Tai Hing Lam

The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

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Publications (583)2565.08 Total impact

  • Sai Yin Ho, Man Ping Wang, Tai Hing Lam
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To examine the relation of perceived peer smoking prevalence with smoking behavior and intention among primary students. Methods: In 2008, primary 4 to 6 students in 14 randomly selected schools completed an anonymous questionnaire. Smoking status was categorized as current (at least <1 cig/week), former (smoked any numbers of cigarettes but not any more) and ever (current and former smoker) versus never. Intention to smoke when grown up (yes versus no) was recorded. Perceived peer smoking prevalence among all primary school students was classified as over-estimated (half) and grossly over-estimated (most/all) versus under/accurately estimated (none/some). Data were weighted by census school grade distribution. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) for smoking behavior and intension adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and taking into account clustering effect of schools. Results: Among 3995 never and 257 ever-smoker, 73.3% under-estimated or accurately estimated, 16.4% over-estimated and 10.3% grossly over-estimated the prevalence of peer smoking. The adjusted current smoking ORs (95% CI) for over-estimation and gross overestimation were 1.30(0.42-4.08) and 5.56(1.88-16.4) (P for trend <0.001). The corresponding ORs for former and ever smokers were 1.87(1.22-2.84), 5.81(4.41-7.65) and 1.80(1.26-2.58), 5.75(4.19-7.88), respectively, (all p for trend <0.01). Over-estimation and gross over-estimation were positively associated with smoking intention (P<0.05). Conclusions: Over-estimating peer smoking prevalence was positively associated with smoking and intention to smoke in primary students. Prospective studies are needed to examine the temporality of the association and trials are needed to investigate the effects of correcting perceived prevalence of smoking on smoking behaviours and intention. Funding: The Hong Kong Council on Smoking and Health
    12th World Congress on Public Health World Health Organization; 04/2009
  • Man Ping Wang, Sai Yin Ho, Tai Hing Lam
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To investigate the association between smoking and perceived health among primary school students in Hong Kong. Methods: In 2008, primary 2 to 6 students (aged 6 to 14) in 24 randomly selected schools has completed an anonymous questionnaire. Perceived health in the past 30 days was reported as very good, good, bad or very bad. Smoking status was categorized as current (at least <1 cig/week), former (smoked any numbers of cigarettes but not any more) and ever (current and former smoker) versus never. Data were weighted by census school grade distribution. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for poor (bad/very bad) vs good (good/very good) perceived health by smoking status adjusting for age, sex, grade, place of birth, socio-econmonic status as represented by the number of bedrooms, parental smoking and secondhand smoke exposure, and taking into account the clustering effect of schools. Results: Of 8567 students, 5.8% had ever smoked, including 0.9% current and 4.9% former smokers. Only 10.4% reported poor perceived health. Compared with never smokers (9.6%), former (19.7%) and current (24.9%) smokers were more likely to report poor perceived health with ORs (95% CI) of 1.87(1.42-2.47) and 2.13(1.15-3.94), respectively (P for trend<0.001). Poor perceived health was reported by 20.5% of ever-smokers with OR of 1.89(1.44-2.49) compared with never smokers. Conclusions: Even young children smokers were more likely to report poor perceived health than never smokers and stopping smoking seemed to improve perceived health compared with continued smoking. Funding: The Hong Kong Council on Smoking and Health.
    12th World Congress on Public Health World Health Organization; 04/2009
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    ABSTRACT: In Caucasian populations, adult height is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and positively related to some cancers. However, there are few data from Asian populations and from women. We sought to determine the sex- and region-specific associations between height and cardiovascular outcomes, and deaths due to cancer, respiratory and injury in populations from the Asia-Pacific region. Thirty-nine studies from the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration database were included. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate the associations between height and pre-specified outcomes. A total of 510,800 participants with 21,623 deaths were included. Amongst men, inverse linear associations were observed between height and coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, CVD, injury and total mortality. The hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals, (CI)] for a 1-SD (= 6 cm) increment in height ranged from 0.85 (0.80-0.91) for injury to 0.97 (0.95-0.98) for total mortality. Similar trends were found between height and CHD, haemorrhagic stroke and CVD in women. A positive linear association was observed between height and cancer mortality. For each standard deviation greater height, the risk of cancer was increased by 5% (2-8%) and 9% (5-14%) in men and women, respectively. No regional difference was observed between Asian and Australasian cohorts. Adjusting for markers of education did not alter the results. The opposing relationships of height with CVD and cancer suggest that care is required in setting national policies on childhood nutrition lest they have unintended consequences on the incidence of major non-communicable diseases.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 04/2009; 38(4):1060-71. DOI:10.1093/ije/dyp150 · 9.20 Impact Factor
  • American Thoracic Society 2009 International Conference, May 15-20, 2009 • San Diego, California; 04/2009
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship of sociocultural influences (SI) promoting thinness (parental, peer and media pressures for thinness, and individual value for modernity), age and body mass Index (BMI) to body dissatisfaction (BD) and dieting in 294 Hong Kong community adolescent girls. We proposed that BD mediated SI's relationship with dieting. In bivariate analyses, all variables were significantly (p < or = .05) related to BD (beta's from 0.14 to 0.59), and, except for modernity, to dieting (beta's from 0.17 to 0.51). In multivariate analyses, peer (beta = 0.32, p < .001) and media pressures for thinness (beta = 0.18, p < .01) bypassed BD and were directly associated with dieting. A culture of thinness appears to be associated with weight loss efforts among girls in modernising cultures independent of BD. Our findings call for public policy to restrict promotion of the impossibly thin ideal, and public education regarding the paradoxical effects of dieting.
    European Eating Disorders Review 03/2009; 17(2):152-60. DOI:10.1002/erv.900 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In observational studies moderate alcohol use reduces cardio-respiratory mortality. However observational studies may be biased by many factors including residual confounding by unmeasured differences between moderate alcohol users and other groups or by changes in alcohol use with ill-health and aging. We used two different analytic strategies in an under-studied population, i.e. southern Chinese, to provide an assessment of the specific impact of moderate alcohol use on mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). In a population-based case-control study of all adult deaths in Hong Kong Chinese in 1998, we used adjusted logistic regression to compare alcohol use in decedents aged > or = 60 years from IHD (2270) and COPD (1441) with 10,320 living and 9043 dead controls (all non-alcohol related deaths). We also examined whether the association of alcohol use with death from IHD or COPD varied with sex or smoking status. Using living controls and adjusted for age, socio-economic status and lifestyle, occasional and moderate alcohol use were generally associated with lower mortality from IHD and COPD. However, using dead controls the protection of occasional and moderate alcohol use appeared to be limited to ever-smokers for IHD (odds ratio (OR) 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.73 for moderate compared to never-use in ever-smokers, but OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.50 in never-smokers), and possibly to men for COPD. High alcohol use was associated with lower IHD mortality and possibly with lower COPD mortality. High levels of alcohol use in an older Chinese population were associated with lower IHD mortality. Moderate alcohol use was less consistently protective against IHD mortality. Alcohol use was associated with lower COPD mortality particularly in men, either due to some yet to be clarified properties of alcohol or as the artefactual result of genetic selection into alcohol use in a Chinese population. Given the increasing use of alcohol in China with economic development, other designs and analytic strategies are needed to assess the impact of alcohol in this population, so that an evidence-based public health policy can be formulated.
    BMC Public Health 03/2009; 9:49. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-9-49 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal growth occurs concurrently with cognitive development. Better childhood conditions, proxied by greater adult height or leg length but not sitting height, have been positively associated with adult cognition mainly in white populations in developed countries. Whether skeletal growth is universally associated with cognitive function is unclear. We examined the association of height and its components with adulthood cognitive function in an area of southern China where there has been rapid economic development. Multivariable logistic regression was used in a cross-sectional study of 20,411 Chinese men and women aged 50 years or older from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. We assessed the association of height and its components with a test of mild cognitive impairment in which impairment was defined as a score of 3 or less on the 10-word delayed recall test. Greater height and sitting height were associated with better recall in men (odds ratio = 1.15 [95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.32] per 10 cm greater height and 1.33 [1.04-1.69] per 10 cm greater sitting height) and women (1.21 [1.10-1.33] and 1.56 [1.33-1.83], respectively) adjusting for age, education, personal income, and for smoking in men and age of menarche in women. Greater leg length in both sexes was associated with a higher test score. Certain phases of childhood or adolescent growth may be cognitively protective. If confirmed, these results highlight the childhood and adolescence antecedents of adult disease, with corresponding public health implications for healthy aging.
    Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 02/2009; 20(1):91-9. DOI:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181880396 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The F11 receptor (F11R, also known as junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A)) plays a role in the development of hypertension in rat. Genetic variants in the human F11R gene were demonstrated to influence systolic blood pressure. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between F11R and hypertension by examining the levels of a circulating soluble form of F11R (sF11R) in hypertensive patients. Plasma sF11R was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 152 hypertensive and 166 normotensive subjects in whom seven tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the F11R gene had been genotyped. Plasma sF11R levels were significantly higher in hypertensive subjects than in normotensive subjects (median (interquartile) range): 162.8 (85.5-293.2) vs. 116.5 (74.1-194.8) pg/ml, P = 0.004), which remained significantly higher after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.028). In stepwise multiple logistic regression, sF11R level (log-transformed) (P = 0.040), triglycerides (log-transformed) (P = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (log-transformed) (P < 0.001) were independently associated with hypertension. Plasma sF11R level correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures (r = 0.15, P < 0.001, and r = 0.13, P = 0.024, respectively). In stepwise multiple linear regression, hypertension (P = 0.013) and fibrinogen levels (P = 0.027) were significant independent predictors of sF11R level. A seven-locus haplotype, present in 2.1% of the subjects, was associated with higher sF11R level (P = 0.024). These results further support a role of F11 receptor in the pathophysiology of human hypertension.
    American Journal of Hypertension 02/2009; 22(5):500-5. DOI:10.1038/ajh.2009.23 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both influenza viruses and air pollutants have been well documented as major hazards to human health, but few epidemiologic studies have assessed effect modification of influenza on health effects of ambient air pollutants. We aimed to assess modifying effects of influenza on health effects of ambient air pollutants. We applied Poisson regression to daily numbers of hospitalizations and mortality to develop core models after adjustment for potential time-varying confounding variables. We assessed modification of influenza by adding variables for concentrations of single ambient air pollutants and proportions of influenza-positive specimens (influenza intensity) and their cross-product terms. We found significant effect modification of influenza (p < 0.05) for effects of ozone. When influenza intensity is assumed to increase from 0% to 10%, the excess risks per 10-microg/m(3) increase in concentration of O(3) increased 0.24% and 0.40% for hospitalization of respiratory disease in the all-ages group and >or= 65 year age group, respectively; 0.46% for hospitalization of acute respiratory disease in the all-ages group; and 0.40% for hospitalization of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the >or= 65 group. The estimated increases in the excess risks for mortality of respiratory disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the all-ages group were 0.59% and 1.05%, respectively. We found no significant modification of influenza on effects of other pollutants in most disease outcomes under study. Influenza activity could be an effect modifier for the health effects of air pollutants particularly for O(3) and should be considered in the studies for short-term effects of air pollutants on health.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 02/2009; 117(2):248-53. DOI:10.1289/ehp.11605 · 7.03 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2009; 53(4):363-71. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2008.08.073 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: China is the largest consumer of tobacco in the world and there are currently 360 million smokers in China. Smoking cessation is critical in fighting the tobacco epidemic, and nurses, the largest group of health care providers, play an important role in smoking cessation. China now is only at its early stage in capacity building for smoking cessation counsellors and the experience of Hong Kong, 20 years ahead in tobacco control, in developing nurses in smoking cessation counselling might be useful for reference. The study aimed to compare the differences between 1,541 Guangzhou and 1,843 Hong Kong nurses' knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to tobacco control and smoking cessation, and the predictors of practising smoking cessation intervention. We found that nurses in both Guangzhou and Hong Kong showed inadequate knowledge on tobacco control and smoking cessation counselling, and in particular, are insufficient in providing “initiation and advice” and “follow-through” actions based on the 5As (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) framework. Multivariate linear regressions revealed that the specific knowledge was positively associated with both “initiation and advice” and “follow-through” interventions in both regions; while the attitude towards the banning of tobacco promotion was positively associated with both actions in Hong Kong nurses but was negatively associated with the “follow-through” action in smoking cessation intervention in Guangzhou nurses; and the attitude towards their own responsibility in smoking cessation was only positively associated with the “initiation and advice” smoking cessation interventions among Hong Kong nurses. The findings suggested that basic and continuing education and training in smoking cessation should emphasize the specific health hazards of smoking, its risks and mortality. Moreover, the nursing curriculum should include programmes to cultivate a sense of responsibility among the nurses.
    01/2009; 8(1):179-205. DOI:10.1080/15339114.2009.9678478
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    Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 01/2009; 1(1). DOI:10.1017/S2040174409990067 · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 'Environmental mismatch' may contribute to obesity in rapidly developing societies, because poor early life conditions could increase the risk of obesity in a subsequently more socio-economically developed environment. In a recently developing population (from southern China) we examined the association of life-course socio-economic position (SEP) with obesity. In a cross-sectional study of 9998 adults from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (phase 2) examined in 2005-06, we used multivariable linear regression to assess the association of SEP at three life stages (proxied by parental possessions, education and longest held occupation) with obesity [body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)] in men and women. There was no evidence that socio-economic position trajectory had supra-additive effects on BMI or WHR. Instead in women, higher SEP at any life stage usually contributed to lower BMI and WHR; e.g. women with higher early adult SEP had lower BMI [-0.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.71 to -0.19) and WHR (-0.02; 95% CI -0.02 to -0.012]. In contrast, in men, higher childhood SEP was associated with higher BMI (0.53; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.88) and WHR (0.01; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.02) as was high late adulthood SEP with BMI (0.36; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.64). This study provides little support for environmental mismatch over the life course increasing obesity in this rapidly transitioning southern Chinese population. However, our findings highlight different effects of the epidemiologic transition in men and women, perhaps with pre-adult exposures as a critical window for sex-specific effects.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 12/2008; 38(1):72-82. DOI:10.1093/ije/dyn221 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In observational studies, mainly from Western Caucasian populations, moderate alcohol use has been shown to be associated with a lower risk of diabetes. However, whether the protection is due to the attributes of alcohol or to those of moderate alcohol users is difficult to disentangle. A population with a different distribution of alcohol consumption and diabetes prevalence from Western populations was studied as a counterfactual comparison. Baseline data from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study phases 1 and 2 (2003-6) were used to examine the adjusted associations, using multivariable censored linear regression, of alcohol use with fasting blood glucose in older (> or =50 years) men (n = 5740) and women (n = 14 274) from southern China. Moderate alcohol use was defined as weekly drinking of < or =210 g alcohol in men and < or =140 g in women. The expected associations of alcohol with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and blood pressure were also checked. Moderate alcohol users had very similar fasting glucose levels to never users, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking and physical activity. In contrast, moderate alcohol users had higher HDL-cholesterol by 0.05 mmol/litre (95% CI 0.02 to 0.07). Excessive (more than moderate) alcohol users had higher fasting glucose. In an understudied population with a different pattern of alcohol use from the populations usually studied, the biologically expected effects of moderate alcohol use were seen, but there was little effect on fasting glucose. Although cross-sectional studies cannot be conclusive, this pattern of findings, if confirmed, suggests that moderate alcohol use may not affect fasting glucose, although excessive use may be a risk factor.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health 10/2008; 63(2):121-7. DOI:10.1136/jech.2008.077602 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine 10/2008; 14(5 Suppl):8-10. DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-141-5-200409070-00106
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking cessation can reduce both morbidity and mortality among patients who have heart disease. China has the largest number of smokers in the world, and most smokers have low motivation to quit. Regular smoking cessation services are almost nonexistent in China, and little is known about the psychometric properties of instruments in assessing smoking self-efficacy in Chinese, whose cultures differ greatly from those of Westerners. The present study tested the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SEQ-12) among 1,841 Chinese smokers who had heart disease, including (a) factorial structure using confirmatory factor analysis, (b) reliability with Cronbach's alpha, (c) concurrent validity, and (d) predictive validity of successful quitting. Confirmatory factor analysis of the SEQ-12 revealed a modified two-factor model that provided a good fit to the data; item 6 ("urge to smoke") was an indicator for the external stimuli subscale rather than for the internal stimuli subscale. Internal consistency coefficients (.77 for external stimuli and .88 for internal stimuli) were acceptable. Baseline self-efficacy scores were significantly associated positively with stage of readiness to quit, and negatively with cigarettes smoked per day and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that successful quitting at 1 month and at 3 months were predicted by higher external stimuli score, fewer cigarettes smoked per day, lower FTND scores, and being in the intervention group. We concluded that the Chinese version of the SEQ-12 is a valid and reliable instrument for Chinese cardiac patients who smoke. The SEQ-12 can be used to assess smokers' self-efficacy so that appropriate smoking cessation interventions can be provided.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 09/2008; 10(8):1311-8. DOI:10.1080/14622200802238928 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is a powerful cardiovascular risk factor. Important gender and ethnic differences in plasma HDL levels exist and warrant investigation. Cross-sectional survey in two different general populations. Patients 7700 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 and 1944 participants of the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study-2 (CRISPS2) 2000-2004. Plasma HDL levels. Plasma HDL levels were higher in women than in men in both populations. In the United States women, it increased with age, whereas in Chinese women, it declined with age and converged with male HDL levels. In the United States, 37.1 +/- 1.2% men and 38.9 +/- 1.1% women had low HDL levels. In Hong Kong, 34.3 +/- 1.6% men and 34.5 +/- 1.5% women had low HDL levels. In Americans, the independent predictors of low HDL levels were lower age, being non-Mexican Hispanic, waist circumference, triglycerides and not drinking alcohol in men, and lower age, being Hispanic, waist circumference, triglycerides, current smoking and not drinking alcohol in women. In Hong Kong Chinese, the independent predictors of low HDL levels were body mass index, triglycerides, current smoking and not drinking alcohol in men, and lower age, waist circumference, triglycerides, diabetes and former smoking in women. The decline in plasma HDL with age in Chinese women is opposite to that seen in American women. The increased cardiovascular risk in elderly Chinese women requires further study.
    Clinical Endocrinology 09/2008; 70(4):561-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2008.03361.x · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association between secondhand smoke (SHS) and risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and stroke remains uncertain. We examined the relationship between SHS and cardiovascular diseases, particularly PAD and stroke, in Chinese women who never smoked from a population-based cross-sectional study in Beijing, China. SHS exposure was defined as exposure to another person's tobacco smoke at home or in the workplace. Cardiovascular disease events included coronary heart disease, stroke, and PAD. PAD was defined by signs of intermittent claudication as measured by the World Health Organization Rose questionnaire and an ankle-brachial index of <0.90. Among 1209 women who never smoked, 39.5% were exposed to SHS at home or in workplaces. Those individuals who were exposed to SHS had a significantly higher risk of coronary heart disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.69; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.18) and ischemic stroke (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.35) than those never exposed to SHS after adjustment for 13 potential risk factors. The adjusted ORs of PAD defined by intermittent claudication, by ankle-brachial index <0.90, and by either intermittent claudication or ankle-brachial index <0.90 were 1.87 (95% CI, 1.30 to 2.68), 1.47 (95% CI, 1.07 to 2.03), and 1.67 (95% CI, 1.23 to 2.16), respectively. Dose-response relationships were found between SHS exposure amount (cigarettes per day) and duration (minutes per day) and increasing prevalence of coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and PAD. In China, SHS exposure in women is highly prevalent. In addition to being a risk factor for coronary heart disease, SHS should be considered an important risk factor for ischemic stroke and PAD in nonsmoking women.
    Circulation 09/2008; 118(15):1535-40. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.784801 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. SARS coronavirus has low transmissibility at the community level. 2. Subclinical SARS coronavirus infection is rare in children.
    Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine 08/2008; 14 Suppl 4:17-20.
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    ABSTRACT: About half of the world's cases of cardiovascular disease occur in the Asia-Pacific region. The contribution of serum total cholesterol (TC) to this burden is poorly quantified. The most recent nationally representative data on TC distributions for countries in the region were sought. Individual participant data from 380,483 adults in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration were used to estimate associations between TC and cardiovascular disease. High TC was defined as > or =6.2 mmol/l, and nonoptimal TC as > or =3.8 mmol/l. Hazard ratios for fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischaemic stroke (IS) were found from Cox models. Sex-specific population attributable fractions for high TC and nonoptimal TC were estimated for each country. The former used conventional methods, based on single measures of TC and a fixed dichotomy of risk strata; the latter took account of the continuous positive association between TC and both CHD and IS and regression dilution. Data were available from 16 countries. Where reported, the prevalence of high TC ranged from 4 to 27%. The fraction of fatal CHD and IS attributable to high TC ranged from 0 to 14% and 0 to 15%, respectively. Although leaving the relative ranking of countries much the same, the fractions estimated for nonoptimal TC were typically at least twice as big, ranging from 0 to 47% and 0 to 35%, respectively. Conventional methods for estimating disease burden severely underestimate the effect of TC. Cholesterol-lowering strategies could have a tremendous effect in reducing cardiovascular deaths in this populous region.
    European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 08/2008; 15(4):397-401. DOI:10.1097/HJR.0b013e3282fdc967 · 3.69 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
2,565.08 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1982–2015
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • • School of Public Health
      • • Department of Community Medicine
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2014
    • University of Queensland
      • School of Population Health
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2013
    • City University of Hong Kong
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong
  • 2012
    • University of Ottawa
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006–2012
    • University of Birmingham
      • Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Birmingham, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2010
    • Queen Mary Hospital
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
      • Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department
      Isfahan, Ostān-e Eşfahān, Iran
  • 2008–2009
    • Hong Kong SAR Government
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2006–2007
    • The George Institute for Global Health
      • Renal and Metabolic Division
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2005–2007
    • Yonsei University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2001–2007
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Medicine and Therapeutics
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2004–2005
    • University of Sydney
      • George Institute for Global Health
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2000–2002
    • The University of Hong Kong - Shenzen Hospital
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Chongqing University of Medical Science
      Ch’ung-ch’ing-shih, Chongqing Shi, China
  • 1998
    • The University of Sheffield
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
  • 1989
    • Kwong Wah Hospital
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Christian Hospital
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States