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) defects did not differ between SPECT and PWI within the 48-h examinations. However, the volume of CBF defect was significantly larger on SPECT than on PWI on day 8 (p = 0.03). Within the 48-h examinations, the CBF defect volumes on SPECT and PWI were comparably related to the neurological status. On day 8, the CBF defect volume on SPECT showed higher correlation to the neurological status and more precisely predicted the clinical outcomes at 3 months than PWI.
(99m)TC-ECD-SPECT and PWI both have ability to detect cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with ischemic stroke but with some differences. The value of SPECT is more accurate in terms of the delayed outcome, such as prognosis and rehabilitation planning.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether measuring signal intensity (SI) fluctuations in MRI time series data from acute stroke patients would identify ischemic tissue.
Prebolus perfusion-weighted MRI data from 32 acute ischemic stroke patients (N = 32) was analyzed as a time series. Ischemic and normal tissue regions were outlined and compared.
The magnitude of the measured SI fluctuations was significantly lower in ischemic regions relative to normal tissue. Spatial differences in these fluctuations occurred in a manner that was different than other perfusion-based metrics.
Prior studies have shown that SI fluctuations in MRI time series data correspond to the presence of physiological "noise," which includes vasomotion, an autoregulatory phenomenon that affects the tissue response to ischemia. In this study, SI fluctuations were found to decrease in ischemia, consistent with the notion that small vessels will remain open (fluctuations in vessel diameter will decrease) when there is a challenge to flow. Spatial variation in SI fluctuations appeared to be different from spatial variation seen on other perfusion-based metrics, suggesting that a separate contrast mechanism is responsible, one that might be of diagnostic and prognostic value in acute stroke in which the ability of tissue to withstand ischemia is currently not well visualized.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 05/2008; 27(4):866-71. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the relationship between crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) and (1) lesion volume and location in the acute phase and 1 week after stroke onset and (2) clinical outcome. Twenty-two patients with cerebral ischemic stroke underwent single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 48 h and on day 8 from onset. Interhemispheric asymmetric indices (AI) on SPECT were calculated for medial, intermediate, and lateral zones of the cerebellum. Lesion volumes and locations were obtained from diffusion-weighted MRI. Neurological status and 3-month clinical outcome were evaluated. Within 48 h, lesion locations in the temporal association cortex and pyramidal tract of the corona radiata were independent determinants for the AI of the medial zone (R(2)=0.439). Lesion locations in the primary, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, primary somatosensory cortex, and anterior part of the posterior limb of the internal capsule were determinants for the AI of the intermediate zone (R(2)=0.785). Lesions in the primary motor cortex, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices and in the genu of the internal capsule were determinants for the AI of the lateral zone (R(2)=0.746). On day 8, the associations were decreased. The AIs of the intermediate and lateral zones and lesion location in the parietal association cortex were independently associated with the 3-month clinical outcome (R(2)>0.555). Acute CCD is a result of functional deafference, while in the subacute phase, transneuronal degeneration might contribute to CCD. CCD in the intermediate and later zones is a better indicator than that in the medial zone.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The severity of the neurological deficit after ischemic stroke is moderately correlated with infarct volume. In the current study, we sought to quantify the impact of location on neurological deficit severity and to delineate this impact from that of volume.
We developed atlases consisting of location-weighted values indicating the relative importance in terms of neurological deficit severity for every voxel of the brain. These atlases were applied to 80 first-ever ischemic stroke patients to produce estimates of clinical deficit severity. Each patient had an MRI and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) examination just before or soon after hospital discharge. The correlation between the location-based deficit predictions and measured neurological deficit (NIHSS) scores were compared with the correlation obtained using volume alone to predict the neurological deficit.
Volume-based estimates of neurological deficit severity were only moderately correlated with measured NIHSS scores (r=0.62). The combination of volume and location resulted in a significantly better correlation with clinical deficit severity (r=0.79, P=0.032).
The atlas methodology is a feasible way of integrating infarct size and location to predict stroke severity. It can estimate stroke severity better than volume alone.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined whether the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) allele epsilon4 influences imaging findings in stroke as assessed by diffusion- (DWI) and perfusion-weighted (PWI) magnetic resonance imaging, and MR angiography (MRA).
Eight ApoE epsilon4 carriers and 15 non-carriers with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation underwent DWI, PWI, and MRA within 24 h of stroke. DWI and PWI were repeated a week later. The apparent diffusion coefficient, relative cerebral volume (rCBV), relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and relative mean transit time were measured in three subregions on day one.
In the ischemic core and the area of infarct growth, rCBV values were significantly higher in the epsilon4 carriers compared with the non-carriers. Based on the MRA findings, collateral blood flow was better in the epsilon4 carriers than in the non-carriers. Under the comparable severity of hypoperfusion, the hypoperfused area proceeded to infarction later or did not proceed to infarction at all in the non-carriers.
These preliminary data suggest that in the ApoE allele epsilon4 carriers the threshold for the brain tissue to survive hypoperfusion versus to proceed to infarction seems to be different from that of the non-carriers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the utility of an automated perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) method for estimating cerebral blood flow (CBF) based on localized arterial input functions (AIFs) as compared to the standard method of manual global AIF selection, which is prone to deconvolution errors due to the effects of delay and dispersion of the contrast bolus.
Analysis was performed on spin- and gradient-echo EPI images from 36 stroke patients. A local AIF algorithm created an AIF for every voxel in the brain by searching out voxels with the lowest delay and dispersion, and then interpolating and spatially smoothing them for continuity. A generalized linear model (GLM) for predicting tissue outcome, and MTT lesion volumes were used to quantify the performance of the localized AIF method in comparison with global methods using ipsilateral and contralateral AIFs.
The algorithm found local AIFs in each case without error and generated a higher area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve compared to both global-AIF methods. Similarly, the local MTT lesion volumes had the least mean squared error (MSE).
Automated CBF calculation using local AIFs is feasible and appears to produce more useful CBF maps.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 12/2006; 24(5):1133-9. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate a previously developed method for perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) cerebral blood flow (CBF) estimation that uses local arterial input functions (AIFs) in stroke patients, and determine its ability to correct delay and/or dispersion (D/D) errors.
Analysis was performed on dynamic susceptibility contrast data from 36 stroke patients, and CBF maps were calculated with global- and local-AIF techniques using standard SVP based methods. The ratios of these maps were calculated and the mean ratios were calculated for voxels with both normal and abnormal time to peak or width. The locations of the voxels with high locally-defined to globally-defined CBF ratios were also mapped and the average underlying concentration-time curves for these voxels were calculated.
The ratio of CBF estimates based on local AIFs to global AIFs was on average increased for D/D voxels. The voxels in which this ratio was high were commonly concentrated in the ipsilateral hemisphere, and these voxels also displayed underlying concentration-time curves that showed delay or dispersion. Conversely, there were no such findings based on high globally-defined to locally-defined CBF ratios.
The local-AIF technique results in an increase in the calculated CBF values for tissues with D/D, consistent with a reduction in the errors associated with D/D.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 08/2006; 24(1):57-65. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the correlation of diffusion-weighted (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) findings with the severity of acute neurologic deficit and their ability to predict short and long-term clinical outcomes of stroke. The ability of DWI and PWI to predict the outcome was compared with the ability of clinical stroke scales to predict the outcome.
Forty-eight patients with acute stroke underwent diffusion DWI and PWI on the first and eighth day after the ictus. Clinical and functional scales were carried out before each scan and 3 months after the stroke.
The volumes of both the DWI and the PWI lesions correlated well with the acute neurologic deficit and the final outcome. The first day PWI (r = 0.64) and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (r = 0.70) correlated well with the final outcome. However, in logistic regression analysis, only the NIHSS score at the acute stage was the only independent predictor of the long-term clinical outcome.
While the PWI and DWI lesion volumes correlated well with the outcome of the stroke, the imaging measurements did not improve the prognostic power over plain clinical stroke scale scores.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate phase-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging in predicting evolution of infarction and clinical outcome.
Phase-contrast angiographic and diffusion-weighted images obtained 1 and 2 days after acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke were assessed in 43 patients; 39 underwent perfusion-weighted imaging on day 1. Follow-up phase-contrast angiographic and T2-weighted images (n = 38) were obtained on day 8. Clinical outcome was assessed at 3 months. Patients were assigned to three groups according to angiographic findings on day 1: group 1, absence of flow in proximal MCA (M1 segment); group 2, internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion with collateral M1 flow; group 3, flow in ICA and M1. Differences in lesion volumes on diffusion- and perfusion-weighted maps among groups were compared with one-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc multiple comparisons.
Patients in group 1 had significantly larger infarct growth, volumes of hypoperfusion on relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and relative cerebral blood flow maps, and initial and final infarct volumes than did other patients (P <.05). Initial perfusion deficits on mean transit time maps were significantly (P =.002) larger in group 2 than in group 3, but there were no significant differences in infarct growth (P =.977), final infarct volume on day 8 (P =.947), and clinical outcome (P =.969). Absence of M1 flow on day 1 was significantly associated with unfavorable clinical outcome (modified Rankin score > or = 3) at 3 months (P =.010, chi(2) test). Discriminant analysis revealed that rCBV maps alone and combination of diffusion-weighted imaging and MR angiography yielded the highest accuracy in predicting an unfavorable clinical outcome.
Phase-contrast MR angiography can provide complementary information to that with diffusion- and perfusion- weighted imaging in predicting the outcome of patients with acute stroke.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diffusion and perfusion weighted MRI have been widely used in ischaemic stroke. We studied 17 patients in whom ischaemic areas showed an ischaemic core, an area of infarct growth and hypoperfused but ultimately surviving tissue. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were measured on days 1, 2, and 8 in the three subregions and in contralateral control areas. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) were measured in these regions on day 1 perfusion maps. On day 1, the ischaemic core had very low ADC and CBF and increased MTT. The ADC in the ischaemic core gradually increased during the week. The area of infarct growth on day 1 had slightly but significantly decreased ADC (96% of control, P=0.028), moderately decreased CBF and increased MTT. On day 1 the hypoperfused but surviving tissue had slightly but significantly increased ADC (103% of control, P=0.001), mildly decreased CBF and increased CBV and MTT. The ADC of the area of infarct growth decreased to the same level as in the ischaemic core on days 2 and 8. That of surviving tissue was still above normal on day 2 (103% of control), but had returned to the normal level by day 8. Measurement of ADC combined with perfusion MRI may help distinguish different subregions in acutely hypoperfused brain.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diffusion- and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to study the putative effects of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphism in stroke. Thirty-one patients with acute stroke, comparative for age and gender were scanned, nine of whom were ApoE allele epsilon 4 carriers. Initially, less than 24 hours from the onset of stroke, the epsilon 4 carriers had significantly smaller volumes of hypoperfusion on relative cerebral blood volume map (P = 0.001), and smaller infarct volumes (P = 0.008) compared with the noncarriers. By day 8, this difference in the infarct volumes had disappeared, suggesting relatively enhanced infarct growth. On average, the total infarct volume increased 145% of the initial infarct volume in the epsilon 4 carriers, and 84% in the noncarriers. There were strong correlations between the imaging findings and clinical status initially and with the outcome 3 months after the stroke in the epsilon 4 noncarriers, but, with a single exception at acute phase, a lack thereof in the epsilon 4 carriers. These patterns were virtually similar in a subgroup of patients with middle cerebral artery stroke. These data support the hypothesis of increased general vulnerability of the brain in the epsilon 4 carriers. Thus, the effects of ApoE polymorphism should be accounted for when interpreting diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI studies, particularly if predicting lesion growth.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four different postprocessing methods to determine cerebral blood volume (CBV) and contrast agent mean transit time (MTT) by dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI were compared. CBV was determined by two different methods that integrate tracer concentration-time curves numerically and by two other methods that take recirculation into account. For the two methods that use numerical integration, one method cuts the integration after the first pass while the other method integrates over the whole time series. For the two methods that account for recirculation, one method uses a gamma-variate fit, whereas the other method utilizes tissue impulse response. All four methods determine MTT as the ratio of CBV and cerebral blood flow (CBF). In each case, CBF was obtained as the height of the impulse response obtained by deconvolving the tissue concentration-time curves with a noninvasively determined arterial input function. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the reliability of the methods and the validity of the simulations was supported by observation of similar trends in 13 acute stroke patients. The method of determining CBV and subsequently MTT was found to affect the measured value especially in areas where MTT is prolonged, but had no apparent effect on the visually determined hypoperfusion volumes.
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 06/2002; 47(5):973-81. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diffusion (DWI) and perfusion (PWI) magnetic resonance imaging are relatively new methods of clinical imaging that probably can detect infarcted (DWI) and hypoperfused but still salvageable tissue (PWI) in acute human stroke. Forty-six acute stroke patients were imaged within 24 h of ictus, on the second day and after a week. SPECT was also performed on 23 patients in the acute phase (first or second day). On the first day, mean volume of hypoperfused tissue was significantly greater (P<0.001) than the infarcted tissue. The initial hypoperfusion volume correlated significantly with the final infarct size (P<0.001). The initial perfusion-diffusion mismatch correlated significantly with the infarct growth (P< or =0.001). The hypoperfusion volumes measured from PWI and SPECT correlated significantly (P<0.001). In conclusion, combined DWI and PWI is a powerful tool in evaluating the hemodynamics of acute ischemic stroke and can predict the infarct growth during 1 week.
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 07/2001; 66(1):125-8. · 1.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intravascular and parenchymal enhancement have been detected with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging in patients with ischemic stroke. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging depicts infarct within minutes after the onset of symptoms. The aims of this study were to study the different MR enhancement findings during the first week after stroke and to ascertain whether the presence of intravascular enhancement over a larger area than the infarct on diffusion-weighted images on day 1 is able to predict substantial infarct growth during the first week.
Forty-eight patients were imaged on the first and second days and again 1 week after the onset of ischemic stroke. T1-weighted spin-echo imaging was performed before and after a 0.2 mmol/kg bolus of gadolinium chelate. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed at the same slice positions. Enhancement findings were categorized as intravascular and parenchymal, with further categorization of parenchymal enhancement as cortical, subcortical, and deep; these findings were then compared with diffusion-weighted imaging findings.
Intravascular enhancement in the infarcted area was detected on day 1 in 78% of the cases, on day 2 in 78% of the cases, and at 1 week in 30% of the cases. Parenchymal enhancement was detected in 26%, 56%, and 100% of the cases, respectively. Intravascular enhancement over a larger area than the infarct on diffusion-weighted images on day 1 was not associated with the extent of infarct growth.
Detection of different patterns of contrast enhancement can help in determining the age of infarct. Parenchymal enhancement may be intense and can cause diagnostic uncertainty in cases in which the clinical history is obscure.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 02/2001; 22(1):103-11. · 3.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare findings with different magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion maps in acute ischemic stroke.
Combined diffusion-weighted (DW) and perfusion-weighted (PW) MR imaging was performed in 49 patients with acute (<24 hours) stroke, on the 1st and 2nd days and 1 week after stroke. Volumes of hypoperfused tissue on maps of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and mean transit time (MTT) were compared with the volume of infarcted tissue at DW imaging.
The mean infarct volume increased from 41 to 65 cm(3) between the 1st and 2nd days (P: <.001; n = 49). On the 1st day, all perfusion maps on average showed hypoperfusion lesions larger than the infarct at DW imaging (P: <.001; n = 49). MTT maps showed significantly (P: <.001) larger hypoperfusion lesions than did rCBF maps, which showed significantly (P: <.001) larger hypoperfusion lesions than did rCBV maps. The sizes of the initial perfusion-diffusion mismatches correlated significantly with the extent of infarct growth (0.479 < r < 0.657; P: </=.001). The hypoperfusion volume on the initial rCBV maps correlated best with the final infarct size at 1 week (r = 0.891; P: <.001).
Combined DW and PW imaging is a powerful tool in evaluating the hemodynamics of acute ischemic stroke.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nineteen patients with acute ischemic stroke (<24 hours) underwent diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted (PWI) magnetic resonance imaging at the acute stage and 1 week later. Eleven patients also underwent technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at the acute stage. Relative (ischemic vs. contralateral control) cerebral blood flow (relCBF), relative cerebral blood volume, and relative mean transit time were measured in the ischemic core, in the area of infarct growth, and in the eventually viable ischemic tissue on PWI maps. The relCBF was also measured from SPECT. There was a curvilinear relationship between the relCBF measured from PWI and SPECT (r = 0.854; P < 0.001). The tissue proceeding to infarction during the follow-up had significantly lower initial CBF and cerebral blood volume values on PWI maps (P < 0.001) than the eventually viable ischemic tissue had. The best value for discriminating the area of infarct growth from the eventually viable ischemic tissue was 48% for PWI relCBF and 87% for PWI relative cerebral blood volume. Combined diffusion and perfusion-weighted imaging enables one to detect hemodynamically different subregions inside the initial perfusion abnormality. Tissue survival may be different in these subregions and may be predicted.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nineteen patients with acute ischemic stroke (<24 hours) underwent diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted (PWI) magnetic resonance imaging at the acute stage and 1 week later. Eleven patients also underwent technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at the acute stage. Relative (ischemic vs. contralateral control) cerebral blood flow (relCBF), relative cerebral blood volume, and relative mean transit time were measured in the ischemic core, in the area of infarct growth, and in the eventually viable ischemic tissue on PWI maps. The relCBF was also measured from SPECT. There was a curvilinear relationship between the relCBF measured from PWI and SPECT (r = 0.854; P < 0.001). The tissue proceeding to infarction during the follow-up had significantly lower initial CBF and cerebral blood volume values on PWI maps (P < 0.001) than the eventually viable ischemic tissue had. The best value for discriminating the area of infarct growth from the eventually viable ischemic tissue was 48% for PWI relCBF and 87% for PWI relative cerebral blood volume. Combined diffusion and perfusion-weighted imaging enables one to detect hemodynamically different subregions inside the initial perfusion abnormality. Tissue survival may be different in these subregions and may be predicted.Keywords: Diffusion; Human; Magnetic resonance imaging; Perfusion; SPECT; Stroke