E Laffond

Hospital Universitario de Salamanca, Helmantica, Castille and León, Spain

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Publications (25)85.32 Total impact

  • Article: Reply.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 10/2012; 130(4):1013-4. · 12.05 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 06/2012; 130(2):554-5; author reply 555-6. · 12.05 Impact Factor
  • Contact Dermatitis 02/2012; 66(2):107-8. · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 07/2011; 107(1):89-90. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 02/2011; 127(2). · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 07/2009; 34(1):120-1. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At present, cephalosporins represent one of the most prescribed classes of antibiotics. Although allergic reactions have been estimated to be infrequent, the number of reactions to cephalosporins is increasing due to their wide use. Cross-reactivity with penicillins has mainly been evaluated in patients with penicillin allergy. It is higher between first- and second-generation cephalosporins with the same or similar side chain than between cephalosporins with different side chains. Unlike penicillins, cephalosporin haptens or determinants have not been defined, and therefore the diagnosis is complicated. Nevertheless, skin tests with cephalosporins are useful in the evaluation of several allergic reactions. Although more studies are necessary, a negative result in skin testing to penicillin and cephalosporins with different side chains seems to be a good predictor of tolerance, and could be used in select cases.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 06/2008; 7(3):295-304. · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología 02/2008; 18(1):71-2. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding how class switch recombination (CSR) is regulated to produce immunoglobulin E (IgE) has become fundamental because of the dramatic increase in the prevalence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. CSR requires the induction of the enzyme AICDA in B cells. Mutations in AICDA have been linked to Hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2), which shows absence of switching to IgE as well as to IgG and IgA. Although isolated IgE deficiency is a rare entity, here we show some individuals with normal serum IgM, IgG, and IgA levels that had undetectable total serum IgE levels. We have analyzed the AICDA gene in these individuals to determine if there are mutations in AICDA that could lead to selective IgE deficiency. Conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) and sequencing analysis of AICDA coding sequences demonstrated sequence heterogeneity due to 5923A/G and 7888C/T polymorphisms, but did not reveal any novel mutation that might explain the selective IgE deficit.
    Clinical and Developmental Immunology 02/2008; 2008:146715. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric Oxide (NO) has been proposed as an important signaling molecule. NO produced by the inducible NO synthase enzyme NOS2A is generated at high levels in certain types of inflammation. A pentanucleotide polypyrimidine microsatellite CCTTT has been identified in the promoter region of the NOS2A gene. The aim of this study was to analyze the (CCTTT)n polymorphism in patients with asthma and nasal polyposis. The study included 292 white individuals (194 patients and 98 controls). Asthma was diagnosed according to American Thoracic Society criteria and classified in accordance with the guidelines of the Global Initiative for Asthma. Skin prick tests were performed in all individuals. The polymorphism was analyzed by an electrophoretic method and by direct sequencing. A significant association was detected for a 15-repeat cutoff in nasal polyposis (Fisher P value = .0001, Monte Carlo P value [after 10(4) simulations] = .002). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age and sex confirmed this association with an increased risk of nasal polyposis (odds ratio, 14.39; 95% confidence interval, 3.02-68.60; P = .001). The number of CCTTT repeats in the promoter region of NOS2A could be associated with the inflammatory process of nasal polyposis in our population. Modifications of NOS2A transcription levels could be involved in this association.
    Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología 02/2008; 18(4):239-44. · 1.89 Impact Factor
  • Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología 02/2008; 18(2):138-9. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metamizole is a pyrazolone derivative, and its most common reactions are IgE-mediated reaction and idiosyncratic reactions. Non-immediate reactions are poorly described and there are very few reports on non-immediate reactions to pyrazolones. We evaluated 12 patients (nine men) who consulted for a non-immediate reaction after metamizol administration. We performed cutaneous tests (skin prick tests and immediate and delayed intradermal tests) and epicutaneous tests, and, if necessary, an oral challenge test. All skin prick and intradermal tests, if necessary, were negative in immediate reading. Delayed intradermal tests were positive in six of 10 patients (60%) and epicutaneous tests were positive in four of 11 patients (36%). Three cases (25%), were diagnosed by a positive oral challenge test. Delayed-reading intradermal tests and patch tests are useful tools in the diagnosis of nonimmediate reactions to pyrazolones and should be considered the first step when evaluating these type of reactions. Intradermal test appears to be more sensitive than patch test. The positivity of skin tests suggests an immunological reaction, probably mediated by T lymphocytes, but further studies are required.
    Allergy 01/2008; 62(12):1462-4. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in recent years, particularly in the industrialized world. Allergic disease begins to manifest in the first years of life. The disorder usually manifests initially in the form of food allergy and atopic dermatitis, followed in later stages by respiratory allergy with rhinitis and/or asthma. This has led to the adoption of preventive measures in those children with a high risk of atopy, based on the following considerations: 1) A family history of allergic diseases (asthma, eczema, and/or allergic rhinitis); 2) A personal history of atopy such as atopic dermatitis, particularly when associated to food allergy; and 3) The existence of allergic sensitization, particularly to pneumoallergens, of early or late onset, but persistent during childhood. Prevention is established at three different levels: primary prevention, avoiding sensitization; secondary prevention, avoiding appearance of the disease; and tertiary prevention, avoiding the symptoms. The present study discusses current knowledge of prevention and its efficacy, with mention of the importance of breastfeeding and the use of pre- and probiotics for securing adequate prevention.
    Allergologia et Immunopathologia 07/2007; 35(4):151-6. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin with a broad antimicrobial spectrum and good activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. We present the case of a 61-year-old man who developed an immediate urticarial reaction after receiving a single dose of cefepime. Skin tests were positive to cefepime and negative to the other beta-lactam antibiotics. Controlled administration of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ceftazidime was well tolerated by the patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of selective hypersensitivity to cefepime demonstrated by skin and challenge tests. Complete allergological studies, including challenge tests with other beta-lactam antibiotics that produce a negative result in skin tests, should be considered in these patients.
    Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología 02/2007; 17(1):52-4. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma and atopic dermatitis share several common features and Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are mediators that participate in the pathogenesis of both diseases. Recently, a new polymorphism (927T>C) has been identified in cysteinyl-leukotriene type-1 receptor (CYSLTR1) gene. This gene is found on the X chromosome. The aim of this study was to analyze this SNP in a population of children with asthma and atopic dermatitis. In this study, 166 individuals, 79 adult controls (CTR) and 87 children with asthma (AA) were included. Forty-one patients with asthma presented atopic dermatitis (AA-AD). Adults were chosen as controls to confirm lack of development of asthma and allergy during childhood. Standardized history, physical examination, skin prick tests, and lung function measurements were performed in all patients. The 927T>C CYSLTR1 SNP was analyzed by direct sequencing after PCR amplification. In males (53 individuals), the C allele was significantly more common among AA-AD patients (47%) than in CTR (8%) (Fisher's p < 0.005; Monte Carlo p < 0.008; OR:9.78; 95%CI: 1.73-55.30). When comparing AA-AD vs. AA-NAD (patients with asthma but not atopic dermatitis), significant differences were observed, (47% vs. 15%, Fisher's p = 0.014; Monte Carlo p = 0.022; OR: 4.97; 95%CI: 1.29-19.13). No differences in allele distribution were observed between these disease sub-groups in females. The 927T>C is a silent SNP; however, it could affect transcription or translation or may be linked to an unidentified, functional polymorphism and thus may pre-dispose male children to asthma and atopic dermatitis in our population. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 08/2006; 17(5):323-8. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PTGDR gene has been identified as an asthma-susceptibility gene. Recently, functional genetic variants have been associated with asthma. The objective of this work was to study -549T>C, -441C>T and -197T>C PTGDR promoter polymorphisms in a Spanish population. In this study, 197 Caucasian individuals were included. Asthma was specialist-physician diagnosed according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria and classified following the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines. Skin prick tests were performed in all patients. The polymorphisms were analyzed by direct sequencing. -197T>C polymorphism was significantly associated with asthma [Fisher's P-value = 0.007, Monte Carlo P-value (10(4) simulations) = 0.004]. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age and sex confirmed this association with an increased risk of asthma (OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.28-7.32; P-value = 0.012). CCT CCC diplotype was associated with asthma (P-value < 0.0001; OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.23), specifically with allergic asthma (P-value < 0.0001). CCT CCC diplotype is unambiguous. All individuals carrying this diplotype had asthma. We identified a specific promoter variant of PTGDR that could be associated with asthma. This diplotype is a combination of the two highest transcriptional efficiency haplotypes, recently described. Our in vivo results would support for the first time what was demonstrated in vitro about high-transcriptional efficiency PTGDR haplotypes in asthma.
    Allergy 05/2006; 61(5):543-8. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs) are proinflammatory mediators synthesized through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. Cys-LTs exert their biological action by binding two types of G-protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptors, CYSLTR1 and CYSLTR2. The contribution of the cys-LT receptors to bronchial asthma has been established by the therapeutic efficacy of biosynthetic inhibitors and selective CYSLTR1 blockers. The present study was designed to analyse two different polymorphisms 927T>C CYSLTR1 and -444A>C LTC4S, and to determine whether there is an association between these polymorphisms and the asthma phenotype in a Spanish population. Both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analysed in 208 individuals (130 asthmatic subjects and 78 controls). A standardized history, physical examination, skin prick tests and lung function measurement were taken from all patients. Genotypes were determined by direct sequencing after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. In the group of male patients, the C allele of 927T> C CYSLTRI was more common among patients with asthma than controls. No association was detected between the -444A> C LTC4S polymorphism and the asthma phenotype. The combination of 927T CYSLTR1 and -444A LTC4S was less common in male patients with asthma than in controls (Fisher's P-value =.039; Monte Carlo P-value (after 104 simulations)= .045 and the combination of 927C CYSLTR1 and -444A LTC4S was slightly more frequent in patients with asthma. No differences were observed in the female group. The results suggest a certain trend of associations that could help to explain some controversial results in association studies of these genes from the leukotriene pathway, when considered individually. Further studies are needed to confirm such an association.
    Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología 01/2006; 16(6):331-7. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL4/IL4RA pathway plays an important role in atopy and asthma. Different polymorphisms in IL4 and IL4RA genes have been described. Particularly, -33C>TIL4 and 576Q>RIL4RA SNPs have been independently associated to atopy and asthma. The purpose of this study was to analyse these polymorphisms in a population of patients with a well-characterized asthma phenotype. A total of 212 unrelated Caucasian individuals, 133 patients with asthma and 79 healthy subjects without symptoms or history of asthma or atopy and with negative skin prick tests were recruited. Lung function was measured by spirometry and asthma was specialist physician-diagnosed according to the ATS (American Thoracic Society) criteria and classified following the GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) guidelines. Skin prick tests were performed according to EAACI recommendations. -33C>TIL4 was studied with TaqMan assay and 576Q>RIL4RA by PCR-RFLP technique. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was analysed in all groups. Dichotomous variables were analysed using chi2, Fisher exact test, Monte Carlo simulation test and odds ratio test. To model the effects of multiple covariates logistic regression was used. No statistically significant differences between the group of patients with asthma and the controls were found when the allele and genotype distribution of -33C>TIL4 and 576Q>RIL4RA polymorphisms were compared. However, the T allele of the -33C>TIL4 SNP was more frequent in patients with persistent asthma. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age and sex confirmed that carriers of allele T had an increased risk of persistent asthma (OR: 2.77, 95%CI: 1.18-6.49; p = 0.019). Analysis of combination of polymorphisms showed that patients carrying both the T allele of -33C>TIL4 and the A allele of 576Q>RIL4RA had an increased risk of asthma. This association was particularly observed in persistent asthma [Fisher's p value = 0.0021, Monte Carlo p value (after 10(4) simulations) = 0.0016, OR:3.39; 95% CI:1.50-7.66]. Our results show a trend of association between the genetic combination of the T allele of -33C>TIL4 and the A allele of 576Q>RIL4RA with asthma. This genetic variant was more frequently observed in patients with persistent asthma. As long as this study was performed in a small population, further studies in other populations are needed to confirm these results.
    Clinical and Molecular Allergy 11/2005; 3:15. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atopy is a common immunological disorder underlying allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and allergic asthma. There is an association between atopy and the polymorphism Q576R in the IL4RA gene. The aim of this study is to analyze the allelic distribution of the Q576R polymorphism in an atopic and non atopic population and the relationship with total IgE levels and the family history of atopy. Q576R polymorphism of IL4RA gene was analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using MspI restriction enzyme in 154 patients from the Allergy Department of the University Hospital of Salamanca. We have not found an association between the R576 allele and higher serum IgE levels nor atopy in this population. Nevertheless, there is an association between this allele and IgE levels in patients with positive skin prick test and family history of atopy. Our results suggest that the R576 allele could characterize a specific group of patients with a familial history of atopy in whom the presence of this allele may be related to higher levels of serum IgE.
    Medicina Clínica 03/2005; 124(6):211-2. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective Atopy is a common immunological disorder underlying allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and allergic asthma. There is an association between atopy and the polymorphism Q576R in the IL4RA gene. The aim of this study is to analyze the allelic distribution of the Q576R polymorphism in an atopic and non atopic population and the relationship with total IgE levels and the family history of atopy. Patients and method Q576R polymorphism of IL4RA gene was analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using MspI restriction enzyme in 154 patients from the Allergy Department of the University Hospital of Salamanca. Results We have not found an association between the R576 allele and higher serum IgE levels nor atopy in this population. Nevertheless, there is an association between this allele and IgE levels in patients with positive skin prick test and family history of atopy. Conclusions Our results suggest that the R576 allele could characterize a specific group of patients with a familial history of atopy in whom the presence of this allele may be related to higher levels of serum IgE.
    Medicina Clínica. 02/2005; 124(6):211–212.