Volker Geist

Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

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Publications (48)201.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Bivalirudin has emerged as a meaningful alternative to heparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To date, it is unclear whether bivalirudin has advantages in patients undergoing rotational atherectomy (RA).
    EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 08/2014; 10(4):458-65. DOI:10.4244/EIJV10I4A79 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current guidelines consider severe systolic left ventricular dysfunction [ejection fraction (EF) ≤20 %; left ventricular dysfunction (LVD)] a contraindication for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TAVI in this extreme risk subset of patients. The study population (253 patients) was divided into two groups; the LVD group [21 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤20 %] and the control group (232 patients with LVEF >20 %). TAVI was generally performed transfemorally under analgosedation without mechanical circulatory support. Clinical and hemodynamic variables, as well as procedural and follow-up outcomes, were compared, and all events were defined according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium criteria for event definition. Mean EF in the LVD group was 18.3 ± 2.9 % compared to 50.9 ± 11.3 % in the control group. Patients in the LVD group were younger, more commonly males, had higher logistic EuroSCORE and lower mean aortic pressure gradients. Immediate procedural mortality was low and similar in both groups (0 vs. 2.2 % in the LVD and control group, respectively, p = 0.49). At 30 days, post-procedural vascular and bleeding complications as well as strokes were similar, but all-cause mortality was higher in the LVD group (14.3 vs. 3.4 %, p = 0.05). In the survivors of the LVD group, New York Heart Association functional class and LVEF significantly improved at 30 days and 6 months. Survival at 1 and 2 years was 70.2 vs. 86.0 % and 56.1 vs. 78.3 % in the LVD and control group, respectively (log-rank p = 0.03). TAVI without mechanical circulatory support appears feasible, safe and effective in patients with severe aortic stenosis and severe LVD, but short- and long-term mortality remain high. TAVI should be considered a viable treatment option in this subset of extremely compromised patients.
    Clinical Research in Cardiology 03/2014; 103(8). DOI:10.1007/s00392-014-0691-5 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Die folgende Kasuistik berichtet von einer 64-jährigen Patientin mit typischen Zeichen einer akuten Stanford Typ-B-Dissektion. Die Behandlung erfolgte mit einem endovaskulärem Stentgraft. Die Okklusion des Dissektionsentrys durch den Stentgraft war erfolgreich. Am Tage nach der Intervention entwickelte die Patientin eine akute rechtsseitige Halbseitensymptomatik aufgrund einer retrograden Stanford Typ-A-Dissektion. Die Aorta ascendens und der proximale Aortenbogen wurden durch eine 28mm Dacron-Velourprothese ersetzt und die Aortenklappe mittels einer modifizierten Yacoub-Operation resuspendiert. Nach der Operation verschwanden die neurologischen Symptome. Mögliche Ursachen der Typ-A-Dissektion als Komplikation einer, mit einem endovaskulärem Stentgraft behandelten Typ-B-Dissektion werden diskutiert. Acute aortic dissection is a disease with high mortality. Whereas acute dissection of the ascending aorta (Stanford type A) is treated surgically, acute dissection of Stanford type B (descending aorta) is principially treated conservatively, but surgically in case of complications. Recently, another therapeutical option for the treatment of type B dissection has been developed using endovascular stent-grafts. We report on a 64-year-old woman with typical signs of acute aortic dissection. Computer tomography and transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated Stanford type B dissection. The patient was treated with an endovascular stent-graft, because of malperfusion of the right leg and chest pain. After successful closure of the entry by the stent, the patient developed acute right-sided hemiplegia one day after the intervention due to retrograde dissection into the aortic arch and ascending aorta. Upon immediate operation, the origin of the initially type B dissection was still sufficiently occluded by the endovascular stent-graft; however, there was another entry between the innominate artery and the left carotic artery near one proximal end of the stent’s strut. Using deep hypothermia and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion, the ascending aorta and proximal arch were replaced with a 28mm Dacron-Velour tube and the aortic root was remodelled with a tongue-shaped Dacron graft preserving the valve cusps according to a modified Yacoub procedure. After the operation, neurological symptoms diminished and the patient could walk on the ward on day eleven.    This case demonstrates retrograde type A dissection as a complication after interventional treatment of type B dissection using an endovascular stent-graft. The reason for this delayed complication is speculative. Aortic wall damage during stent inserting could be a possible cause. It is also likely that the patient initially had type B dissection with retrograde dissection of the distal part of the aortic arch. Therefore, one of the straight struts of the proximal end of the stent may have caused additional damage to the vulnerable dissected aortic wall in the arch, leading to retrograde type A dissection. Careful patient selection, detailed diagnosis of the aortic arch, improved stent designs and materials, especially regarding the stent’s ends and careful insertion of the stent into the aortic arch, could contribute to prevention of the described problems.
    Zeitschrift für Kardiologie 03/2014; 91(3):274-277. DOI:10.1007/s003920200024 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This study sought to assess aortic regurgitation (AR) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the self-expandable Medtronic CoreValve (MCV) (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota) versus balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien XT valve (ESV) (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California). Background AR after TAVI has been associated with poor survival, but limited data exist comparing MCV with ESV. Methods We pooled the prospective TAVI databases of 2 German centers. The primary endpoint was more-than-mild post-TAVI AR assessed by echocardiography. We also assessed device success and survival within 1 year. Endpoints were adjudicated according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium criteria and analyzed by unadjusted and propensity-score–adjusted models. Results A total of 394 patients were included, 276 treated with MCV and 118 with ESV. More-than-mild AR was significantly higher with MCV than with ESV (12.7% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.002). This difference remained significant after propensity adjustment (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 20.44). The occurrence of any degree of AR was also higher with MCV (71.6% vs. 56.9%, p = 0.004). Device success was mainly influenced by the occurrence of AR and was consequently higher with ESV (95.8% vs. 86.6%, p = 0.007), but this was not significant after propensity adjustment (adjusted OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.11 to 1.03, p = 0.06). At 1 year, survival was comparable between both valve types (83.8% MCV vs. 88.2% ESV, p = 0.42), but was significantly worse in patients with more-than-mild AR (69.8% vs. 87.4%, p = 0.004) and in those with device failure (65.6% vs. 87.4%, p < 0.001). Conclusions More-than-mild AR after TAVI was more frequent with MCV than with ESV. This finding deserves consideration, as more-than-mild AR was associated with higher mortality at 1 year.
    JACC Cardiovascular Interventions 01/2014; 7(3):284–292. DOI:10.1016/j.jcin.2013.11.011 · 7.44 Impact Factor
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    Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions 08/2013; 6(4). DOI:10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.112.000115 · 6.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Rotational atherectomy (RA) is frequently performed to modify complex fibrocalcific coronary lesions with high procedural success. A stuck rotablator is a rare but life-threatening complication. However, its description remains sporadic and it has never been systematically analysed. The aim of this analysis is to present our experience and summarise the available literature about stuck rotablator, and to identify risk factors and possible management strategies for this complication. Methods and results: We analysed our experience of 442 RA procedures and identified four cases of stuck rotablator. Two of these cases were rotablations in freshly implanted stents. All cases were managed percutaneously. We further analysed the available literature and identified a total of 11 reports with 14 cases of a stuck rotablator burr; seven were managed surgically and seven with endovascular approaches. Based on our experience and the literature review we developed an algorithm to guide operators while managing this complication. Conclusions: Entrapment of a rotablation burr is a rare but very serious complication of RA. Operators performing RA should be aware of this risk and be prepared to manage it adequately. In our experience, the risk seems to be higher when rotablating freshly implanted underexpanded stents.
    EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 06/2013; 9(2):251-8. DOI:10.4244/EIJV9I2A41 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The optimal antithrombotic treatment for patients on oral anticoagulants (OAC) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is controversial. We analyzed the safety and efficacy of dual therapy with OAC plus clopidogrel in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients receiving drug-eluting stents (DES). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this retrospective analysis, all AF patients treated with dual therapy were retrospectively identified. Efficacy endpoints included cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis (ST) and cerebrovascular stroke at follow-up, while safety was assessed by bleeding events defined by the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC). Between January 2008 and August 2010, 221 patients with high-risk AF received a DES and a dual therapy with OAC and clopidogrel. At a mean follow-up of 19 months, bleeding complications occurred in 22 patients (10 %), more than half of them (n = 12) were related to the index PCI. We observed 11 cardiac deaths (4.9 %), 9 MIs (4.1 %), 3 definite (1.4 %) and no probable ST at follow-up. All definite ST occurred after cessation of clopidogrel at 8, 22, and 30 months after PCI in patients not adequately anticoagulated. Eight patients (3.6 %) had an ischemic stroke, five of which after temporary or permanent cessation of OAC. CONCLUSION: The data generated from this large single-center experience in AF patients treated with DES revealed that dual therapy with OAC plus clopidogrel for 6-12 months followed by monotherapy with OAC appears both safe and effective at long-term follow-up. However, after clopidogrel cessation, maintaining therapeutic anticoagulation with an INR >2 is essential to prevent both thrombotic and embolic events.
    Clinical Research in Cardiology 06/2013; 102(11). DOI:10.1007/s00392-013-0592-z · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To assess long-term outcome after rotational atherectomy (RA) is followed by drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in complex calcified coronary lesions. BACKGROUND: RA can favorably modify heavily calcified coronary lesions, but long-term outcome is poor when it is used as a stand-alone therapy or combined with bare-metal stents. DES have reduced rates of restenosis in a wide range of patient and lesion subsets, but little information is available on long-term clinical outcome when RA is followed by DES implantation (Rota-DES) in complex calcified lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred and five patients with de novo complex calcified coronary lesions treated with Rota-DES were analyzed. Mean age was 69.7 ± 9.3 years, 63 patients (31%) had diabetes mellitus and 21 patients (10%) had chronic renal failure. Total stent length/patient was 32 mm. The majority of patients were treated with paclitaxel-eluting stents (64%) or sirolimus-eluting stents (30%). Angiographic success rate was 98%. The incidence of in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target vessel revascularization (TVR), was 4.4%. Long-term follow-up was available for 188 patients (92%). At a median follow-up period of 15 months (range, 1-84), the cumulative incidence of MACE (Kaplan-Meier estimate) was 17.7%. Death occurred in 4.4%, MI in 3.4%, TVR in 9.9%, and target lesion revascularization (TLR) in 6.8%. One definite (0.5%) and one probable (0.5%) stent thrombosis were observed. In a multivariate analysis, low ejection fraction (<40%) was the only independent predictor of MACE, and both age and diabetes were independent predictors of TLR. CONCLUSION: This study represents the largest European data set of patients treated with RA in the DES era. RA followed by DES implantation in calcified coronary lesions appears to be feasible and effective, with a high rate of procedural success and low incidence of TLR and MACE at long term considering this complex patient and lesion subset. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2013; 81(2). DOI:10.1002/ccd.24367 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the effect of rotational atherectomy (RA) on drug-eluting stent (DES) effectiveness. BACKGROUND: DES are frequently used in complex lesions, including calcified stenoses, which may challenge DES delivery, expansion, and effectiveness. RA can adequately modify calcified plaques and facilitate stent delivery and expansion. Its impact on DES effectiveness is widely unknown. METHODS: The ROTAXUS (Rotational Atherectomy Prior to TAXUS Stent Treatment for Complex Native Coronary Artery Disease) study randomly assigned 240 patients with complex calcified native coronary lesions to RA followed by stenting (n = 120) or stenting without RA (n = 120, standard therapy group). Stenting was performed using a polymer-based slow-release paclitaxel-eluting stent. The primary endpoint was in-stent late lumen loss at 9 months. Secondary endpoints included angiographic and strategy success, binary restenosis, definite stent thrombosis, and major adverse cardiac events at 9 months. RESULTS: Despite similar baseline characteristics, significantly more patients in the standard therapy group were crossed over (12.5% vs. 4.2%, p = 0.02), resulting in higher strategy success in the rotablation group (92.5% vs. 83.3%, p = 0.03). At 9 months, in-stent late lumen loss was higher in the rotablation group (0.44 ± 0.58 vs. 0.31 ± 0.52, p = 0.04), despite an initially higher acute lumen gain (1.56 ± 0.43 vs. 1.44 ± 0.49 mm, p = 0.01). In-stent binary restenosis (11.4% vs. 10.6%, p = 0.71), target lesion revascularization (11.7% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.84), definite stent thrombosis (0.8% vs. 0%, p = 1.0), and major adverse cardiac events (24.2% vs. 28.3%, p = 0.46) were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Routine lesion preparation using RA did not reduce late lumen loss of DES at 9 months. Balloon dilation with only provisional rotablation remains the default strategy for complex calcified lesions before DES implantation. (Rotational Atherectomy Prior to Taxus Stent Treatment for Complex Native Coronary Artery Disease. A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial [ROTAXUS]; NCT00380809).
    JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 12/2012; 6(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jcin.2012.07.017 · 7.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To report clinical experience with longitudinal stent deformation (LSD) and observations from the bench. Background: LSD was recently reported with thin-strut coronary stents. Whether it is related to a particular stent or constitutes a class-effect remains debatable. Methods: After 2 cases of LSD were reported, information was sent to operators to warn of this event and identify possible cases. All cases were reviewed to ensure LSD had occurred. Simultaneously, bench testing was conducted to identify the susceptibility of stents to longitudinal compression and whether LSD detection is influenced by fluoroscopic stent visibility. Results: Between July 2010 and November 2011, 2,705 coronary interventions were performed with 4,588 stents (Promus Element = 41.6%, Xience Prime = 24.4%). Six patients with LSD were identified, all with Promus Element (0.31%). Wire bias was a predisposing factor in 4 cases. All patients were treated with postdilatation and/or additional stenting. No adverse events occurred (mean 5.8 months). In bench testing, LSD occured in all examined stents, but at different levels of applied force (weight). Most shortening at 50 g was observed with Promus Element (38.9%), as was the best visibility of LSD on x-ray images. With postdilatation all stents showed some re-elongation. Conclusion: In our practice LSD was a rare observation only seen with the Promus Element stent. When subjected to longitudinal compression in a bench test all contemporary stents can be compressed. Compression of Promus Element occurs at a lower force, but it is the only stent where deformations are detected with x ray. Postdilatation can partially improve LSD. (J Interven Cardiol 2012;**:1-10).
    Journal of Interventional Cardiology 09/2012; 25(6). DOI:10.1111/j.1540-8183.2012.00765.x · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 02/2012; 14 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):P94. DOI:10.1186/1532-429X-14-S1-P94 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite widespread penetration of drug-eluting stents (DES) in clinical practice, a relevant percentage of patients with coronary artery disease are still treated with bare-metal stents (BMS). Contemporary BMS, however, are less well investigated and comparative data on clinical outcome are lacking. This single-center registry aimed to assess characteristics and outcome of patients treated with 2 different new-generation cobalt-chromium BMS, the MULTI-LINK VISION and PRO-Kinetic stents. During the study, adopted criteria for BMS selection were: (1) limited compliance to dual antiplatelet therapy, (2) ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) or saphenous vein graft (SVG) interventions, and (3) noncomplex lesions located either in the right coronary artery or in the nonproximal segments of the left coronary artery. During a 24-month period 1,176 patients were treated with the VISION (n = 438) or PRO-Kinetic stent (n = 738). Median duration of follow-up was 549.5 and 528.5 days, respectively. Target lesion revascularization (TLR) and target vessel revascularization were numerically lower in the VISION group (10.4 vs. 12.3% and 11.9 vs. 15.2%, P = 0.24 and 0.11). Death (4.1 vs. 4.3%, P = 0.85), MI (2 vs. 2.3%, P = 0.78), and ARC definite stent thrombosis (0.5 vs. 0.5%, P = 0.84) were similar. By multivariate analysis, variables associated with TLR were SVG interventions (HR 2.21, 95% CI 1.26-3.86), total stent length (HR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), and smoking (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.05-2.16). In the DES era, the use of last-generation thin-strut BMS in selected patients is associated with acceptable clinical outcome, with similar clinical results for both the MULTI-LINK VISION and PRO-Kinetic stents.
    Journal of Interventional Cardiology 12/2011; 24(6):496-504. DOI:10.1111/j.1540-8183.2011.00672.x · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease negatively affects the outcome of patients undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement and practice guidelines recommend revascularization at time of surgery. In patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), the impact of preprocedural percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on TAVI outcome has not been examined. We aimed in the present study to assess the feasibility and safety of performing PCI before TAVI and to evaluate procedural, 30-day, and 6-month clinical outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed 125 patients who underwent successful TAVI at a single institution and divided them into an isolated TAVI and a PCI + TAVI group. During the study period, a strategy of preprocedural PCI of all significant (>50%) lesions in major epicardial vessels was adopted. Study end points were adjudicated in accordance with the Valve Academic Research Consortium consensus on event definition. All patients were treated with the Medtronic CoreValve prosthesis (n = 55 with PCI + TAVI and n = 70 with isolated TAVI). Thirty-day mortality was 2% versus 6% for patients treated with PCI + TAVI versus isolated TAVI, respectively (p = 0.27). Neither periprocedural nor spontaneous myocardial infarction occurred in either group. Rates of 30-day stroke, major bleeding, major vascular complications, and the Valve Academic Research Consortium-defined combined safety end point (11% vs 13%, p = 0.74) did not differ between the 2 groups. Patients' symptoms significantly improved in the first month after TAVI, and extent of improvement did not differ between groups. Adverse events at 6 months were comparable. In conclusion, PCI before TAVI appears feasible and safe. Based on these early results revascularization should become an important consideration in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing TAVI.
    The American journal of cardiology 11/2011; 109(4):581-6. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.09.053 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Echocardiography may underestimate the degree of paravalvular aortic regurgitation (AR) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using the Medtronic CoreValve bioprosthesis due to inherent limitations of ultrasound imaging in the evaluation of implanted cardiac prostheses. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in quantifying regurgitant volume (RV) and regurgitant fraction (RF) in patients treated with this bioprosthesis for severe calcific aortic stenosis, and to compare the results with echocardiography and aortography. This study included 16 patients with a mean age of 78.7 years (eight women, eight men) who underwent successful TAVI using Medtronic CoreValve bioprosthesis. AR was evaluated by CMR, echocardiography, and aortography. Angiography was performed immediately after valve implantation. CMR and echocardiography were performed four weeks after valve implantation. There was a highly significant correlation between the CMR-derived and the angiographically-estimated degree of AR (r=0.86, p<0.001). On the other hand, there was only a limited correlation between CMR and echocardiography (r=0.374, p=0.15) as well as angiography and echocardiography (r=0.319, p=0.23) regarding the degree of AR. The weighted kappa for agreement between echocardiography and angiography was 0.14, for agreement between echocardiography and CMR 0.20, and for agreement between angiography and CMR 0.72. Echocardiography underestimated AR by one degree compared to CMR in five patients and 2 degrees in two patients; in six of these, the degree of AR obtained by CMR was similar to angiography. In patients undergoing TAVI, comparisons between purely quantitative measurements of AR by CMR and qualitative assessment by angiography showed better correlations than those with echocardiography. This suggests that echocardiography may underestimate the degree of AR and CMR in these circumstances has a great potential in reliably measuring the severity of AR in a quantitative manner.
    EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 05/2011; 7(1):57-63. DOI:10.4244/EIJV7I8A12 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease has been reported in more than 50% of patients with severe aortic stenosis above the age of 70 years. Combined surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is associated with a higher operative risk. Concomitant coronary artery disease also increases the procedural risk of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), and hence, a combined strategy for treating both entities needs to be carefully considered. Data regarding TAVI and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a combined percutaneous procedure are scarce. We report the case of an 84-year-old woman who presented with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and impending pulmonary edema who was diagnosed with severe aortic stenosis and two-vessel coronary artery disease. Because of an elevated logistic Euroscore of 25% and her unstable presentation, percutaneous coronary revascularization and TAVI were successfully performed in a combined percutaneous transfemoral procedure. She had a smooth recovery and rehabilitation period with significant improvement in her symptoms and functional capacity. Thirty-day follow-up, including transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, showed a well-functioning prosthetic valve and no signs of residual myocardial ischemia. We therefore conclude that combined PCI and TAVI is feasible and can be associated with good clinical outcomes in selected cases. Further data and experience are needed to evaluate this strategy.
    The Journal of invasive cardiology 05/2011; 23(5):E102-5. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking strongly increases morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes, but the relevance of smoking in patients treated with drug-eluting stents (DES) is unknown. To assess the impact of smoking on the presentation and outcome of patients treated with DES. We analyzed data from the prospective multicentre German Drug-Eluting Stent Registry (DES.DE) and identified 1,122 patients who had never smoked and 1,052 patients who were current smokers. Smokers were younger (56.5 vs. 69.4 years, p < 0.0001), more often males, with less frequent diabetes and hypertension compared to non-smokers. Smokers presented more often with acute coronary syndromes. After a mean follow-up of 12.5 months, smokers had both higher mortality (4.6 vs. 2.7%, p < 0.05) and myocardial infarction (MI) rates (4.9 vs. 3%, p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between smokers and non-smokers in the rate of target vessel revascularization (9.8 vs. 11.4%, p = 0.26). Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (defined as the composite of death, MI and stroke, MACCE) were higher in smokers (10.6 vs. 6.1%, p < 0.001). Moreover, after adjustment for baseline clinical and angiographic variables, smoking continued to be a strong independent predictor for MACCE (OR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.49-3.68). In a subgroup analysis, we found that the increased risk of smoking was most prominent in patients presenting with stable angina pectoris (OR = 3.71, 95% CI 1.24-2.57, p < 0.05). Smoking almost doubled the risk for MACCE in acute MI patients, though this did not reach statistical significance (adjusted OR = 1.91, 95% CI 0.93-3.94, p = 0.74). This large multicentre DES registry provides evidence that smokers treated with DES, despite lower incidence of predisposing risk factors for atherosclerosis, experience higher rates of death and MI compared to non-smokers, particularly in the setting of stable coronary artery disease. Smoking has only marginal effects on target vessel revascularization rates in patients treated with DES.
    Clinical Research in Cardiology 12/2010; 100(5):413-23. DOI:10.1007/s00392-010-0259-y · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of aortic regurgitation (AR) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). TAVI has been associated with a high rate of paravalvular regurgitation, usually mild. Nevertheless, moderate to severe regurgitations still occur and may have negative clinical consequences. Fifty patients with severe aortic stenosis were recruited and underwent successful TAVI with the Medtronic CoreValve bioprosthesis through the transfemoral route. The end point of this study is the early occurrence of significant AR, defined as the occurrence of grade II or more AR by post-procedural aortography. The study population's mean age was 80.5 ± 7.9 years, with a mean aortic valve area of 0.64 ± 0.17 cm². Post-procedural AR was absent in 3 patients and was grade I in 27 patients, grade II in 13 patients, and grade III in 7 patients. Using univariate analysis, the chance of significant AR increased with increasing angle of left ventricular outflow tract to ascending aorta (∠LVOT-AO) (odds ratio: 1.24, p < 0.001). For the depth of the device in relation to the noncoronary cusp, there was a minimum chance of AR corresponding to depth = 9.5 mm (odds ratio: 1.1, p = 0.01). Using multivariate analysis, we found a greater chance of significant AR with a greater angle (odds ratio: 1.24, p = 0.001), and that the chance of significant AR is a minimum when depth of the device in relation to the noncoronary cusp is ∼10 mm (odds ratio: 1.1, p = 0.024). A predictive model was generated, and if 2 ×∠LVOT-AO + (depth to noncoronary cusp - 10)² ≥ 50, the likelihood of occurrence of significant AR could be predicted with a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 87%. The occurrence of significant AR after TAVI can be predicted by anatomic and procedural variables. A model such as that presented can be used to select suitable patients for this procedure and guide operators during implantation of the device.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 11/2010; 56(20):1623-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2010.06.035 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The conventional surgical aortic bioprostheses used for treatment of aortic stenosis (AS) are inherently stenotic in nature. The more favorable mechanical profile of the Medtronic CoreValve bioprosthesis may translate into a better hemodynamic and neurohormonal response. The early hemodynamic and neurohormonal responses of 56 patients who underwent successful transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using the Medtronic CoreValve bioprosthesis for severe symptomatic AS were compared with those of 36 patients who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) using tissue valves in the same period. At baseline, patients in the TAVI and SAVR group had comparable indexed aortic valve area (0.33 ± 0.1 vs 0.34 ± 0.1 cm² , respectively; P = .69) and mean transvalvular gradient (51.1 ± 16.5 vs 53.1 ± 14.3 mm Hg, respectively; P = .56). At 30-day follow-up, mean transvalvular gradient was lower in the TAVI group than in the SAVR group (10.3 ± 4 vs 13.1 ± 6.2 mm Hg, respectively; P = .015), and the indexed aortic valve area was larger in the TAVI group (1.0 ± 0.14 vs 0.93 ± 0.13 cm²/m²; P = .017). There was a trend toward a higher incidence of moderate patient-prosthesis mismatch in the surgical group compared with the TAVI group (30.5% vs 17.8%, respectively; P = .11). The overall incidence of prosthetic regurgitation (any degree) was higher in the TAVI group than in the SAVR group (85.7% vs 16.7%, respectively; P < .00001). The left ventricular mass index decreased after TAVI (175.1 ± 61.8 vs 165.6 ± 57.2 g/m²; P = .0003) and remained unchanged after SAVR (165.1 ± 50.6 vs 161 ± 64.8 g/m²; P = .81). Similarly, NT-ProBNP decreased after TAVI (3,479 ± 2,716 vs 2,533 ± 1,849 pg/mL; P = .033) and remained unchanged after SAVR (1,836 ± 2,779 vs 1,689 ± 1,533 pg/mL; P = .78). There was a modest correlation between natriuretic peptides and left ventricular mass index in the whole cohort (r = 0.4, P = .013). In patients with severe AS, TAVI resulted in lower transvalvular gradients and higher valve areas than SAVR. Such hemodynamic performance after TAVI may have contributed to early initiation of a reverse cardiac remodeling process and a decrease in natriuretic peptides.
    American heart journal 11/2010; 160(5):862-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2010.07.017 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with diabetes mellitus are known to be at increased risk for acute cardiovascular events. We used intravascular ultrasound virtual histology (IVUS-VH) to examine whether nonobstructive coronary artery lesions of diabetic patients have distinct plaque composition and morphology compared with nondiabetic patients. A total of 41 patients (13 diabetic and 28 nondiabetic) with proximally located angiographically nonobstructive coronary lesions were prospectively enrolled. In addition to plaque geometry, IVUS-VH lesion evaluation of the fibrous, fibro-fatty, necrotic core and calcified plaque components was performed. An IVUS-derived thin-cap fibroatheroma (IDTCFA) was defined as a lesion with a confluent necrotic core of at least 10% lumen cross-sectional area without evident overlying fibrous tissue and a plaque atheroma volume of at least 40% in at least three consecutive frames. Coronary artery lesions of diabetic and nondiabetic patients had similar plaque geometry. Lesions of diabetic patients were more likely to be positively remodeled than those of nondiabetic patients (67 vs. 27%, respectively, P = 0.02). Plaques of diabetic patients had significantly higher necrotic core percentages (23.3 +/- 6.1 vs. 17.1 +/- 8.7%, P = 0.03) and lower fibro-fatty tissue percentages (8 +/- 5 vs. 14.2 +/- 7.5%, P = 0.01) than those of nondiabetic patients. In addition, IDTCFAs were significantly more prevalent at the minimal lumen area site of diabetic patients compared to nondiabetic patients (92 vs. 54%, respectively, P = 0.02). After adjustment for various confounders, diabetes mellitus remained as the only independent clinical predictor of IDTCFAs at the minimal lumen area site [odds ratio (OR) 9.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-84.04, P = 0.04]. Nonobstructive coronary artery lesions of diabetic patients have distinct compositional and morphological features, suggesting that these differences may explain the increased likelihood of coronary events in diabetic patients.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 05/2010; 11(5):345-51. DOI:10.2459/JCM.0b013e328333ebb2 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation (IABP) are established treatment modalities in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. We hypothesized that the insertion of the IABP before primary PCI might result in better survival of patients with cardiogenic shock compared to postponing the insertion to after primary PCI. We, therefore, retrospectively studied 48 patients who had undergone primary PCI with IABP because of cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction (26 patients received the IABP before and 22 patients after primary PCI). No significant differences were present in the baseline clinical characteristics between the 2 groups. The mean number of diseased vessels was greater in the group of patients treated with the IABP before primary PCI (2.8 +/- 0.5 vs 2.3 +/- 0.7, p = 0.012), but the difference in the number of treated vessels was not significant. The peak creatine kinase and creatine kinase -MB levels were lower in patients treated with the IABP before primary PCI (median 1,077, interquartile range 438 to 2067 vs median 3,299, interquartile range 695 to 6,834, p = 0.047, and median 95, interquartile range 34 to 196 vs median 192, interquartile range 82 to 467, p = 0.048, respectively). In-hospital mortality and the overall incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events were significantly lower in the group of patients receiving the IABP before primary PCI (19% vs 59% and 23% vs 77%, p = 0.007 and p = 0.0004, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified renal failure (odds ratio 15.2, 95% confidence interval 3.13 to 73.66) and insertion of the IABP after PCI (odds ratio 5.2, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 24.76) as the only independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction who undergo primary PCI assisted by IABP have a more favorable in-hospital outcome and lower in-hospital mortality than patients who receive IABP after PCI.
    The American journal of cardiology 04/2010; 105(7):967-71. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.11.021 · 3.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

533 Citations
201.86 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2011
    • Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
  • 2004
    • Universität zu Lübeck
      • Department of Internal Medicine I
      Lübeck Hansestadt, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany