[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal serum urate levels are recognized as a critical factor in the progression of several chronic diseases. To evaluate the antihyperuricemic effect of Davallia formosana, the inhibitory activities of 15 isolated phytochemicals, including five novel compounds of 6,8-dihydroxychromone-7-C- β -d-glucopyranoside (1), 6,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-7-C- β -d-glucopyranoside (2), 6,8,4'-trihydroxyflavanone-7-C- β -d-glucopyranoside (3), 8-(2-pyrrolidinone-5-yl)-catechin-3-O- β -d-allopyranoside (4), and epiphyllocoumarin-3-O- β -d-allopyranoside (5), were examined against xanthine oxidase (XOD) and in a potassium oxonate-(PTO-) induced acute hyperuricemic mice model. The results indicated that compounds 3 and 5 significantly inhibited XOD activity in vitro and reduced serum uric acid levels in vivo. This is the first report providing new insights into the antihyperuricemic activities of flavonoid glycosides which can possibly be developed into potential hypouricemic agents.
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 01/2014; 2014:873607.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This study describes a novel carrier, the ethosome-based system, which is composed of non-ionic surfactants, ethanol, and water. METHODS: Brij(®) 52 (non-ionic surfactants), soya phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesterol, and the major compounds (caffeine and gallic acid) of black tea extracts were dissolved in the ethanolic phase. The aqueous phase containing Paragon III was heated to 60 °C and mixed with the previous solution. Finally, 3.4 ml NaOH (6.5 N) was added to adjust the pH level to 4.05. The mixture was centrifuged at 2000 g for two minutes, and the precipitate was taken as the end product. Black tea extracts were applied in ethosome-based formulations, and the efficacy of these formulations in penetrating nude mouse skin and in dyeing white hairs was investigated. RESULTS: Compared with an ethanolic solution and black tea extracts, the non-ionic ethosomal delivery system dramatically enhanced the adsorption of black tea extracts onto hair surfaces in vitro. The non-ionic ethosomal system was much more efficient in delivering and facilitating the adsorption of black tea extracts to the hair surface than hydroalcoholic black tea extracts. CONCLUSIONS: This formulation may have potential for development as a hair dye and protective agent.
International journal of dermatology 05/2013; · 1.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives The primary objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using niosomes as a delivery vehicle for the dermal administration in vitro of black tea extract (BTE) as a sunscreen. Methods Multi-lamellar niosomes were obtained by means of a previously reported method of lipid hydration films. In vitro penetration experiments through nude mouse skin were carried out to evaluate the potential of niosomes as a dermal formulation. The nude mouse skin membrane allowed the effects of penetration with a niosome formulation to be evaluated. Penetration rates of caffeine- and gallic acid-loaded niosomes in a steady state were higher than dispersion in aqueous solutions. Results For skin permeation, higher transdermal absorption rates were seen with solutions of caffeine and gallic acid. Conclusions In the near future, BTE as a sunscreen agent will be dermally delivered by niosomes.
International journal of dermatology 08/2012; · 1.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Tanshinone IIA, one of the active components of the Radix of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, the intracellular mechanism of action of tanshinone IIA remain to be determined. The aims of the present study were to test the hypothesis that tanshinone IIA alters strain-induced endothelin (ET)-1 expression and nitric oxide (NO) production, as well as to identify the putative signalling pathways involved, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). 2. Cultured HUVEC were exposed to cyclic strain in the presence of 1-10 μmol/L tanshinone IIA. Expression of ET-1 was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and ELISA. Phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 was assessed by western blot analysis. 3. Tanshinone IIA (3 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited strain-induced ET-1 expression. In contrast, NO production, eNOS phosphorylation and ATF3 expression were enhanced by tanshinone IIA. The eNOS inhibitor N(G) -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 100 μmol/L), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 (5 μmol/L) and the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 10 μmol/L) inhibited tanshinone IIA-induced increases in ATF3 expression. Moreover, treatment of HUVEC with either an NO donor (3,3-bis [aminoethyl]-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-triazene; 500 μmol/L) or an ATF3 activator (carbobenzoxy-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal; 5 μmol/L) resulted in the repression of strain-induced ET-1 expression. The inhibitory effect of tanshinone IIA on strain-induced ET-1 expression was significantly attenuated by l-NAME, ODQ and the transfection of small interfering RNA for ATF3. 4. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA inhibits strain-induced ET-1 expression by increasing NO and upregulating ATF3 in HUVEC. The present study provides important new insights into the molecular pathways that may contribute to the beneficial effects of tanshinone IIA in the cardiovascular system.
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 01/2012; 39(1):63-8. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirteen polyphenolics were isolated from fresh pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima using various methods of column chromatography. The structures of these polyphenolics were elucidated as gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), 6-O-galloyl-d-glucoside (3), methyl 6-O-galloyl-β-d-glucoside (4), methyl 3,6-di-O-galloyl-α-d-glucopyranoside (5), gentisic acid 5-O-α-d-(6'-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (6), guaiacylglycerol 4-O-β-d-(6'-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (7), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenol 1-O-β-d-(6'-O-galloyl) glucopyranoside (8), (+)-gallocatechin (9), (+)-catechin (10), (+)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (11), myricetin 3-rhamnoside (12), and ampelopsin (13). All isolated compounds were tested for their antioxidant activities in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and peroxynitrite radicals scavenging assays. Among those compounds, 11, 12, and 2 exhibited the best DPPH-, hydroxyl-, and peroxynitrite radical-scavenging activities, respectively. Compound 7 is a new compound, and possesses better scavenging activities towards DPPH but has equivalent hydroxyl radical scavenging activity when compared to BHT. The paper is the first report on free radical scavenging properties of components of the fresh pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The results obtained from the current study indicate that the free radical scavenging property of fresh pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima may be one of the mechanisms by which this herbal medicine is effective in several free radical mediated diseases.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(5):6073-88. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From the screening of 21 microbial strains, Absidia pseudocylindrospora ATCC 24169 and Aspergillus niger BCRC 32720 were found to reproducibly transform isosteviol lactam (4α-carboxy-13α-amino-13,16-seco-ent-19-norbeyeran-16-oic acid 13,16-lactam) (3) into various compounds. Preparative-scale transformation of 3 with Abs. pseudocylindrospora yielded two new hydroxylated compounds (4 and 5), with conservation of the lactam ring. Preparative-scale transformation of 3 with Asp. niger afforded seven new compounds, 6 and 9-14, together with the known compounds 7 and 8. A single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment confirmed the structure of 14. The suppressive effects of compounds 1-14 on the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene in RAW 264.7 macrophages were examined by a reverse-transcription real-time PCR analysis. With the exception of 7, all other compounds significantly reduced levels of iNOS mRNA relative to control cells, which were induced by LPS alone. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 were similar in activity to dexamethasone, while 9 was more potent.
Journal of Natural Products 06/2011; 74(6):1379-85. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examines the synthesis and antibacterial activities of 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin derivatives, whose structures were confirmed using analytical and spectral data. Twenty compounds were tested for their antibacterial activities against five microbial species such as E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, and S. typhimurium were studied. Compounds 5 and 12 exhibited the most potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC value of 2.5 µg/mL for each of the compounds.
Archiv der Pharmazie 03/2011; 344(6):386-93. · 1.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coumarin derivative 1, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methyl-1-butyryl)-4-phenyl-chromen- 2-one, has been reported to possess radical scavenging activity and DNA protection. We have synthesized a series of coumarins with structural modifications at positions C4, C5, C6 and C7 and evaluated them for their anti-UVC properties. Coumarin 7, 6-benzoyl-5,6-dihydroxy-4-phenyl-chromen-2-one, was found to have the most potent activity in protecting porcine γ-crystallin against UVC insults. Results of fluorescence assays indicated that compound 7 was capable of decreasing the loss of intensity while lens crystallins and DNA PUC19 were irradiated with UVC. Presence of compound 7 decreased hydroxyl radical levels determined by probe 1b and the free iron concentrations determined by Ferrozine reagent. The chelation assay showed that compound 7 was chelated to metal via 6-CO and 5-OH on the benzopyrone ring. The observed protective effects of compound 7 towards crystallins from insults of UVC and free radicals may be due to its iron-chelating activity and its peak absorption at 254 nm.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2011; 12(10):7059-76. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic neurodegenerative disorders are having an increasing impact on public health as human longevity increases. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system and is characterized by motor system disorders resulting in loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. Pueraria thomsonii Benth. (Fabaceae) is an herbal medicine that has traditionally been used as an antipyretic agent. In the present study, the active constituents, daidzein and genistein, were isolated from P. thomsonii. Both compounds exhibited neurocytoprotective effects against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells. Neither daidzein nor genistein affected 6-OHDA-induced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation according to flow cytometric analysis. Rather, they inhibited caspase-8 and partially inhibited caspase-3 activation, providing a protective mechanism against 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. The present results imply that daidzein and genistein may be useful in the development of future strategies for the treatment of PD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proanthocyanidins are potent antioxidants associated with protection against diseases. We tested the reducing capacity, iron chelating activity, and anti-auto-oxidation ability of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE). The mechanisms underlying GSPE attenuation of oxidative processes induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a neurotoxin used to induce Parkinson's disease, were investigated in cell-based systems. At high concentrations, GSPE (50 µg/µL) was a mild pro-oxidant in a Fenton-type reaction. GSPE (300 µg/mL) was as potent as 30 µM deferoxamine in its iron-chelating capacity, and as efficient as 5 mM ascorbic acid in delaying 6-OHDA auto-oxidation. In PC-12 cell cultures, 100 and 300 µg/mL GSPE significantly protected (P < 0.05) cells from 6-OHDA-induced (400 µM) toxicity. GSPE-induced cytoprotection is enhanced by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (NOSI), implying that the cytoprotective effect of GSPE does not require NOS activation. In conclusion, the iron-chelating activity of GSPE minimizes its pro-oxidant activity and delays 6-OHDA auto-oxidation to provide cytoprotection.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSParkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. The recognized pharmacological strategies to prevent or treat Parkinson's disease include the minimization of oxidative stress, iron release and excitotoxicity resulting from excess nitric oxide formation. One of the best ways to delay or prevent the onset of the disease is to improve the biological antioxidant status by providing additional radical scavengers that are not pro-oxidants. The pro-oxidant activity, such as that of the antioxidant ascorbic acid, enhances radical cycling under certain conditions, and therefore may be detrimental. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPEs) are used as a dietary supplement in food products in several countries. Our current report provides evidence that GSPE has limited pro-oxidant activity, presumably because of its iron-chelating abilities, and protects cells from neurotoxic insults. GSPE may be effective as a dietary supplement for prophylactic use against the progressive neurodegeneration seen in Parkinson's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We observed previously that two carbohydrate epitopes, extended type 1 chain Le(a)-Le(a) and Le(b)-Le(a), are expressed strongly in human gastric or colorectal cancer and cell lines derived therefrom, but their expression in human normal colorectal cells is highly limited. A monoclonal antibody, termed GNX-8, was established through immunization of "KM mice" with colonic cancer cell line Colo205, and with purified Le(b)-Le(a) glycosphingolipid, followed by screening human IgG directed to this antigen. KM mice possess human chromosome fragments and are capable of producing human immunoglobulin. GNX-8 reacted specifically with extended type 1 chain epitope Le(b)-Le(a), bound to all five colonic cancer cell lines so far tested, and displayed strong complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The antigens defined by GNX-8, expressed in Colo205 cells, were: (i) glycosphingolipids with epitope Le(b)-Le(a), whose reactivity was abolished upon defucosylation; (ii) glycoproteins with molecular mass range from 32 to >175 kDa, which were depleted in cells cultured in the presence of benzyl-alpha-GalNAc, indicating that these epitopes are O-linked glycans.Immunohistological reactivity of GNX-8 at 1 mug/ml, applied on tissue sections from colorectal and various other types of cancer, was much stronger than that with various normal cells and tissues. GNX-8 reactivity with normal cells required a much higher concentration (150 mug/ml), and this reactivity was based on cross-reaction with non-extended, normal blood group Le(b) antigen. Growth of subcutaneous xenograft of human colonic cancer cells, Colo205 or DLD-1, in nude mice or SCID mice, was strongly inhibited by administration of GNX-8. These observations, taken together, indicate that antibody GNX-8, directed specifically to Le(b)-Le(a) antigen, provides a novel direction of immunotherapy for human colorectal cancer. (c) 2009 UICC.
International Journal of Cancer 12/2009; · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impacts of caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, CA) on the pharmacokinetics of levodopa (L-dopa) were studied in rabbits. A single dose of 5/1.25 mg kg(-1) L-dopa/carbidopa was administered alone or was co-administered with three different doses of caffeic acid (2.5, 5, and 10 mg kg(-1)), or a single dose of 5 mg kg(-1) caffeic acid was administered alone via an intramuscular route to six rabbits each in a crossover treatment protocol. Plasma levels of L-dopa, 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD), caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were determined and subsequently used to calculate their pharmacokinetic parameters. The results indicated that caffeic acid administered at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) decreased about 22% of the peripheral formation of 3-OMD and about 31% of the C(max) of 3-OMD. In addition, the metabolic ratios (MR, AUC of 3-OMD/AUC of L-dopa) decreased by about 22%. Results also indicated that caffeic acid significantly decreased the proportion of 3-OMD (p < 0.05). In contrast, the parameters of neither caffeic acid nor ferulic acid were significantly affected by L-dopa/carbidopa. In conclusion, caffeic acid at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) can significantly affect the COMT metabolic pathway of L-dopa.
Phytotherapy Research 11/2009; 24(6):852-8. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microbial transformation of isosteviol oxime (ent-16-E-hydroxyiminobeyeran-19-oic acid) (2) with Aspergillus niger BCRC 32720 and Absidia pseudocylindrospora ATCC 24169 yielded several compounds. In addition to bioconverting the d-ring to lactone and lactam moieties, 4alpha-carboxy-13alpha-hydroxy-13,16-seco-ent-19-norbeyeran-16-oic acid 13,16-lactone (7) and 4alpha-carboxy-13alpha-amino-13,16-seco-ent-19-norbeyeran-16-oic acid 13,16-lactam (10), one known compound, ent-1beta,7alpha-dihydroxy-16-oxo-beyeran-19-oic acid (6), and five new compounds, ent-7alpha-hydroxy-16-E-hydroxyiminobeyeran-19-oic acid (3), ent-1beta,7alpha-dihydroxy-16-E-hydroxyiminobeyeran-19-oic acid (4), ent-1beta-hydroxy-16-E-hydroxyiminobeyeran-19-oic acid (5), ent-8beta-cyanomethyl-13-methyl-12-podocarpen-19-oic acid (8), and ent-8beta-cyanomethyl-13-methyl-13-podocarpen-19-oic acid (9), were isolated from the microbial transformation of 2. Elucidation of the structures of these isolated compounds was primarily based on 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS data, and 3-5 were further confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analyses. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of all of these compounds were evaluated on NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the compounds tested, 5 and 10 significantly inhibited NF-kappaB activation, with 5 showing equal potency to dexamethasone; 3 and 6-9 significantly inhibited AP-1 activation, particularly 8, which showed more inhibitory activity than dexamethasone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of hydroxylated diterpenoids were obtained from the microbial transformation of isosteviol lactone (4alpha-carboxy-13alpha-hydroxy-13,16-seco-ent-19-norbeyeran-16-oic acid 13,16-lactone) (2) with Mucorrecurvatus MR 36, Aspergillusniger BCRC 31130, and Absidiapseudocylindrospora ATCC 24169. Incubation of 2 with M. recurvatus and Asp.niger led to isolation of seven known compounds (1 and 3-8). Incubation of 2 with Abs. pseudocylindrospora produced 5 and six previously unreported compounds (9-14). The structures of these isolated compounds were deduced by high-field NMR techniques ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC), and those of 9 and 11 were further confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analyses. Subsequently, the inhibitory effects on activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages of all of these compounds were evaluated. Compounds 2-5, 8, 9, 11, and 12 exhibited significant inhibitory activity, while 3 was more potent than the reference compound of dexamethasone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Syringin is an active principle purified from the rhizome and root parts of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae). The present study is designed to clarify the role of sympathetic activation in the insulinotropic effect of syringin. Plasma glucose lowering effect accompanying with the increase of plasma insulin and C-peptide were obtained in pentobarbital anesthetized Wistar rats 60min after an intravenous (i.v.) injection of syringin (100 microg/kg). However, neither the plasma glucose lowering action, nor the raised plasma levels of insulin and C-peptide can be obtained in conscious rats received same syringin treatment. Otherwise, the insulin-releasing and plasma glucose lowering actions of syringin (100 microg/kg, i.v.) were appeared in conscious rats under chemical sympathectomy using an intraperitoneal injection of guanethidine. In addition, plasma glucose lowering action of syringin (100 microg/kg, i.v.) was observed in conscious rats with alpha1-adrenoceptor blockade by prazosin. The stimulatory actions of syringin on the secretion of plasma insulin and C-peptide were also obtained in prazosin-treated conscious rats. The obtained results suggest that insulinotropic effect of syringin on the plasma glucose regulation is impaired in conscious rats with a regular sympathetic tone; decrease of sympathetic tone as observed in anesthetized animal might be helpful in the therapeutic benefit of syringin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two filamentous fungi, Cunninghamella bainieri ATCC 9244 and Aspergillus niger BCRC 32720, were used to investigate the biotransformation of isosteviol lactone (4alpha-carboxy-13alpha-hydroxy-13,16- seco-ent-19-norbeyeran-16-oic acid 13,16-lactone) ( 2), which was derived by reacting isosteviol ( ent-16-oxobeyeran-19-oic acid) ( 1) with m-chloroperbenzoic acid. Incubation of 2 with C. bainieri afforded metabolites 3- 6, which involved isomerization, hydroxylation, and ring cleavage reactions followed by oxidation and selective O-methylation. Incubation of 2 with A. niger afforded mono-, di-, and trihydroxylated metabolites 3, 4, and 7- 12. The structures of 3- 12 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, and structures 3, 4, and 6 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic studies. Compounds 2- 6, 8- 10, and 12 were assayed as androgen agonists using an ARE (androgen response element)-mediated luciferase reporter gene assay. Compounds 3, 6, and 10 were significantly active, with 6 showing more activity than testosterone.
Journal of Natural Products 05/2008; 71(4):602-7. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae ) is a very powerful adaptogenic agent. In the present study, the effects of syringin, an active principle of this herb, on plasma glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats) were investigated. Thirty minutes after syringin was intravenously injected into fasting STZ-diabetic rats, plasma glucose levels dose-dependently decreased. In normal rats, syringin at the effective dose (1.0 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the increase in plasma glucose caused by an intravenous glucose challenge. Syringin dose-dependently (0.01 to 10.0 micromol/L) stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscle isolated from STZ-diabetic rats. Syringin treatment of hepatocytes isolated from STZ-diabetic rats enhanced glycogen synthesis . The ability of syringin to enhance glucose utilization and lower plasma glucose level in rats suffering from insulin deficiency suggest that this chemical may be useful in the treatment of human diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanin is the pigment responsible for skin color. Melanin synthesis occurs with the participation of the tyrosinase (TYR) family of proteins including TYR, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and tyrosinase-related protein 2(TRP2/DCT).
The effect of a newly isolated natural compound that inhibits hyperpigmentation on the regulation of the TYR family of proteins was examined.
The natural compound, anemonin, was isolated from Clematis crassifolia Benth and was used to inhibit cellular TYR activity; it was found to have a low cytotoxicity (cell viability > 80%) in human melanocytes.
In human melanocytes, anemonin showed both time- and dose-dependent inhibition (IC(50) 43.5 microM) of TYR. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical staining revealed that expression of TYR, TRP1, and TRP2 was decreased in anemonin-treated melanocytes. Additionally, reverse transcription and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that expression of mRNAs for MITF, TYR, TYRP1, and TYRP2 was also suppressed by anemonin.
The natural compound, anemonin, an active compound of C. crassifolia, inhibits pigmentation synthesis in human melanocytes. Anemonin inhibits melanin synthesis by inhibiting the transcription of the genes encoding MITF, TYR, TRP1, and TRP2. This natural compound may be a candidate for cosmetic use.
Journal of Dermatological Science 03/2008; 49(2):115-23. · 3.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biotransformations of ENT-16beta-hydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid ( 1) by Mortierella isabellina produced hydroxylated metabolites. The isolated metabolites included three new compounds, ent-14beta,16beta-dihydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid ( 3), ent-12beta-hydroxy-16-oxobeyeran-19-oic acid ( 4), and ent-7alpha,12beta-dihydroxy-16-oxobeyeran-19-oic acid ( 5), and one known compound, ent-7alpha,16beta-dihydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid ( 2). The structural elucidation was achieved by detailed analysis of LC-MS chromatograms, and MS and NMR spectroscopic data. In this study, M. isabellina hydroxylated the basic skeleton beyeran-19-oic acid at the 7beta-, 12alpha-, and 14alpha-positions, and oxidized the skeleton at the 16-position. All compounds were evaluated with the cell viability assay. The results of the bioassay indicated that MTT formazan exocytosis occurs upon treatment of the cells with 1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purified dioscorin from yam (Dioscorea alata L. cv. Tainong 1) tuber was previously reported (Hsu et al., 2002. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 6109-6113). In this report, we evaluated its immunomodulatory ability in vitro in the presence of polymyxin B (50 microg/ml) to eliminate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination. Dioscorin (5-100 microg/ml) was able to stimulate nitric oxide production (expressed as nitrite concentrations) in RAW264.7 cells. The stimulation index on the phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells against E. coli and the oxidative burst (determined by the intensity of rhodamine fluorescence) of RAW264.7 cells were both enhanced by different concentrations of dioscorin (5-100 microg/ml). The cytokine production, including IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in dioscorin-treated RAW264.7 cells or human monocytes, was measured in the cultured medium. Dioscorin (5-100 microg/ml) was found able to induce IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta production in RAW264.7 cells and human monocytes. To evaluate the effects of dioscorin on the proliferation of spleen cells from BALB/c mice, phytohemagglutinin (PHA, 2 microg/ml) alone or PHA mixed with different concentrations of dioscorin (10, 25, and 50 microg/ml) was used to treat spleen cells for 24h. The stimulated proliferation index of splenic cells ranged from 1.38- to 1.48-fold of PHA alone for PHA mixed with different concentrations of dioscorin (10, 25, and 50 microg/ml). We suggest that the tuber storage protein of yam dioscorin functions as an immunomodulatory substance.
Food and Chemical Toxicology 12/2007; 45(11):2312-8. · 3.01 Impact Factor