David J Magid

University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, United States

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Publications (244)1648.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Most patients with asthma take fewer than half of prescribed doses of controller medication. Interventions to improve adherence have typically been costly, impractical, and at best only minimally successful. To test a speech recognition (SR) intervention to improve adherence to pediatric asthma controller medication. The Breathe Well study was a 24-month pragmatic randomized clinical trial. The study was conducted within Kaiser Permanente Colorado, a large, group-model health maintenance organization. A total of 1187 children aged 3 to 12 years with a persistent asthma diagnosis and prescription for an inhaled corticosteroid were randomized to the computerized SR intervention or usual care condition and followed up for 24 months between October 2009 and February 2013. Speech recognition telephone calls to parents in the intervention condition were triggered when an inhaled corticosteroid refill was due or overdue. Calls were automatically tailored with medical and demographic information from the electronic health record and from parent answers to questions in the call regarding recent refills or a desire to receive help refilling, learn more about asthma control, or speak with an asthma nurse or pharmacy staff member. Adherence to pediatric asthma controller medication, measured as the medication possession ratio over 24 months. In the intention-to-treat analysis, inhaled corticosteroid adherence was 25.4% higher in the intervention group than in the usual care group (24-month mean [SE] adherence, 44.5% [1.2%] vs 35.5% [1.1%], respectively; P < .001). Asthma-related urgent care events did not differ between the 2 groups. The intervention effect was consistent in subgroups stratified by age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and disease-related characteristics. The intervention's significant impact on adherence demonstrates strong potential for low-cost SR adherence programs integrated with an electronic health record. The absence of change in urgent care visits may be attributable to the already low number of asthma urgent care visits within Kaiser Permanente Colorado. Application of electronic health record-leveraged SR interventions may reduce health care utilization when applied in a population with less-controlled asthma. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00958932.
    JAMA Pediatrics 02/2015; DOI:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.3280 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although paediatric growth charts are recommended for weight assessment prior to age 20, many teenagers transition earlier to adult care where absolute body mass index (BMI) is used. This study examines concordance of weight classification in older teenagers using paediatric percentiles and adult thresholds. BMI from 23 640 US teens ages 18-19 years were classified using paediatric BMI percentile criteria for underweight (< 5th), normal (5th to < 85th), overweight (85th to < 95th), obesity (≥ 95th) and severe obesity (≥ 120% × 95th percentile) and adult BMI (kg m(-2) ) criteria for underweight (< 18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25-29.9) and obesity: class I (30-34.9), class II (35-39.9) and class III (≥ 40). Concordance was examined using the kappa (κ) statistic. Blood pressure (BP) from the same visit was classified hypertensive for BP ≥ 140/90. The majority of visits (72.8%) occurred in adult primary care. Using paediatric/adult criteria, 3.4%/5.2% were underweight, 66.6%/58.8% normal weight, 15.7%/21.7% overweight, 14.3%/14.3% obese and 4.9%/6.0% severely/class II-III obese, respectively. Paediatric and adult classification for underweight, normal, overweight and obesity were concordant for 90.3% (weighted κ 0.87 [95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.88]). For severe obesity, BMI ≥ 120% × 95th percentile showed high agreement with BMI ≥ 35 kg m(-2) (κ 0.89 [0.88-0.91]). Normal-weight males and moderately obese females by paediatric BMI percentile criteria who were discordantly classified into higher adult weight strata had a greater proportion with hypertensive BP compared with concordantly classified counterparts. Strong agreement exists between US paediatric BMI percentile and adult BMI classification for older teenagers. Adult BMI classification may optimize BMI tracking and risk stratification during transition from paediatric to adult care. © 2015 World Obesity.
    Pediatric Obesity 01/2015; DOI:10.1111/ijpo.274 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An improved understanding of racial differences in the natural history, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of heart failure will have important clinical and public health implications. We assessed how clinical characteristics and outcomes vary across racial groups (whites, blacks, and Asians) in adults with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We identified all adults with HFpEF between 2005 and 2008 from four health systems in the Cardiovascular Research Network using hospital principal discharge and ambulatory visit diagnoses. Among 13,437 adults with confirmed HFpEF, 85.9% were white, 7.6% were black, and 6.5% were Asian. After adjustment for potential confounders and use of cardiovascular therapies, compared with whites, blacks (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.72, 95% CI: 0.62-0.85) and Asians (HR 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64-0.87) had lower risk of death from any cause. Compared with whites, blacks had a higher risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.29-1.68); no difference was observed for Asians compared with whites (HR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.18). Compared with whites, no significant differences were detected in risk of hospitalization for any cause for blacks (HR 1.03, 95% CI: 0.95-1.12) and for Asians (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.85-1.02). In a diverse population with HFpEF, we observed complex relationships between race and important clinical outcomes. More detailed studies of large populations are needed to fully characterize the epidemiologic picture and to elucidate potential pathophysiologic and treatment-response differences that may relate to race. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Medicine 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.11.034 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals in neighborhoods composed of minority and lower socioeconomic status populations are more likely to have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest event, less likely to have bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed, and less likely to survive. Latino cardiac arrest victims are 30% less likely than whites to have bystander CPR performed. The goal of this study is to identify barriers and facilitators to calling 911, and learning and performing CPR in 5 low-income, Latino neighborhoods in Denver, CO. Six focus groups and 9 key informant interviews were conducted in Denver during the summer of 2012. Purposeful and snowball sampling, conducted by community liaisons, was used to recruit participants. Two reviewers analyzed the data to identify recurrent and unifying themes. A qualitative content analysis was used with a 5-stage iterative process to analyze each transcript. Six key barriers to calling 911 were identified: fear of becoming involved because of distrust of law enforcement, financial, immigration status, lack of recognition of cardiac arrest event, language, and violence. Seven cultural barriers were identified that may preclude performance of bystander CPR: age, sex, immigration status, language, racism, strangers, and fear of touching someone. Participants suggested that increasing availability of tailored education in Spanish, increasing the number of bilingual 911 dispatchers, and policy-level changes, including CPR as a requirement for graduation and strengthening Good Samaritan laws, may serve as potential facilitators in increasing the provision of bystander CPR. Distrust of law enforcement, language concerns, lack of recognition of cardiac arrest, and financial issues must be addressed when community-based CPR educational programs for Latinos are implemented. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Annals of Emergency Medicine 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2014.10.028 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about cardiac adverse events among patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD).
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 11/2014; 312(17):1754-63. DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.14681 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Prior research has shown that high- risk census tracts for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) can be identified. High-risk neighborhoods are defined as having a high incidence of OHCA and a low prevalence of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, there is no consensus regarding the process for identifying high-risk neighborhoods. Objective: We propose a novel summary approach to identify high-risk neighborhoods through three separate spatial analysis methods: Empirical Bayes (EB), Local Moran's I (LISA), and Getis Ord Gi* (Gi*) in Denver, Colorado. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of prospectively collected Emergency Medical Services data of OHCA from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2011 from the City and County of Denver, Colorado. OHCA incidents were restricted to those of cardiac etiology in adults >= 18 years. The OHCA incident locations were geocoded using Centrus. EB smoothed incidence rates were calculated for OHCA using Geoda and LISA and Gi* calculated using ArcGIS 10. Results: A total of 1102 arrests in 142 census tracts occurred during the study period, with 887 arrests included in the final sample. Maps of clusters of high OHCA incidence were overlaid with maps identifying census tracts in the below the Denver County mean for bystander CPR prevalence. Five census tracts identified were designated as Tier 1 high-risk tracts, while an additional 7 census tracts where designated as Tier 2 high-risk tracts. Conclusion: This is the first study to use these three spatial cluster analysis methods for the detection of high-risk census tracts. These census tracts are possible sites for targeted community-based interventions to improve both cardiovascular health education and CPR training.
    Resuscitation 09/2014; 85(12). DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2014.08.029 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of personalised physician learning (PPL) interventions using simulated learning cases on control of hypertension and dyslipidaemia in primary care settings.
    BMJ quality & safety 09/2014; DOI:10.1136/bmjqs-2014-002807 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current paradigm of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) blankets a community with training. Recently, the authors have found that high-risk neighborhoods can be identified, and CPR training can be targeted in the neighborhoods in which it is most needed. This article presents a novel method and pilot implementation trial for the HANDDS (identifying High Arrest Neighborhoods to Decrease Disparities in Survival) program. The authors also seek to describe example methods in which the HANDDS program is being implemented in Denver, Colorado. The HANDDS program uses a simple three-step approach: identify, implement, and evaluate. This systematic conceptual framework uses qualitative and quantitative methods to 1) identify high-risk neighborhoods, 2) understand common barriers to learning and performing CPR in these neighborhoods, and 3) implement and evaluate a train-the-trainer CPR Anytime intervention designed to improve CPR training in these neighborhoods. The HANDDS program is a systematic approach to implementing a community-based CPR training program. Further research is currently being conducted in four large metropolitan U. S. cities to examine whether the results from the HANDDS program can be successfully replicated in other locations. (C) 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
    Academic Emergency Medicine 09/2014; 21(9). DOI:10.1111/acem.12455 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To describe changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and body mass index (BMI) associated with initiation and continued use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) in healthy adolescents. Study design This observational, matched cohort study was conducted in 2 large health systems. Utilizing claims and electronic medical records, we identified adolescents 14-17.9 years of age initiating medium-dose COCs (containing 30 or 35 (mu g of ethinyl estradiol or equivalent and a progestin) between July 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009 with a baseline and at least 1 follow-up blood pressure (BP) and BMI. COC-users were matched 1:2 by age, race/ethnicity, and site to controls (COC-nonusers). All BPs and BMIs recorded during outpatient visits starting 1 month prior to COC initiation (index date for controls), through December 31, 2010 were collected. Mixed model linear regression with random intercepts and slopes were then used to estimate changes in SBP, DBP, and BMI over time. Results The 510 adolescent COC-users and 912 controls did not differ significantly by age, race/ethnicity, insurance, and baseline SBP, DBP, or BMI. After adjusting for baseline values, over a median of 18 months follow-up, COC-users had an decrease in SBP of 0.07 mm Hg/mo, and controls had an increase of 0.02 mm Hg/mo (P = .65). Similarly, DBP decreased by 0.007 mm Hg/mo in COC-users vs 0.006 mm Hg/mo in controls (P = .99). BMI increased by 0.04 (kg/m(2))/mo in COC-users vs 0.025 (kg/m(2))/mo in controls (P = .09). Conclusions These data should provide reassurance to patients and providers regarding the lack of significant associations between COC-use and BMI or BP changes in adolescents.
    Journal of Pediatrics 09/2014; 165(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.07.048 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background-Integrated guidelines on cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children issued in 2011 newly recommended universal screening for dyslipidemia in children at 9 to 11 years and 17 to 21 years. Methods and Results-We determined the frequency and results of lipid testing in 301 080 children and adolescents aged 3 to 19 enrolled in 3 large US health systems in 2007 to 2010 before the 2011 guidelines were issued. Overall, 9.8% of the study population was tested for lipids. The proportion tested varied by body mass index percentile (5.9% of normal weight, 10.8% of overweight, and 26.9% of obese children) and age (8.9% of 9- to 11-year olds and 24.3% of 17- to 19-year olds). In normal weight individuals, 2.8% of 9- to 11-year olds and 22.0% of 17- to 19-year olds were tested. In multivariable models, age and body mass index category remained strongly associated with lipid testing. Sex, race, ethnicity, and blood pressure were weakly associated with testing. Abnormal lipid levels were found in 8.6% for total cholesterol, 22.5% for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 12.0% for non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 8.0% for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and 21% for triglycerides (age, 10-19 years). There was a strong and graded association of abnormal lipid levels with body mass index, particularly for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides (2- to 6-fold higher odds ratio in obese when compared with that in normal weight children). Conclusions-Lipid screening was uncommon in 9- to 11-year olds and was performed in a minority of 17- to 19-year olds during 2007 to 2010. These data serve as a benchmark for assessing change in practice patterns after the new recommendations for pediatric lipid screening and management.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 08/2014; 7(5). DOI:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.000842 · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Despite the significant prevalence of elevated blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) in children, few studies have assessed their combined impact on healthcare costs. This study estimates healthcare costs related to BP and BMI in children and adolescents. Study Design Prospective dynamic cohort study of 71,617 children aged 3 to 17 years with 208,800 child years of enrollment in integrated health systems in Colorado or Minnesota between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2011. Methods Generalized linear models were used to calculate standardized annual estimates of total, inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy costs, outpatient utilization, and receipt of diagnostic and evaluation tests associated with BP status and BMI status. Results Total annual costs were significantly lower in children with normal BP ($736, SE = $15) and prehypertension ($945, SE = $10) than children with hypertension ($1972, SE = $74) (P <.001, each comparison), adjusting for BMI. Total annual cost for children below the 85th percentile of BMI ($822, SE = $8) was significantly lower than for children between the 85th and 95th percentiles ($954, SE = $45) and for children at or above the 95th percentile ($937, SE = $13) (P <.001, each), adjusting for HT. Conclusions This study shows strong associations of prehypertension and hypertension, independent of BMI, with healthcare costs in children. Although BMI status was also statistically significantly associated with costs, the major influence on cost in this large cohort of children and adolescents was BP status. Costs related to elevated BMI may be systematically overestimated in studies that do not adjust for BP status.
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to characterize the use of cardiovascular testing for patients with incident heart failure (HF) hospitalization who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute sponsored Cardiovascular Research Network (CVRN) Heart Failure study.
    JACC Cardiovascular Imaging 06/2014; 7(7). DOI:10.1016/j.jcmg.2014.02.008 · 6.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Timely and appropriate use of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies has been shown to improve outcomes among ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, but have not been well described in patients transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods We examined 16,801 (26%) transfer and 47,329 direct-arrival STEMI patients treated with primary PCI at 441 Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry®-Get With The Guidelines™ hospitals. Medication use was compared between transfer and direct-arrival patients to determine if these therapies were delayed or dosed in excess. Results Although transfer patients were more likely to receive antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies prior to catheterization, they had longer delays to initiation of heparin (35 vs. 25 minutes), clopidogrel (119 vs. 84 minutes) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (GPI; 107 vs. 60 minutes, p<0.0001 for both). Administration of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and GPI at the STEMI-referring hospital was associated with longer delays to reperfusion compared with deferred administration at the STEMI-receiving hospital, while early use of unfractionated heparin was not. Among treated patients, those transferred were more likely to receive excess heparin dosing (unfractionated heparin: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.58, LMWH: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.09–2.18) and are associated with higher risks of major bleeding complications (adjusted OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03–1.17). Conclusions STEMI patients transferred for primary PCI in community practice are at risk for delayed and excessively dosed antithrombotic therapy, highlighting the need for continued quality improvement to maximize the appropriate use of these important adjunctive therapies.
    American Heart Journal 06/2014; 167(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2014.03.002 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the presence of clinical depression and persistence to drug therapy treatment for depression with early nonpersistence to antihypertensive therapies in a large, diverse cohort of newly treated hypertension patients. Using a hypertension registry at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of 44,167 adults (18 years and older) with hypertension who were new users of antihypertensive therapy in 2008. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to model the relationships between the presence of clinical depression and early nonpersistence (defined as failing to refill the first prescription within 90 days after the end of the first fill days' supply) to antihypertensive therapies, controlling for sociodemographic and clinical risk factors. Within the group of 1484 patients who had evidence of clinical depression in the 12 months prior to the initiation of antihypertensive therapy, the authors examined the relationship between drug therapy treatment for depression and 6-month persistence with antidepressant therapy with early nonpersistence with antihypertensive therapies. No association was found between the presence of clinical depression and early nonpersistence to antihypertensive therapies after adjustment for individual demographic and clinical characteristics and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status. However, among the subset of 1484 patients with documented evidence of clinical depression in the 12 months prior to the initiation of antihypertensive therapy, being prescribed and persistence with antidepressant therapy was strongly associated with lower odds of early nonpersistence to antihypertensive medications (odds ratio, 0.64; confidence interval, 0.42–0.96). In an integrated delivery system, the authors found that treatment for depression was associated with higher levels of antihypertensive persistence. Improving quality of depression care in patients with comorbid hypertension may be an important strategy in decreasing cardiovascular disease risk in these patients.
    Journal of Clinical Hypertension 04/2014; 16(6). DOI:10.1111/jch.12300 · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • David J Magid, Steven A Farmer
    Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 03/2014; 7(2). DOI:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.000885 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Newer approaches for classifying gradations of pediatric obesity by level of body mass index (BMI) percentage above the 95th percentile have recently been recommended in the management and tracking of obese children. Examining the prevalence and persistence of severe obesity using such methods along with the associations with other cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension is important for characterizing the clinical significance of severe obesity classification methods. This retrospective study was conducted in an integrated healthcare delivery system to characterize obesity and obesity severity in children and adolescents by level of body mass index (BMI) percentage above the 95th BMI percentile, to examine tracking of obesity status over 2-3 years, and to examine associations with blood pressure. Moderate obesity was defined by BMI 100-119 % of the 95th percentile and severe obesity by BMI >=120 % x 95th percentile. Hypertension was defined by 3 consecutive blood pressures >=95th percentile (for age, sex and height) on separate days and was examined in association with obesity severity. Among 117,618 children aged 6-17 years with measured blood pressure and BMI at a well-child visit during 2007-2010, the prevalence of obesity was 17.9 % overall and was highest among Hispanics (28.9 %) and blacks (20.5 %) for boys, and blacks (23.2 %) and Hispanics (21.5 %) for girls. Severe obesity prevalence was 5.6 % overall and was highest in 12-17 year old Hispanic boys (10.6 %) and black girls (9.5 %). Subsequent BMI obtained 2-3 years later also demonstrated strong tracking of severe obesity. Stratification of BMI by percentage above the 95th BMI percentile was associated with a graded increase in the risk of hypertension, with severe obesity contributing to a 2.8-fold greater odds of hypertension compared to moderate obesity. Severe obesity was found in 5.6 % of this community-based pediatric population, varied by gender and race/ethnicity (highest among Hispanics and blacks) and showed strong evidence for persistence over several years. Increasing gradation of obesity was associated with higher risk for hypertension, with a nearly three-fold increased risk when comparing severe to moderate obesity, underscoring the heightened health risk associated with severe obesity in children and adolescents.
    International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 03/2014; 2014(1):3. DOI:10.1186/1687-9856-2014-3
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeAssessing the safety and effectiveness of medical products with observational electronic medical record data is challenging when the treatment is time-varying. The objective of this paper is to develop a Cox model stratified by event times with stabilized weights (SWs) adjustment to examine the effect of time-varying treatment in observational studies. Methods Time-varying SWs are calculated at unique event times and are used in a Cox model stratified by event times to estimate the effect of time-varying treatment. We applied this method in examining the effect of an antiplatelet agent, clopidogrel, on events, including bleeding, myocardial infarction, and death after a drug-eluting stent was implanted in coronary artery. Clopidogrel use may change over time on the basis of patients' behavior (e.g., non-adherence) and physicians' recommendations (e.g., end of duration of therapy). We also compared the results with those from a Cox model for counting processes adjusting for all covariates used in creating SWs. ResultsWe demonstrate that the (i) results from the stratified Cox model without SWs adjustment and the Cox model for counting processes without covariate adjustment are identical in analyzing the clopidogrel data; and (ii) the effects of clopidogrel on bleeding, myocardial infarction, and death are larger in the stratified Cox model with SWs adjustment compared with those from the Cox model for counting processes with covariate adjustment. Conclusions The Cox model stratified by event times with time-varying SWs adjustment is useful in estimating the effect of time-varying treatments in observational studies while balancing for known confounders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 03/2014; 23(8). DOI:10.1002/pds.3601 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have directly investigated the association of clinicians' implicit (unconscious) bias with health care disparities in clinical settings. To determine if clinicians' implicit ethnic or racial bias is associated with processes and outcomes of treatment for hypertension among black and Latino patients, relative to white patients. Primary care clinicians completed Implicit Association Tests of ethnic and racial bias. Electronic medical records were queried for a stratified, random sample of the clinicians' black, Latino and white patients to assess treatment intensification, adherence and control of hypertension. Multilevel random coefficient models assessed the associations between clinicians' implicit biases and ethnic or racial differences in hypertension care and outcomes. Standard measures of treatment intensification and medication adherence were calculated from pharmacy refills. Hypertension control was assessed by the percentage of time that patients met blood pressure goals recorded during primary care visits. One hundred and thirty-eight primary care clinicians and 4,794 patients with hypertension participated. Black patients received equivalent treatment intensification, but had lower medication adherence and worse hypertension control than white patients; Latino patients received equivalent treatment intensification and had similar hypertension control, but lower medication adherence than white patients. Differences in treatment intensification, medication adherence and hypertension control were unrelated to clinician implicit bias for black patients (P = 0.85, P = 0.06 and P = 0.31, respectively) and for Latino patients (P = 0.55, P = 0.40 and P = 0.79, respectively). An increase in clinician bias from average to strong was associated with a relative change of less than 5 % in all outcomes for black and Latino patients. Implicit bias did not affect clinicians' provision of care to their minority patients, nor did it affect the patients' outcomes. The identification of health care contexts in which bias does not impact outcomes can assist both patients and clinicians in their efforts to build trust and partnership.
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 02/2014; 29(7). DOI:10.1007/s11606-014-2795-z · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 02/2014; 133(2):AB166. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.12.600 · 11.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To evaluate the health system cost of a home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) program versus usual care in an integrated healthcare system. Study Design This cost-effectiveness analysis was based upon a previously completed randomized controlled trial of 348 hypertensive patients, in which mean systolic blood pressure (BP) was lowered 21 versus 8 mm Hg in the HBPM and usual care groups, respectively, and BP control was achieved in 54% versus 35% of patients (P < .001). Methods This analysis compared direct costs from the health plan perspective, including clinic visits, e-mail and telephone encounters, laboratory tests, medications, hospitalizations, and emergency department visits between the 2 groups. Primary outcomes were the incremental hypertension care-related cost of HBPM per mm Hg lowering of systolic BP per patient, per additional BP controlled, and per life-year gained. Results Median hypertension-related cost per patient over 6 months was $455 in the HBPM group and $179 for usual care (P < .001). This increase was attributable to additional e-mail and telephone encounters, greater antihypertensive medication use, additional laboratory monitoring, and the BP monitor. Median total cost per patient was $1530 and $1283 for the HBPM and usual care groups, respectively (P = .034). The HBPM program increased hypertension-related expenditures by $20.50 per mm Hg lowering of systolic BP, $1331 per additional patient achieving BP control at 6 months, and $3330 per life-year gained. Conclusions The HBPM program requires investment in outpatient encounters, medications, and laboratory monitoring, but produces significantly improved BP control.

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,648.38 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2015
    • University of Colorado
      • • Division of Cardiology
      • • Department of Emergency Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2001–2015
    • Kaiser Permanente
      • • Center for Health Research (Oregon, Hawaii, and Georgia)
      • • Department of Pharmacy
      Oakland, California, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • University of Colorado Hospital
      Denver, Colorado, United States
    • The University of Arizona
      • College of Pharmacy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2003–2012
    • Emory University
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1997–2008
    • Permanente Medical Group
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2006
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Rochester
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • Yale University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Regions Hospital
      Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2006
    • Duke University
      • Department of Medicine
      Durham, North Carolina, United States