[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: ATI-1123 is a liposomal formulation of docetaxel
and may be administered without the premedications
and hypersensitivity reactions. This Phase I study examines
the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and antitumor
activity of ATI-1123.
Methods: Patients with advanced solid malignancies
received escalating doses of ATI-1123 intravenously over
1-h every 3 weeks. The dosing commenced using an accelerated
titration design and was followed by a modified
3 + 3 Fibonacci schema to determine maximally tolerated
dose (MTD). Plasma was analyzed for encapsulated/nonencapsulated
docetaxel; PK analyses were performed using
model independent method. Response was assessed using
Results: In total, 29 patients received doses ranging from
15 to 110 mg/m2. At 110 mg/m2, two of six patients experienced
dose-limiting toxicities including grade 3 stomatitis
and febrile neutropenia. The 90 mg/m2 cohort was
expanded to ten patients and identified as the MTD. The
most common adverse events were fatigue, nausea, neutropenia,
anemia, anorexia, and diarrhea. ATI-1123 exhibited
linear and dose proportional PKs. One patient with lung
cancer had confirmed partial response, and stable disease
was observed in 75 % patients.
Conclusions: ATI-1123 demonstrated an acceptable tolerability
and favorable PK profile in patients with solid
tumors. Our results provide support for Phase II trials to
determine the antitumor activity of this drug.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 10/2014; · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanomas are vascular tumors with a high incidence of BRAF mutations driving tumor proliferation. Complete inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling has potential for enhanced antitumor efficacy.
Patients with advanced melanoma and adequate organ function were eligible. Sorafenib was given orally at 200 mg BiD for 5 days every week; bevacizumab was administered 5 mg/kg intravenously every 14 days. The primary objective was to determine clinical biological activity. The secondary objectives were safety, tolerability, and time to progression (TTP). Pharmacodynamic analysis included serum VEGF and soluble VEGF receptor-1 and VEGF receptor-2 performed at baseline, C1D15 and C2D1. The study was terminated during the first stage of a Simon two-stage design, after 14 of planned 21 subjects were enrolled.
Of the 14 patients who received treatment, no objective tumor responses were observed. Stable disease (SD) ≥16 weeks was observed in 57 % patients, including three patients with SD lasting ≥1 year. Median TTP was 32 weeks. The most frequently reported drug-related adverse events (AEs) were hand-foot syndrome (57.1 %), fatigue (57.1 %), hypertension (64.3 %), and proteinuria (35.7). Grade 3/4 drug-related AEs were hypertension (14.2 %), hand-foot syndrome, proteinuria, and thrombocytopenia (7 % each). Patients with low VEGF (<300 pg/ml) experienced longer TTP than those with high VEGF [median 50 vs. 15 weeks, p = 0.02). A similar pattern was seen for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, although it did not reach statistical significance.
Combined VEGF/VEGFR blockade using bevacizumab with sorafenib shows clinical activity. The linkage between VEGF levels and time to tumor progression needs further exploration.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 05/2014; · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aurora kinase inhibitors (AKIs) are a class of antimitotic, small-molecule anticancer agents. MSC1992371A is an AKI being evaluated for the treatment of patients with solid tumors. This phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of MSC1992371A in different dosing schedules in patients with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors. MSC1992371A was administered on days 1 and 8 (schedule 1) or on days 1, 2, and 3 (schedule 2) of a 21-day cycle. The study was expanded with a third schedule (study drug on days 1-3 and 8-10). Adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Antitumor efficacy, drug pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics were evaluated. Ninety-two patients were enrolled. MSC1992371A was dosed over eight levels in schedules 1 and 2, and the MTD was determined as 74 mg/m(2) per cycle for both schedules and as 60 mg/m(2) in schedule 3, albeit only in three patients due to discontinuation of the study. Overall, the most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and fatigue. The most frequent dose-limiting toxicity over all schedules was neutropenia. MSC1992371A plasma concentrations tended to increase with increasing dose levels. Although no complete or partial responses were seen, stable disease ≥3 months was observed in 11 patients. Analysis for markers of target modulation and pharmacodynamics effects was unsuccessful. MSC1992371A was generally well tolerated in patients, with mainly transient hematologic toxicities apparent at an MTD of 60-74 mg/m(2)/21-day cycle, independent of dosing frequency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Effective therapies after treatment failure with anthracyclines and taxanes are needed for patients with metastatic breast cancer. Dinaciclib (MK-7965, formerly SCH727965), a small-molecule cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, has demonstrated antitumor activity in phase 1 studies with solid-tumor patients. This phase 2 trial was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of dinaciclib, compared with capecitabine, in women with previously treated advanced breast cancer.
Patients and Methods
Patients were randomized to receive either dinaciclib at 50 mg/m2 administered as a 2-hour infusion every 21 days, or 1250 mg/m2 capecitabine, administered orally twice daily in 21-day cycles.
An unplanned interim analysis showed that time-to-disease progression was inferior with dinaciclib treatment compared with capecitabine; therefore, the trial was stopped after 30 patients were randomized. Dinaciclib treatment demonstrated antitumor activity in 2 of 7 patients with ER+/HER2– metastatic breast cancer (one confirmed and one unconfirmed partial response), as well as acceptable safety and tolerability. Grade 3/4 treatment-related AEs were common and included neutropenia, leukopenia, increase in aspartate aminotransferase, and febrile neutropenia. Population pharmacokinetic model–predicted mean dinaciclib exposure (area under the concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity [AUC[I]]) at 50 mg/m2 was similar to those observed in a previous phase 1 trial, and no drug accumulation was observed after multiple dose administration.
Although dinaciclib monotherapy demonstrated some antitumor activity and was generally tolerated, efficacy was not superior to capecitabine. Future studies can be considered to evaluate dinaciclib in select patient populations with metastatic breast cancer and in combination with other agents.
Clinical Breast Cancer 01/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GRN1005 is a novel peptide-drug conjugate composed of paclitaxel covalently linked to a peptide, angiopep-2, that targets the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1. This first-in-human study evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of GRN1005 in patients with advanced solid tumors. Patients in sequential cohorts (one patient per cohort until grade 2 toxicity, then 3 + 3 design) received intravenous GRN1005 at escalating doses between 30 and 700 mg/m(2) once in every 21 days. In the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) expansion group, patients were required to have brain metastases. Fifty-six patients received GRN1005, including 41 with brain metastases (median number of prior therapies = 4). MTD was 650 mg/m(2); the main dose-limiting toxicity was myelosuppression. Sixteen of 20 patients dosed at the MTD had brain metastases. Pharmacokinetics was dose linear and the mean terminal-phase elimination half-life was 3.6 hours. No evidence of accumulation was observed after repeat dosing. No anti-GRN1005 antibodies were detected. Five of the 20 patients (25%) dosed at 650 mg/m(2) (MTD), three of whom had previous taxane therapy, achieved an overall partial response (breast, n = 2; non-small cell lung cancer, n = 2; and ovarian cancer, n = 1); responses in all five patients were also accompanied by shrinkage of brain lesions (-17% to -50%). In addition, six patients (11%; doses 30-700 mg/m(2)) experienced stable disease that lasted 4 months or more. GRN1005 was well tolerated and showed activity in heavily pretreated patients with advanced solid tumors, including those who had brain metastases and/or failed prior taxane therapy.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 12/2011; 11(2):308-16. · 5.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ridaforolimus is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, an integral component of the phosphatidyl 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway, with early evidence of activity in sarcomas. This multicenter, open-label, single-arm, phase II trial was conducted to assess the antitumor activity of ridaforolimus in patients with distinct subtypes of advanced sarcomas.
Patients with metastatic or unresectable soft tissue or bone sarcomas received ridaforolimus 12.5 mg administered as a 30-minute intravenous infusion once daily for 5 days every 2 weeks. The primary end point was clinical benefit response (CBR) rate (complete response or partial response [PR] or stable disease ≥ 16 weeks). Safety, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), time to progression, and duration of response were also evaluated.
A total of 212 patients were treated in four separate histologic cohorts. In this heavily pretreated population, 61 patients (28.8%) achieved CBR. Median PFS was 15.3 weeks; median OS was 40 weeks. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) confirmed response rate was 1.9%, with four patients achieving confirmed PR (two with osteosarcoma, one with spindle cell sarcoma, and one with malignant fibrous histiocytoma). Archival tumor protein markers analyzed were not correlated with CBR. Related adverse events were generally mild or moderate and consisted primarily of stomatitis, mucosal inflammation, mouth ulceration, rash, and fatigue.
Single-agent ridaforolimus in patients with advanced and pretreated sarcomas led to PFS results that compare favorably with historical metrics. A phase III trial based on these data will further define ridaforolimus activity in sarcomas.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2011; 30(1):78-84. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (Hsp) are highly conserved proteins and their expression is dependent on the level of various cellular stresses. Hsp work as a molecular chaperon for several cellular proteins and have cytoprotective roles. Their function is essential for normal cell viability and growth. Hsp90 interacts with proteins mediating cell signaling involved in essential processes such as proliferation, cell cycle control, angiogenesis and apoptosis. The naturally occurring Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) was the first to demonstrate anticancer activity but its significant toxicity profile in pre-clinical models precluded its clinical development. Subsequent, several Hsp90 inhibitors have been developed and underwent clinical development with favorable safety profiles. Several initial clinical studies have shown promising anticancer activity of Hsp90 inhibitors mainly in breast cancer, non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and various hematological malignancies. The universal involvement of Hsp90 in multiple oncogenic processes makes Hsp90 inhibitors ideal compounds to be explored as a single agent or in combination with other anticancer therapies.
Current drug targets 07/2011; 12(14):2001-8. · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that functions as a key regulator of cell growth, proliferation and differentiation, cell-cycle progression, angiogenesis, protein degradation, and apoptosis. Following activation by a number of oncogenic signals such as growth factors, energy and nutrients, mTOR stimulates several downstream effectors including the 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k) and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4 E binding protein-1 (4 EBP-1), as well as a complex network of regulatory loops. Activation of the mTOR pathway plays a critical role in the development of many tumor types, including renal cell and breast carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, and sarcomas. Bone and soft tissue sarcomas are rare, heterogeneous tumors that are curable by local treatments if diagnosed at early stages; however advanced or metastatic sarcomas are rarely curable and very few drugs are efficacious in this setting. Several disruptions in phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mTOR signaling are associated with malignant transformation or progression in various sarcoma sub-types. The PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway is therefore an exciting target for therapy of sarcomas, and its blockade represents an opportunity to improve outcomes in this poor-prognosis disease. Early studies with mTOR inhibitors have demonstrated promising antitumor activity in patients with metastatic sarcoma who have failed standard treatments. This article discusses the mTOR signaling pathway and summarizes the clinical experience with mTOR inhibitors in patients with advanced or metastatic sarcoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, immunogenicity, and preliminary antitumor activity of CT-322 (BMS-844203), a VEGFR-2 inhibitor and the first human fibronectin domain-based targeted biologic (Adnectin) to enter clinical studies.
Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated with escalating doses of CT-322 intravenously (i.v.) weekly (qw), or biweekly (q2w). Plasma samples were assayed for CT-322 concentrations, plasma VEGF-A concentrations, and antidrug antibodies.
Thirty-nine patients completed 105 cycles of 0.1 to 3.0 mg/kg CT-322 i.v. either qw or q2w. The most common treatment-emergent grade 1/2 toxicities were fatigue, nausea, proteinuria, vomiting, anorexia, and hypertension. Grade 3/4 toxicities were rare. Reversible proteinuria, retinal artery, and vein thrombosis, left ventricular dysfunction, and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome were dose limiting at 3.0 mg/kg. The MTD was 2 mg/kg qw or q2w. CT-322 plasma concentrations increased dose proportionally. Plasma VEGF-A levels increased with dose and plateaued at 2 mg/kg qw. Anti-CT-322 antibodies developed without effects on pharmacokinetics, VEGF-A levels, or safety. Minor decreases in tumor measurements occurred in 4 of 34 evaluable patients and 24 patients had stable disease.
CT-322 can be safely administered at 2 mg/kg i.v. qw or q2w and exhibits promising antitumor activity in patients with advanced solid tumors. The absence of severe toxicities at the MTD, demonstration of plasma drug concentrations active in preclinical models, and clinical pharmacodynamic evidence of VEGFR-2 inhibition warrant further development of CT-322 and suggest strong potential for Adnectin-based targeted biologics.
Clinical Cancer Research 01/2011; 17(2):363-71. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of AMG 386, an investigational selective angiopoietin 1/2-neutralizing peptibody, in combination with FOLFOX-4 (F), carboplatin/paclitaxel (C/P), or docetaxel (D), in adult patients with advanced solid tumors.
Three cohorts of patients (F, n = 6; C/P, n = 8; D, n = 12) received one full cycle of chemotherapy alone during the pretreatment phase, followed by administration of AMG 386 10 mg/kg i.v. weekly in combination with chemotherapy until disease progression or intolerance. Safety and tolerability, tumor response, pharmacokinetic profiles, and biomarkers were assessed.
Twenty-six patients were enrolled; 22 received treatment with AMG 386. No dose-limiting toxicities or grade 3 or 4 adverse events related to AMG 386 were reported. The most common adverse events were diarrhea and hypomagnesemia (n = 3 each). One patient developed grade 2 hypertension and one had grade 1 subconjunctival eye hemorrhage. No neutralizing antibodies to AMG 386 were detected. There were no pharmacokinetic interactions between AMG 386 and F, C/P, or D. One patient receiving AMG 386 plus C/P for bladder cancer refractory to gemcitabine/cisplatin had a complete response at week 8. The remaining best tumor responses were partial response (n = 3, one from each cohort), stable disease > or =8 weeks (n = 13), and progressive disease (n = 1).
Weekly administration of AMG 386 in combination with three common chemotherapy regimens was well tolerated in patients with advanced solid tumors. No pharmacokinetic interactions between AMG 386 and any of the tested chemotherapy regimens were noted. Promising antitumor activity was observed with all three treatment combinations.
Clinical Cancer Research 06/2010; 16(11):3044-56. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nausea and vomiting is one of the most feared side effects of chemotherapy; however, in the past 20 years, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) has led to the introduction of newer antiemetics, which have improved the management of this side effect.
This article reviews the prevention of CINV and the role of aprepitant, the first of the newest class of antiemetics, the neurokinin-1 inhibitors. A brief description of the pathophysiology of CINV and the background on the prevention of CINV using the 5-HT(3) antagonists is outlined. The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions and various clinical studies with aprepitant are reviewed.
The literature about aprepitant is reviewed focusing on the role of aprepitant in the management of CINV in relationship to other commonly used antiemetics. The literature was searched regarding aprepitant and its pharmacological characteristics, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions and various clinical studies.
Aprepitant has a significant role in the management of CINV, as it allows the majority of patients to complete their chemotherapies without significant morbidity. Its use in a variety of clinical settings in cancer patients needs to be further explored.
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 12/2009; 5(12):1607-14. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sarcomas are a group of heterogeneous tumors that arise from mesenchymal tissue and account for approximately 1% of all adult solid malignancies diagnosed, although its incidence approaches 20% in pediatric cancers. Characterization of molecular abnormalities in patients with sarcomas, in particular the up-regulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase and the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, loss or deletions of retinoblastoma (Rb) and p53 gene, increased VEGF expression and angiogenesis, dysregulation of apoptosis through Bcl-2 overexpression, along with oncogene mutations and activations, such as c-KIT in Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), makes treatment with novel biological therapies a promising option. This review focuses on the molecular heterogeneity of soft tissue and bone sarcomas, novel biological therapies currently in clinical trials to target the various molecular pathways, and the potential biological agents in pre-clinical and early clinical development.
Current drug targets 10/2009; 10(10):937-49. · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sarcomas are a group of heterogeneous tumors that arise from mesenchymal tissue and account for approximately 1% of all adult solid malignancies diagnosed, although its incidence approaches 20% in pediatric cancers. Characterization of molecular abnormalities in patients with sarcomas, in particular the up-regulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase and the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, loss or deletions of retinoblastoma (Rb) and p53 gene, increased VEGF expression and angiogenesis, dysregulation of apoptosis through Bcl-2 overexpression, along with oncogene mutations and activations, such as c-KIT in Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), makes treatment with novel biological therapies a promising option. This review focuses on the molecular heterogeneity of soft tissue and bone sarcomas, novel biological therapies currently in clinical trials to target the various molecular pathways, and the potential biological agents in preclinical and early clinical development.
Current Drug Targets 09/2009; 10(10):937-949. · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite significant advances in the treatment of hematological malignancies over the last decade, morbidity and mortality from these disorders remain high. New discoveries in the pathogenesis of these malignancies have led to better understanding of these diseases and new thinking in drug development. mTOR is a downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt (protein kinase B) signaling pathway that mediates cell survival and proliferation and is known to be deregulated in many cancers. Preclinical activity of mTOR inhibitors has been very promising in various hematological malignancies. Rapamycin analogs with relatively favorable pharmaceutical properties, including temsirolimus (CCI-779), everolimus (RAD001) and deforolimus (AP23573), are under clinical evaluations in patients with hematologic malignancies. They have shown encouraging results thus far and a favorable toxicity profile. Their utility, mainly as cytostatic agents, needs to be further explored in combination with pre-existing chemotherapeutic agents for various hematological malignancies.
Expert Review of Hematology 08/2009; 2(4):399-414. · 2.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an intracellular protein with a key role in cellular protein synthesis and energy balance that influences many aspects of cell growth and proliferation, including differentiation, cell-cycle progression, angiogenesis, protein degradation and apoptosis. mTOR can be activated by numerous oncogenic signals, such as growth factor activation through the EGF, IGF and VEGF receptors, mutation and silencing of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene, activating mutations in the PI3K catalytic subunit, Akt amplification and the Ras-Raf-MEK pathway. Once activated, the cellular functions of mTOR are achieved through its downstream targets, 4E-BP1 and p70S6K1. The mTOR pathway can be further regulated through a negative feedback loop, which may lead to resistance to specific inhibitors of mTOR. This review will outline the mTOR signaling pathway, which is often activated in cancers and account for tumor proliferation and growth, highlight the rationale in targeting mTOR with a focus on the preclinical and clinical development of one of these inhibitors, deforolimus (AP23573, MK-8669), and discuss potential benefit and barriers to these agents being introduced in the clinic.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as an important target for cancer therapy. Rapamycin has a distinct, well-documented toxicity profile and most of the toxicity data has been reported in patients with organ transplantation. Newer mTOR inhibitors have slightly different pharmacokinetic properties, yet they present toxicity profiles similar to rapamycin. Most of these toxicities are mild to moderate in severity and can be managed clinically by dose modification and supportive measures. Mucositis and pneumonitis are the most commonly reported toxicities, but they rarely lead to treatment discontinuation. Pathogenesis of pneumonitis is uncertain, but various hypotheses have been suggested, including cell-mediated immune response to the drug.