[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus can beneficially affect the host by producing acetic acid and lactic acid, which lower pH and thereby inhibit the growth of pathogens or allow the probiotic bacteria to compete with pathogens for epithelial adhesion sites and nutrients. The transmural migration of enteric organisms into the peritoneal cavity can cause peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We hypothesized that the composition of the intestinal microbiota with regard to Lactobacillus species and Bifidobacterium species differed between PD patients and healthy controls. The aim of the study was to investigate these differences by real-time PCR analysis of fecal samples. From 1 August 2009 to 31 March 2010, a total of 29 nondiabetic PD patients and 41 healthy controls from China Medical University Hospital were recruited after giving their informed consent. Fecal samples were collected from the PD patients and their age-matched counterparts in the morning using a standardized procedure. DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed by real-time PCR. All bifidobacteria, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, B. longum, B. bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. paracasei, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were less frequently detected in the patient samples. Dysbiosis (microbial imbalance) may impair intestinal barrier function and increase host vulnerability to pathogen invasion. Further studies are necessary to confirm our findings before clinical trials with probiotic supplementation in PD patients.
Applied and environmental microbiology 12/2011; 78(4):1107-12. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by the development of thromboembolic events and is more prevalent among end-stage renal disease patients than in the general population. Vascular access thrombosis (VAT) is a major morbidity in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients; however, the association between AF and VAT is unknown.
We retrospectively reviewed chronic HD patients with functional vascular access between 1997 and 2006. The association between AF and the development of VAT was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression.
A total of 568 chronic HD patients, including 55 (9.7%) patients with AF, were reviewed and 154 (27.1%) patients developed at least one episode of VAT. Patients with AF had worse VAT-free survival than patients without AF (p< 0.001). In Cox regression, age, type of vascular access, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, hypertension, and C-reactive protein were independently linked to the development of VAT ( p= 0.049, < 0.001, < 0.001, 0.001, 0.028 and 0.045). The hazard ratios were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.00-1.03) for arteriovenous graft, 2.47 (95% CI: 1.66-3.69) for AF, 1.72 (95% CI: 1.25-2.39) for diabetes and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.00-1.18) for serum C-reactive protein (every 1 mg/dL increase), respectively.
Atrial fibrillaiton is linked to the development of vascular access thrombosis in chronic hemodialysis patients and is independent of traditional VAT risk factors.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 02/2011; 18(6):448-53. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-dose vasopressor use is associated with increasing mortality in patients with septic shock. We conducted this study to determine if the high-dose of vasopressor used before the initiation of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is associated with increasing mortality in critically ill patients. We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent CRRT in the medical intensive care unit of China Medical University Hospital between 2003 and 2007. The association between mortality and highest vasopressors (dopamine and norepinephrine [NE]) dose used were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression. A total of 279 patients (170 men and 109 women) treated with CRRT in medical intensive care were reviewed and 237 (84.9%) died. In Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test, dopamine dose of ≥20 µg/kg/min and NE dose of ≥0.3 µg/kg/min were significantly linked to mortality (P = 0.007 and <0.001). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression, NE dose of ≥0.3 µg/kg/min, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and low platelet count were independently linked to mortality. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 1.771 (95% CI: 1.247-2.516, P = 0.001), 1.035 (95% CI: 1.012-1.058, P = 0.003), and 0.997 (95% CI: 0.996-0.999, P = 0.003), respectively. Critically ill patients treated with very high dose of NE before the initiation of CRRT have a very high mortality rate regardless of the acute kidney injury stage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this report, we present 3 cases of abscess caused by Citrobacter koseri. All infected patients recovered after initial empirical antibiotic treatment and percutaneous drainage of the abscess. We reviewed the literature and found 9 adult cases of C. koseri abscess. Most of these patients recovered after timely antibiotic treatment and drainage.
Internal Medicine 01/2011; 50(12):1333-7. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephrologists commonly recommend continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) with break-in periods of at least 2 weeks. We investigated the safety and feasibility of shorter break-in periods following surgical implantation of Tenckhoff catheters.
We retrospectively examined 310 patients that underwent Tenckhoff catheter implantation for the first time. The early group comprised 226 patients that started CAPD ≤ 14 days after implantation; the late group comprised 84 patients that started CAPD > 14 days after implantation. Catheter-related complications within 6 months were analyzed.
A total of 310 patients were enrolled. Time to CAPD initiation was shorter in the early group (2.0 ± 2.7 days) than in the late group (40.6 ± 42.8 days) (p < 0.001). The bridge hemodialysis rate was higher in the late group (57.1%) than in the early group (31.4%) (p < 0.001). Overall, 33 early-group (14.6%) and 11 late-group patients (13.1%) developed catheter-related complications within 6 months. The early-group complications were leakage (n = 5), diminished outflow volume (n = 7), migration (n = 7), pericatheter hernia (n = 1), hemoperitoneum (n = 1), pericatheter infection (n = 3), and peritonitis (n = 9). The late-group complications were leakage (n = 2), diminished outflow volume (n = 5), migration (n = 2), and peritonitis (n = 2). Actuarial freedom from catheter-related complications was similar in both groups (log rank, p = 0.76).
Early initiation of CAPD with surgically implanted Tenckhoff catheters is feasible and safe. Shorter break-in periods are not associated with more catheter-related complications. The data from our peritoneal dialysis population suggest that early initiation is not associated with an increased number of complications. This needs to be confirmed in a randomized trial.
Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 01/2010; 31(5):551-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although hemodialysis (HD) patients could develop vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infection, limited studies of VRE-related peritoneal dialysis (PD) peritonitis have been reported. Here, we document a patient who developed peritonitis for the first time with VRE infection after shifting from HD to PD over 4 weeks. We suggest that physicians consider VRE a possible cause of PD peritonitis in patients who have recently shifted from HD to PD, especially in cases involving previous vancomycin exposure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular access thrombosis (VAT) is a major cause of morbidity in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients and is characterized by chronic inflammation. Pulse pressure (PP) is positively associated with chronic inflammation. Whether patients with high PP are at a higher risk for VAT, however, remains unknown. We retrospectively reviewed chronic HD patients with a functional vascular access point at the China Medical University Hospital between 1986 and 2005. The association between PP and the initial development of VAT at the primary vascular access point was examined using the Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression. A total of 576 chronic HD patients (264 men and 312 women) with a mean age of 56.9+/-14.0 years were reviewed, of whom 145 (25.2%) experienced at least one episode of VAT. Patients with a PP>60 mm Hg had a lower VAT-free survival rate compared with those with a PP<60 mm Hg (P<0.001). Using Cox regression with adjustments for age, systolic blood pressure and vascular access types, PP (every increase of 10 mm Hg) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (every increase of 1 mg per 100 ml) were found to be independently associated with an increasing risk for VAT, with a hazard ratio of 2.57 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-4.4, P=0.001) and 1.14 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.27, P=0.017), respectively. High PP was associated with the development of VAT in chronic HD patients. This association was independent of serum CRP levels.
Hypertension Research 08/2009; 32(8):712-5. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonists are now widely used in the treatment of aggressive rheumatoid arthritis and are generally well tolerated. Although rare, they could induce systemic lupus erythematosus, glomerulonephritis, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated systemic vasculitis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists associated glomerulonephritis usually subsides after discontinuation of the therapy and subsequent initiation of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. Here we describe crescentic glomerulonephritis progression to end-stage renal disease in a patient following two doses of TNF-alpha antagonists for the treatment of reactive arthritis. To our knowledge, dialysis dependent permanent renal loss after TNF-alpha antagonists has not yet been reported. We suggest the renal function should be closely monitored in patients treated with TNF-alpha antagonists by rheumatologists.
Rheumatology International 07/2009; 30(8):1077-9. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and is an important marker of systemic atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the associated risk factors for PAD in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). We collected the basic data and possible risk factors associated with PAD for 277 patients on maintenance HD. Furthermore, we measured ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) in these patients. PAD was defined as an ABI value less than 0.90. The prevalence of PAD in our HD center was 22.8% (61/268). Advanced age (P = 0.006), longer history of HD (P < 0.001), diabetes (P = 0.002) and presence of PAD symptoms (P < 0.001) were independent predictors of PAD. PAD patients with diabetes had shorter history of HD (P = 0.001). 2-vessel PAD had higher serum cholesterol in HD patients (>or= 200 vs < 200 mg/dL; Odds ratio, 12.12, 95% confidence interval, 2.199-67.79; P < 0.004).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serious hyperkalemia was reported in 10% of chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients that could lead to arrhythmia and death. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) are well accepted for cardio-protective benefits. The relationship between renin-angiotensin system blockade (RASB) and hyperkalemia in chronic HD patients remains controversial. The aim of this study was to find the relationship between RASB and hyperkalemia in these patients.
Pre-dialysis serum potassium, clinical factors, and drugs were evaluated in 200 chronic HD patients in one HD center. Hyperkalemia was defined as serum K >or= 5.3 meq/L. Finally, multivariate analysis with logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk of hyperkalemia by RASB and other factors.
In 200 patients, the mean K was 4.93 +/- 0.79 meq/L, and 70 (35%) patients had hyperkalemia. Fifty-eight (29%) patients were prescribed with RASB. Seven variables--non-DM, longer HD duration, lower dialysate calcium, lower serum glucose, higher serum iPTH, not using RASB, and not using furosemide--were more frequent in hyperkalemia group. In logistic regression analysis, RASB was associated with decreased odds for hyperkalemia (OR 0.262, p = 0.001 in model A; OR 0.205, p = 0.001 in model B). In addition, furosemide was associated with decreased odds for hyperkalemia (OR 0.068, p = 0.022 in model B).
RASB is not associated with hyperkalemia in chronic HD patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is highly prevalent among patients in end-stage renal disease. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is believed to be highly correlated with the subclinical PAD of lower extremities but little is known about the associated risk factors and outcome for PAD and ABI in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD).
We performed a cohort study of 153 patients from a single center receiving stable PD for more than 3 months. These patients were screened for subclinical PAD using the ABI measurement. The ABI was measured and a ratio of <0.9 was considered abnormal. Clinical outcomes included actuarial patient and technique survival in this study.
30 patients were classified into a subclinical PAD group. The prevalence of PAD (subclinical and overt) in our PD center was 19.61% (30/153). Advanced age, preexisting diabetes, preexisting cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular disease (CVD), lower renal Kt/V urea, lower renal creatinine clearance (WCrCl), lower serum albumin level, and higher serum triglyceride level were risk factors for PAD in our PD center. Bivariate analysis showed that ABI was positively correlated with residual renal Kt/V urea and WCrCl, but was not correlated with peritoneal Kt/V urea and WCrCl. Patient and technique survival rates were significantly lower in the low ABI group than in the normal ABI group.
ABI is highly correlated with advanced age, preexisting diabetes, preexisting CVD, serum albumin, serum triglyceride, and residual renal clearance in PD patients. Also, lower ABI is independently associated with a high risk of patient mortality and PD technique failure.
Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 01/2009; 29(1):64-71. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulse pressure (PP) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and/or all-cause mortality in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease. We examined whether PP can be used to predict overall mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
We studied 153 PD patients (mean age, 54.5 +/- 14.2 years) with end-stage renal disease. PP was measured monthly for 3 months. At the time of the third PP measurement, baseline demographic, clinical, biochemical, and dialysis data were collected. Patients were stratified into tertiles according to average PP, and the relationship between blood pressure parameters and all-cause mortality over a 30-month follow-up was assessed using Cox regression.
There were 27 deaths; three deaths occurred after the change to hemodialysis (HD) (subjects died within 3 months after HD) and were counted as events during survival analysis. The overall 30-month survival (Kaplan-Meier curves) times were significantly different among the tertiles of PP (P < 0.05). Increased PP was significantly associated with overall mortality regardless of adjustment for systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP).
PP may be the most consistent blood pressure indicator of mortality risk. All-cause mortality events in PD patients are more related to pulsatile stress caused by the stiffness of large arteries during systole (reflected in a rise of PP) than to steady-state stress stemming from resistance during diastole (reflected in a rise of SBP and DBP).
American Journal of Hypertension 10/2008; 21(12):1318-23. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Pulse pressure (PP) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and/or all-cause mortality in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease. We examined whether PP can be used to predict overall mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
American Journal of Hypertension 09/2008; 21(12):1318-1323. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uremic pruritus is one of the common complications in long-term dialysis patients. Recently, researchers reported that immunohypothesis with high serum level of cytokines could be the cause of uremic pruritus. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) artificial kidney (AK) has been reported to adsorb more serum cytokines than other high-flux AKs. In July 2006, 30 patients with severe uremic pruritus from 300 chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients in a single center entered this prospective study. Their dialyzers were changed to PMMA AK for 4 weeks. The severity of pruritus was evaluated every week using the results of a questionnaire (pruritus score). Laboratory assays including predialysis serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, beta2-microglobulin (beta2M), calcium, phosphate, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), total CO(2), ferritin, hematocrit, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Kt/V, and beta2M clearance were measured before and at the end of 4 weeks of PMMA AK use. PMMA AK was effective in reducing the pruritus score from 23.46 +/- 11.94 to 7.38 +/- 6.42 (P < 0.001). The effect of uremic pruritus relief appeared after 1 week of PMMA AK use. There were no significant differences in the laboratory assay results including predialysis serum BUN, Cr, beta2M, calcium, phosphate, calcium-phosphate product, iPTH, total CO(2), ferritin, hematocrit, hsCRP, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-alpha, Kt/V, and beta2M clearance. The mechanism for the beneficial effect of PMMA AK on uremic pruritus remains to be determined. PMMA AK may be a useful adjuvant therapy in chronic HD patients with severe uremic pruritus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemodialysis (HD) prolongs the life of the patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD), but the survival rates are still lower than the general population. More than half of ESRD patients died from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies have revealed that CVD is a consequence of vascular inflammation, and that there are active inflammatory processes in ESRD patients. Reports have indicated that ESRD patients have fewer CVD events and better survival with hemodiafiltration (HDF), but the reasons for this remain unclear. This study attempts to prove that HDF reduces the CVD-related cytokines.
Seventeen adult HD outpatients were put on HDF in our hospital from September 2004 to June 2006. We collected plasma samples before and six months after initiation of HDF. The target pro-inflammatory cytokines selected were interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and C-reactive protein (CRP).
After six months of HDF, most of the biochemical parameters did not changed. Plasma IL-18 and TNF-alpha are decreased significantly (p < 0.05) but IL-6 and CRP are not.
IL-18 and INF-alpha decreased significantly after six months of HDF. These cytokines are key factors in atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture, and a reduction of these inflammatory cytokines in HDF may reduce the CVD incidence and prolong life.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning causing alteration in acid-base equilibrium was reported before. Hence, different acid-base statuses may present in patients with acute poisoning due to OP exposure. This study aims to determine the impact of acid-base interpretation in patients with acute OP poisoning before hospitalization in medical care units and to describe the pattern of mortality with different acid-base statuses.
Over a 9-year retrospective study, from July 1996 to August 2005, a total of 82 consecutive patients with acute OP poisoning were admitted to the China Medical University Hospital (Taichung, Taiwan) within 24 hours after exposure to OP and were enrolled into this study.
Patients with acute OP poisoning were divided into 4 groups: without acidosis, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, and mixed acidosis. Overall survival (Kaplan-Meier curves) among groups was statistically significant (P < .0001). The mortality rate of acute OP poisoned patients with metabolic acidosis was 25%, and 75% of those patients died of cardiovascular failure. The mortality rate of acute OP poisoning with respiratory acidosis was 50%, and 50% of those patients died of respiratory failure.
Acid-base interpretation can be effective in quick diagnosis and prediction of the outcome of patients with acute OP poisoning (without acidosis < metabolic acidosis < respiratory acidosis < mixed acidosis) before hospitalization. Major causes of death are different between the respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis groups of patients with acute OP poisoning.
The American journal of emergency medicine 01/2008; 26(1):24-30. · 1.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysfunctional Brescia-Cimino fistulae contribute to significant morbidity in hemodialysis patients. These fistulae normally are treated through a retrograde venous approach. There are no data regarding a transradial approach. Furthermore, measurement of pressure reduction in the radial artery appears to be useful.
We retrospectively examined 50 interventions to treat 49 patients (17 men, 32 women; mean age, 61.8 +/- 10.6 years) with Brescia-Cimino fistulae. Inclusion criteria were patients with palpable radial arteries and dysfunctional end-to-side Brescia-Cimino fistulae. Patients with infected fistulae, contrast allergy, upper-arm/synthetic graft/central-vein stenosis, and end-to-end Brescia-Cimino fistulae were excluded from the study. Radial arterial pressures before and after angioplasty were compared as a surrogate of stenosis relief. Anatomic and clinical success rates were calculated.
Sixty-five stenoses and 4 total occlusions were treated through radial access. All radial punctures were successful, except in 1 patient. Most lesions were located in the cephalic vein (87%). Mean length of treated lesions was 4.1 +/- 2.8 cm. Mean pretreatment diameter of lesion stenoses was 76.7% +/- 12.1%. Mean posttreatment diameter stenosis was 22.6% +/- 8.2% (P < 0.001). Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures recorded from the radial artery decreased from 130 +/- 40, 60 +/- 18, and 87 +/- 27 to 88 +/- 40, 43 +/- 18, and 60 +/- 26 mm Hg (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001), respectively. The anatomic success rate of the transradial approach was 91.3%. The clinical success rate of the transradial approach was 96%.
The transradial approach is a feasible and highly effective approach to treat dysfunctional Brescia-Cimino fistulae. Measuring blood pressure reduction through the radial artery appears promising as a hemodynamic evaluation method.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 11/2006; 48(4):652-8. · 5.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis therapy have increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. Data regarding pyogenic liver abscess in this population are rare.
We retrospectively examined all cases of pyogenic liver abscess in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis therapy in 2 tertiary referral centers. Medical records of patients with ESRD with a pyogenic liver abscess from January 1995 to September 2004 were studied.
Twenty-seven of 20,676 admitted patients with ESRD were found to have a pyogenic liver abscess. The major predisposing factor was diabetes mellitus (59.3%). The most common clinical symptoms were fever and chills (85.2%). A rare presentation of hiccup was noted in 2 peritoneal dialysis patients, and endophthalmitis was noted in 2 patients with liver abscess caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Abscesses were located mainly in the right lobe (70.4%) and presented as a solitary mass (74.1%). K pneumoniae was the most common bacteria isolated in blood cultures (51.9%) and liver abscess aspirates (37%). Invasive drainage approaches performed in 17 patients (63%) resulted in a unique complication of peritonitis in 4 peritoneal dialysis patients. The difference in mortality rates between patients who underwent invasive procedures and those who did not was not significant (P = 0.68). The overall in-hospital mortality rate of patients with ESRD with a pyogenic liver abscess was 33.3%.
Although pyogenic liver abscess is uncommon in patients with ESRD undergoing maintenance dialysis therapy, it is still a disease of significant mortality.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 06/2006; 47(5):856-61. · 5.29 Impact Factor