Koert M Dolman

St. Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (43)184.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study in clinically active juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) was to assess the frequency and distribution pattern of synovitis as hallmark of disease and additional soft-tissue and bony abnormalities on MRI in the knee and wrist as two target joints. MATERIALS AND METHODS. MRI datasets of 153 clinically active JIA patients (110 with knee and 43 with wrist involvement) were evaluated independently by two readers for the presence of literature-based imaging features: "synovial hypertrophy," "bone marrow changes," "bone erosions," "tenosynovitis" (only in the wrist), and "cartilage lesions" (only in the knee) in accordance with validated definitions and scoring locations. RESULTS. Synovial hypertrophy was most frequently observed-both in the knee and in the wrist (61.8-65.1% of cases). For the knee, the most frequently involved locations were the cruciate ligaments (46/183 locations [25.1%] affected with synovial hypertrophy) and medial patella (18/62 locations [29.0%] with bone marrow changes). Cartilage lesions and bone erosions were rare (5.5-7.3% of cases). For the wrist, most frequently involved were the radiocarpal joint (21/64 locations [32.8%] with synovial hypertrophy), lunate (7/46 locations [15.2%] with bone marrow changes), and capitate or triquetrum (6/28 locations [21.4%] with bone erosions). Tenosynovitis was a common wrist-specific feature (46.5% of cases). MRI showed no abnormalities in a subgroup of patients with clinically active knee (23.6%) and wrist (16.3%) involvement. CONCLUSION. The distribution pattern of MRI abnormalities in the knee and wrist of active JIA patients provides a practical tool to detect a signature of JIA disease activity in target joints.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 05/2014; 202(5):W439-46. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare DCE-MRI parameters and the relative number of time-intensity curve (TIC) shapes as derived from pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI TIC shape analysis between knees of clinically active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. DCE-MRI data sets were prospectively obtained. Patients were classified into two clinical groups: active disease (n = 43) and inactive disease (n = 34). Parametric maps, showing seven different TIC shape types, were created per slice. Statistical measures of different TIC shapes, maximal enhancement (ME), maximal initial slope (MIS), initial area under the curve (iAUC), time-to-peak (TTP), enhancing volume (EV), volume transfer constant (K (trans)), extravascular space fractional volume (V e) and reverse volume transfer constant (k ep) of each voxel were calculated in a three-dimensional volume-of-interest of the synovial membrane. Imaging findings from 77 JIA patients were analysed. Significantly higher numbers of TIC shape 4 (P = 0.008), median ME (P = 0.015), MIS (P = 0.001) and iAUC (P = 0.002) were observed in clinically active compared with inactive patients. TIC shape 5 showed higher presence in the clinically inactive patients (P = 0.036). The pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI TIC shape analysis method proved capable of differentiating clinically active from inactive JIA patients by the difference in the number of TIC shapes, as well as the descriptive parameters ME, MIS and iAUC. • The pixel-by-pixel TIC shape method differentiates clinically active and inactive JIA patients • Significantly higher numbers of TIC shape 4 were observed in clinically active patients • DCE-MRI parameters ME, MIS and iAUC differ between active and inactive patients • The pixel-by-pixel analysis method allows direct visualization of the heterogeneously distributed disease • The DCE-MRI TIC shape method may serve as a quantitative outcome measure.
    European Radiology 04/2014; · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has changed dramatically since the introduction of biological agents in 1999. To evaluate trends in prescription patterns of biological agents and the subsequent outcome of JIA. The Arthritis and Biologics in Children register (multicentre prospective observational study) aimed to include all consecutive patients with JIA in the Netherlands who had started biological agents since 1999. Patients were divided according to year of introduction of first biological agent. Patient characteristics at introduction of the first biological agent and its effectiveness were analysed over 12 years. 335 patients with non-systemic JIA and 86 patients with systemic JIA started a biological agent between 1999 and 2010. Etanercept remained the most often prescribed biological agent for non-systemic JIA; anakinra became first choice for systemic JIA. The use of systemic glucocorticoids and synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs before biological agents decreased. During these 12 years of observation, biological agents were prescribed earlier in the disease course and to patients with lower baseline JADAS (Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score) disease activity. All baseline disease activity parameters were lowered in patients with non-systemic JIA. In systemic JIA, prescription patterns changed towards very early introduction of biological agents (median 0.4 years of disease duration) in patients with a low number of joints with active arthritis and high erythrocyte sedimentation rates. These changes for both systemic and non-systemic JIA resulted in more patients with inactive disease after 3 and 15 months of treatment. Biological agents are increasingly prescribed, earlier in the disease and in patients with JIA with lower disease activity. These changes are accompanied by better short-term disease outcomes.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 03/2014; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether clinical disease activity findings during 1-year followup of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is associated with changes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based disease activity scores. Patients with JIA who had active knee involvement were studied using an open-bore MRI. After followup of a median of 1.3 years, patients were re-evaluated and classified as improved or unimproved according to the American College of Rheumatology Pediatric-50 (ACR-Ped50) criteria. Baseline and followup MRI features were scored by 2 readers using the Juvenile Arthritis MRI Scoring (JAMRIS) system, comprising validated scores for synovial hypertrophy, bone marrow changes, cartilage lesions, and bone erosions. Data of 40 patients were analyzed (62.5% female, mean age 12.2 yrs). After followup, 27 patients (67.5%) were classified as clinically improved, whereas 13 patients (32.5%) showed no clinical improvement. The clinically improved patients showed a significant reduction in synovial hypertrophy scores during followup (p < 0.001), with substantial effects (standardized response mean -0.70). No such changes were observed for any of the other MRI features. Significant differences were detected regarding a change in synovial hypertrophy scores comparing clinically improved and unimproved patients (p = 0.004), without statistically significant differences for changes in scores for bone marrow changes (p = 0.079), cartilage lesions (p = 0.165), and bone erosions (p = 0.078). This is one of the first studies to provide evidence for MRI-based improvement upon followup in JIA patients with knee involvement. There is a strong association with clinical improvement according to the ACR-Ped50 criteria and changes in MRI-based synovial hypertrophy scores, supporting the role of MRI as a responsive outcome measure to evaluate disease activity with antiinflammatory treatment strategies.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 12/2013; · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in discriminating between active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and to compare physical examination outcomes with MRI outcomes in the assessment of disease status in JIA patients. Consecutive JIA patients with knee involvement were prospectively studied using an open-bore MRI. Imaging findings from 146 JIA patients were analysed (59.6 % female; mean age, 12.9 years). Patients were classified as clinically active or inactive. MRI features were evaluated using the JAMRIS system, comprising validated scores for synovial hypertrophy, bone marrow oedema, cartilage lesions and bone erosions. Inter-reader reliability was good for all MRI features (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.87-0.94). No differences were found between the two groups regarding MRI scores of bone marrow oedema, cartilage lesions or bone erosions. Synovial hypertrophy scores differed significantly between groups (P = 0.016). Nonetheless, synovial hypertrophy was also present in 14 JIA patients (35.9 %) with clinically inactive disease. Of JIA patients considered clinically active, 48.6 % showed no signs of MRI-based synovitis. MRI can discriminate between clinically active and inactive JIA patients. However, physical examination is neither very sensitive nor specific in evaluating JIA disease activity compared with MRI. Subclinical synovitis was present in >35 % of presumed clinically inactive patients. • MRI is sensitive for evaluating juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) disease activity. • Contrast-enhanced MRI can distinguish clinically active and inactive JIA patients. • Subclinical synovitis is present in 35.9 % of presumed clinically inactive patients. • Physical examination is neither sensitive nor specific in evaluating JIA disease activity.
    European Radiology 10/2013; · 4.34 Impact Factor
  • Annals of the rheumatic diseases 07/2013; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. To evaluate differences in baseline characteristics between etanercept- and adalimumab-treated JIA patients and to reveal factors that influence the choice between these TNF inhibitors, which are considered equally effective in the recent ACR recommendations for JIA treatment.Methods. Biologic-naïve JIA patients with active arthritis who started treatment with adalimumab or etanercept between March 2008 and December 2011 were selected from the Dutch Arthritis and Biologicals in Children register. Baseline characteristics were compared. Focus group interviews with paediatric rheumatologists were performed to evaluate factors determining treatment choices.Results. A total of 193 patients started treatment with etanercept and 21 with adalimumab. Adalimumab-treated patients had longer disease duration prior to the start of biologics (median 5.7 vs 2.0 years) and more often a history of uveitis (71% vs 4%). Etanercept-treated patients had more disability at baseline (median Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire score 1.1 vs 0.4) and more active arthritis (median number of active joints 6 vs 4). The presence of uveitis was the most important factor directing the choice towards adalimumab. Factors specific for the paediatric population-such as painful adalimumab injections-as well as the physician's familiarity with the drug accounted for the preference for etanercept.Conclusion. Although the two TNF inhibitors are considered equally effective, in daily practice etanercept is most often prescribed; adalimumab is mainly preferred when uveitis is present. In choosing the most suitable biologic treatment, paediatric rheumatologists take into account drug and patient factors, considering newly published data and cautiously implementing this into daily care.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 06/2013; · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    Tijdschrift voor kindergeneeskunde 02/2013; 81(1).
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    Tijdschrift voor kindergeneeskunde 02/2013; 81(1).
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of MRI without contrast enhancement in the evaluation of JIA knee joint abnormalities. METHODS: JIA patients with clinically active knee involvement were prospectively studied using an 1-T open-bore magnet. MRI features were independently evaluated by two readers using the JAMRIS system. The first reading included unenhanced images, whereas complete image sets were available for the second reading. RESULTS: Imaging findings from 73 patients were analysed. Agreement between Gd-enhanced (+Gd) and Gd-unenhanced (-Gd) MRI scores of bone marrow changes, cartilage lesions and bone erosions was good concerning sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value. Inter-observer agreement was good for both -Gd and +Gd scores (ICC = 0.91-1.00, 0.93-1.00, respectively). Regarding the assessment of synovial hypertrophy, specificity of -Gd was high (0.97), but the sensitivity of unenhanced MRI was only 0.62. Inter-reader agreement for +Gd MRI was ICC = 0.94; however, omitting post-Gd acquisitions increased inter-reader variation (ICC = 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: If Gd-enhanced MRI is the reference standard, omitting Gd contrast medium is irrelevant for the assessment of bone marrow changes, cartilage lesions and bone erosions as joint abnormalities in JIA. Omitting intravenous Gd in the MRI assessment of joints in JIA is inadvisable, because it decreases the reliability of detecting synovial disease. KEY POINTS : • Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used to assess juvenile idiopathic arthritis. • Synovial hypertrophy, a marker of JIA activity, is well shown by MRI. • Omitting intravenous contrast medium decreases the reliability of synovial hypertrophy scores. • Bone marrow, cartilage and erosions can be reliably evaluated without contrast enhancement. • In the evaluation of JIA disease activity, unenhanced MRI is inadvisable.
    European Radiology 02/2013; · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Monitoring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by using electronic patient-reported outcomes (ePROs) has been only minimally evaluated in pediatrics. Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are at risk for HRQoL problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ePROs in clinical pediatric rheumatology care.METHODS:All children (aged 0-18 years) with JIA visiting any of the 4 pediatric rheumatology clinics in Amsterdam between February 2009 and February 2010 were eligible for this sequential cohort intervention study. Before an outpatient consultation, children (aged 8-18 years) or parents (of children aged 0-7 years) completed web-based questionnaires. The resulting ePROfile was provided to the pediatric rheumatologist (PR). The study was divided into a control period in which the ePROfile was not discussed during consultation, and an intervention period in which the ePROfile was provided and discussed during consultation. Effectiveness was evaluated in terms of communication about different HRQoL topics, referral to a psychologist, and satisfaction with the consultations.RESULTS:Out of the eligible JIA patients, 176 (65%) participated in the study. Use of the ePROfile increased discussion of psychosocial topics (P < .01), as well as the PR's satisfaction with provided care during consultation (P < .01). The use of ePROfiles did not affect referrals to a psychologist or parental satisfaction. Parents and PRs evaluated the use of the ePROfile as positive in 80% to 100% of the consultations.CONCLUSIONS:Our web-based application to systemically monitor HRQoL problems in pediatric rheumatology contributed significantly to communication about psychosocial issues in a positive way. We recommend implementation of ePROs in pediatric clinical practice.
    PEDIATRICS 01/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    Noera Kieviet, Koert M Dolman, Adriaan Honig
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    ABSTRACT: Infants are at risk of developing symptoms of Poor Neonatal Adaptation (PNA) after exposure to psychotropic drugs in utero. Such symptoms are largely similar after exposure to antidepressants, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines and consist of mostly mild neurologic, autonomic, respirator and gastro-intestinal abnormalities. Most symptoms develop within 48 hours after birth and last for 2-6 days. After exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), mirtazapine or venlafaxine in utero, breastfeeding is presumably protective for development of PNA. The dosage of antidepressants does not seem to be related to the risk of PNA. In order to objectify possible symptoms of PNA, observation of mother and child at the maternity ward is advisable. If PNA symptoms do not occur, an observation period of 48-72 hours is sufficient. This applies to all types of psychotropic drugs. When PNA symptoms are present it is advisable to observe the infant until the symptoms are fully resolved. Observation can be performed by trained nurses using the Finnegan scoring list. This observation list should be administered every 8 hours. Interpretation of the scores should be carried out by a paediatrician. In most cases symptoms are non-specific. Therefore other diagnoses, such as infection or neurologic problems, have to be excluded. When there is any doubt on possible intoxications during pregnancy, toxicological urine screening is indicated. Most cases of PNA are mild, of short duration and self-limiting without need for treatment. Supporting measures such as frequent small feedings, swaddling and increase of skin to skin contact with the mother is usually sufficient. In case of severe PNA it is advised to admit the infant to the Neonatal Care Unit (NCU). Phenobarbital is a safe therapeutic option. There seem to be no major long term effects; however, additional studies are necessary in order to draw definite conclusions.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2013; 9:1257-1266. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Because TNF inhibitors are not approved for persistent oligoarticular JIA (oJIA), although they are used off-label, we evaluated their effectiveness in patients in this category.Methods. Persistent oJIA patients were selected from the Dutch Arthritis and Biologicals in Children (ABC) register, an ongoing multicentre prospective study that aims to include all Dutch children with JIA using biologic agents. Response was assessed by the JIA core-set disease activity variables and modified Wallace criteria for inactive disease.Results. Until February 2011, 16 persistent oJIA patients (68.8% females) had been included in the register. Median age of onset was 8.4 years [interquartile range (IQR) 2.1-13.5 years]; history of uveitis in 18.8%; ANA-positive 56.3%. All had previously used MTX, and 81.3% had used IA CSs. Median follow-up after the introduction of biologic treatment was 13.7 months (IQR 8.3-16.7 months). Fourteen patients started etanercept and two patients who had active arthritis as well as uveitis started adalimumab. Although patients with persistent oJIA had few affected joints [median of two active joints at the start of biologic (IQR 1-3)], the patient/parent assessments of pain [median visual analogue score (VAS) 51 (IQR 1-64)] and well-being [median VAS 44 (IQR 6-66)] were high. Additionally, their physician evaluated the disease activity as moderately high [median VAS 36 (IQR 4-65)]. After 3 months this decreased to 0 (IQR 0-30) and 63% achieved inactive disease. After 15 months the disease was inactive in 9/10 observed patients. TNF inhibitors were tolerated well.Conclusion. TNF blocking agents seem an effective and justifiable option in persistent oJIA when treatment with IA CS injections and MTX has failed.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 12/2012; · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to evaluate disease course and outcome of patients in the first 2 years after diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) when treated according to local standard of clinical care, focusing on achievement of inactive disease, functional ability and radiological joint damage. METHODS: A retrospective inception cohort study of children with JIA, diagnosed between January 2003 and June 2007 and treated in referral centres in Amsterdam, was carried out. Disease status was determined for every outpatient-clinic visit. Data regarding medication, functional outcome and radiography were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-nine consecutive newly diagnosed JIA patients were included. Median age at diagnosis was 11.8 years; median follow-up was 33 months. Synthetic DMARDs (sDMARDs) were used by 95% of patients, including methotrexate in 85%, sulfasalazine in 41% and biologics in 20%. sDMARDs were started within median 1 month after diagnosis. During follow-up, 77% of patients achieved a total of 244 episodes of inactive disease (ID). ID was reached after median 10 months. No baseline predictive factors for achievement of ID could be identified. After 2 years a median CHAQ score of 0.6 was reported. Radiological joint damage occurred at some point in 18 patients (12%); 10 of these patients developed erosions within median 20 months after their first clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: With current management strategies in daily clinical practice, 77% of newly diagnosed JIA patients achieved a first episode of inactive disease within a median of 10 months. After 2 years, patients reported moderate functional disability and more than 10% showed radiological evidence of joint damage.
    Clinical and experimental rheumatology 11/2012; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To assess the reliability and responsiveness of a new Juvenile Arthritis MRI Scoring (JAMRIS) system for evaluating disease activity of the knee. METHODS: Twenty-five juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients with clinical knee involvement were studied using open-bore 1-T MRI. MRI features of synovial hypertrophy, bone marrow changes, cartilage lesions and bone erosions were independently scored by five readers using the JAMRIS system. In addition, the JAMRIS system was determined to be a follow-up parameter by two readers to evaluate the response to therapy in 15 consecutive JIA patients. RESULTS: Inter-reader (ICCs 0.86-0.95) and intra-reader reliability (ICCs 0.92-1.00) for the scoring of JAMRIS features was good. Reliability of the actual scores and changes in scores over time was good for all items: ICCs 0.89-1.00, 0.87-1.00, respectively. Concerning therapy response, the mean synovial hypertrophy scores decreased significantly (mean 1.1 point; P < 0.001, SRM = -0.65). No change was observed with respect to bone marrow change, cartilage lesion and bone erosion scores. CONCLUSIONS: The JAMRIS proved to be a simple and highly reliable assessment score in the evaluation of JIA disease activity of the knee. The JAMRIS system may serve as an objective and accurate outcome measure in future research and clinical trials. KEY POINTS: • MRI is increasingly used to diagnose and assess juvenile idiopathic arthritis. • A simple and reliable scoring method would help monitor progress and research. • The Juvenile Arthritis MRI Scoring (JAMRIS) system provides reliable objective measures. • JAMRIS evaluates synovial hypertrophy, bone marrow changes, cartilage lesions and bone erosions. • The JAMRIS system can detect therapeutic response and should help future research.
    European Radiology 10/2012; 23(4):1075-1083. · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of switching to a second or third biological agent in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) after etanercept failure. METHODS: The Arthritis and Biologicals in Children Register aims to include all Dutch JIA patients who have used biological agents. Data on the disease course were used to estimate drug survival with Kaplan-Meier and calculate adverse event (AE) rates. RESULTS: Of 307 biologically naive JIA patients who started etanercept, 80 (26%) switched to a second and 22 (7%) to a third biological agent. During 1030 patient-years of follow-up after the introduction of etanercept, 49 switches to adalimumab, 28 infliximab, 17 anakinra, four abatacept and four trial drugs were evaluated. 84% (95% CI 80% to 88%) of patients who started etanercept as a first biological agent were, after 12 months, still on the drug, compared with 47% (95% CI 35% to 60%) who started a second and 51% (95% CI 26% to 76%) who started a third biological agent. Patients who switched because of primary ineffectiveness continued the second agent less often (32%, 95% CI 12% to 53%). After etanercept failure, drug continuation of adalimumab was similar to infliximab for patients with non-systemic JIA; anakinra was superior to a second TNF-blocker for systemic JIA. AE rates within first 12 months after initiation were comparable for each course and each biological agent. CONCLUSIONS: Switching to another biological agent is common, especially for systemic JIA patients. A second (and third) agent was less effective than the first. The choice of second biological agent by the physician mainly depends on availability and JIA category.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 06/2012; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) experience functional impairment due to joint manifestations of the disease. The aim of our present study was to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its predictors in a group of children and adolescents with JIA. The study sample includes all JIA patients (ages 6-18 years) who consulted a pediatric rheumatologist in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, between February 2009 and March 2010. HRQOL was measured using the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (ages 6-18 years). Functional ability was measured using the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire, and medical and sociodemographic parameters were assessed. The study sample was compared to a Dutch youth norm population including children with other chronic health conditions. The proportion of children with JIA with an impaired HRQOL (<1 SD) was evaluated and multivariate regression analyses were performed to predict HRQOL outcome. Of the eligible patients, 64.1% (n = 152) participated. Both children (ages 6-12 years) and adolescents (ages 13-18 years) with JIA reported a significantly lower HRQOL in almost all domains compared to either healthy controls or children with other chronic health conditions. Approximately half of the children with JIA showed an impaired HRQOL. The main predictors of HRQOL were functional ability, pain, subjective burden of medication use, and school absence. The HRQOL is severely affected in children and adolescents with JIA. These findings underline the necessity to systematically monitor HRQOL in daily clinical practice.
    Arthritis care & research. 01/2012; 64(5):694-703.
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking during pregnancy is associated with neonatal complications and health problems later in life. However, about 10% of the pregnant women in the Netherlands smoke and those with a psychiatric illness smoke even more frequently. Although giving up smoking may be more difficult for these women, it does not lead to an increase of psychiatric symptoms. We present two patients who smoked during pregnancy. A 28-year-old female started smoking again during her first pregnancy when her depression relapsed. We advised a higher dose of medication and with her midwife's support she gave up smoking. A 35-year-old female, suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, had an increase of symptoms during her second pregnancy. She resumed smoking to feel more relaxed. Treatment with bupropion and an online support program helped her to give up smoking. We advise that every smoking pregnant woman with psychiatric problems be treated concurrently for the psychiatric illness and for smoking.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 01/2012; 155(35):A3887.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of psychotropic medications during pregnancy causes withdrawal symptoms in 20-30% of the newborns. The literature on withdrawal symptoms is not unanimous concerning their recognition and treatment. A search of PubMed and Embase revealed 198 articles in which potential withdrawal symptoms in newborns were described following exposure to psychotropic medications during pregnancy. Commonly occurring withdrawal symptoms are mostly mild, including restlessness and sleeping and feeding difficulties. Severe symptoms such as convulsions are rare. It can sometimes be difficult to differentiate between symptoms of intoxication and symptoms of withdrawal. The Finnegan scale is widely used to recognise withdrawal from psychotropic medication. An observation period of at least 48 h post-partum is advised. Recognition of withdrawal is important to prevent needless additional tests. In withdrawal symptoms supportive measures such as feeding on demand and swaddling are usually sufficient. If withdrawal symptoms are severe, phenobarbital is a therapeutic option.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 01/2012; 156(16):A4395.
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    ABSTRACT: Since the introduction of biologic therapies, the pharmacological treatment approach for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has changed substantially, with achievement of inactive disease as a realistic goal. To determine the response to therapy after initiation of etanercept therapy among patients with JIA and to examine the association between baseline factors and response to etanercept treatment. The Arthritis and Biologicals in Children Register, an ongoing prospective observational study since 1999, includes all Dutch JIA patients who used biologic agents. All biologically naive patients who started etanercept before October 2009 were included, with follow-up data to January 2011. Among the 262 patients, 185 (71%) were female, 46 (18%) had systemic-onset, and the median age at initiation of etanercept treatment was 12.4 years. Excellent response (inactive disease or discontinuation earlier due to disease remission), intermediate response (more than 50% improvement from baseline, but no inactive disease), and poor response (less than 50% improvement from baseline or discontinuation earlier due to ineffectiveness or intolerance) evaluated 15 months after initiation of etanercept. At 15 months after treatment initiation, 85 patients (32%) were considered excellent responders; 92 (36%), intermediate responders; and 85 (32%), poor responders. Compared with an intermediate or poor response, an excellent response was associated with lower baseline disability score (range, 0-3 points, with 0 being the best score; adjusted odds ratio [OR] per point increase, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33-0.74); fewer disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) (including methotrexate) used before initiating etanercept (adjusted OR per DMARD used, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43-0.95), and younger age at onset (adjusted OR per year increase, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.84-0.99). Compared with an intermediate or excellent response, a poor response was associated with systemic JIA (adjusted OR systemic vs nonsystemic categories, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.26-6.80), and female sex (adjusted OR female vs male, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.12-4.18). Within the first 15 months of etanercept treatment, 119 patients experienced 1 or more infectious, noninfectious, or serious adverse events, including 37 among those with an excellent response, 36 with an intermediate response, and 46 with a poor response. Within the first 15 months of treatment, 61 patients discontinued etanercept treatment, including 4 with an excellent response, 0 with an intermediate response, and 57 with a poor response. In a secondary analysis of 262 patients with a median follow-up of 35.6 months after initiation of etanercept, a range of 37% to 49% of patients reached inactive disease. The mean adherence to etanercept was 49.2 months (95% CI, 46.4-52.0) for patients with an excellent response after 15 months, 47.5 months (95% CI, 44.9-50.1) for patients with an intermediate response, and 17.4 months (95% CI, 13.6-21.2) for patients with a poor response. Among patients with JIA who initiated treatment with etanercept, one-third achieved an excellent response, one-third an intermediate response, and one-third a poor response to therapy. Achievement of an excellent response was associated with low baseline disability scores, DMARDs used before initiating etanercept, and younger age at onset of JIA. Achievement of a poor treatment response was associated with systemic JIA and female sex.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 11/2011; 306(21):2340-7. · 29.98 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

442 Citations
184.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • St. Lucas Andreas Hospital
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2013
    • Reade
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006–2013
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2010–2012
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006–2009
    • Academic Medical Center (AMC)
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2008
    • Sanquin Blood Supply Foundation
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands