Mark W Chase

University of Western Australia, Perth City, Western Australia, Australia

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Publications (370)1234.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic relationships of the pantropical and polyphyletic family Icacinaceae were investigated, focusing on the Old World vining genera. Plastid ndhF, rbcL and matK sequences from taxa representing 32 of the 36 currently recognized genera were analysed with maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods. As in previous studies, our results show that the family is divided into several poorly resolved groups. An evaluation of the traditional tribal classification revealed Iodeae as polyphyletic and the monogeneric Sarcostigmateae as sister to a monophyletic Phytocreneae (with the inclusion of Rhyticaryum). In Iodeae, the monospecific, eastern Malesian Polyporandra was embedded in the Old World Iodes. A strongly supported clade containing Phytocreneae plus Rhyticaryum was present in the Icacina group. The tropical African genera Chlamydocarya and Polycephalium were embedded in the Old World Pyrenacantha. Further relationships in the family and potential synapomorphic characters of the clades are discussed. New combinations are made for Polyporandra and Chlamydocarya/Polycephalium spp., which are formally synonymized with Iodes and Pyrenacantha, respectively. Conclusions about family-level relationships (and circumscription) cannot be reached with these data because of several weakly supported inter-relationships between some clades, such as Cassinopsis, Platea/Calatola and the Emmotum group. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2014, 176, 277–294.
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 11/2014; 176(3). · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    Taxon 10/2014; 63(5). · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilising comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of different classes of genomic repeats. Phylogenetic trees are then inferred based on the genome-wide abundance of different repeat types treated as continuously varying characters; such repeats are scattered across chromosomes and in angiosperms can constitute a majority of nuclear genomic DNA. In six diverse examples, five angiosperms and one insect, this method provides generally well-supported relationships at interspecific and intergeneric levels that agree with results from more standard phylogenetic analyses of commonly used markers. We propose that this methodology may prove especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation in standard phylogenetic markers. At the same time as providing data for phylogenetic inference, this method additionally yields a wealth of data for comparative studies of genome evolution.
    Systematic biology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent molecular phylogenetic studies in Chrysobalanaceae as well as new analyses presented in this study cast doubt on the monophyly of the three largest genera in the family, Couepia, Hirtella and Licania. Couepia, a Neotropical genus, had species appearing in four separate clades, the majority of species sequenced, however, form a highly supported clade, referred to here as core Couepia (including the type species). These results lend support to a revised taxonomy of the genus, and to resolve Couepia as monophyletic the following taxonomic changes are here proposed: Couepia recurva should be transferred to Hirtella, C. platycalyx transferred to Licania, C. longipendula and C. dolichopoda transferred to Acioa, and a new genus, Gaulettia, is proposed to accommodate species of the Gaulettia clade and allies.
    Phytotaxa 06/2014; 172(2):176–200. · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • Maarten J M Christenhusz, Mark W Chase
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    ABSTRACT: Background and AimsThroughout the history of fern classification, familial and generic concepts have been highly labile. Many classifications and evolutionary schemes have been proposed during the last two centuries, reflecting different interpretations of the available evidence. Knowledge of fern structure and life histories has increased through time, providing more evidence on which to base ideas of possible relationships, and classification has changed accordingly. This paper reviews previous classifications of ferns and presents ideas on how to achieve a more stable consensus.ScopeAn historical overview is provided from the first to the most recent fern classifications, from which conclusions are drawn on past changes and future trends. The problematic concept of family in ferns is discussed, with a particular focus on how this has changed over time. The history of molecular studies and the most recent findings are also presented.Key ResultsFern classification generally shows a trend from highly artificial, based on an interpretation of a few extrinsic characters, via natural classifications derived from a multitude of intrinsic characters, towards more evolutionary circumscriptions of groups that do not in general align well with the distribution of these previously used characters. It also shows a progression from a few broad family concepts to systems that recognized many more narrowly and highly controversially circumscribed families; currently, the number of families recognized is stabilizing somewhere between these extremes. Placement of many genera was uncertain until the arrival of molecular phylogenetics, which has rapidly been improving our understanding of fern relationships. As a collective category, the so-called 'fern allies' (e.g. Lycopodiales, Psilotaceae, Equisetaceae) were unsurprisingly found to be polyphyletic, and the term should be abandoned. Lycopodiaceae, Selaginellaceae and Isoëtaceae form a clade (the lycopods) that is sister to all other vascular plants, whereas the whisk ferns (Psilotaceae), often included in the lycopods or believed to be associated with the first vascular plants, are sister to Ophioglossaceae and thus belong to the fern clade. The horsetails (Equisetaceae) are also members of the fern clade (sometimes inappropriately called 'monilophytes'), but, within that clade, their placement is still uncertain. Leptosporangiate ferns are better understood, although deep relationships within this group are still unresolved. Earlier, almost all leptosporangiate ferns were placed in a single family (Polypodiaceae or Dennstaedtiaceae), but these families have been redefined to narrower more natural entities.Conclusions Concluding this paper, a classification is presented based on our current understanding of relationships of fern and lycopod clades. Major changes in our understanding of these families are highlighted, illustrating issues of classification in relation to convergent evolution and false homologies. Problems with the current classification and groups that still need study are pointed out. A summary phylogenetic tree is also presented. A new classification in which Aspleniaceae, Cyatheaceae, Polypodiaceae and Schizaeaceae are expanded in comparison with the most recent classifications is presented, which is a modification of those proposed by Smith et al. (2006, 2008) and Christenhusz et al. (2011). These classifications are now finding a wider acceptance and use, and even though a few amendments are made based on recently published results from molecular analyses, we have aimed for a stable family and generic classification of ferns.
    Annals of Botany 02/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Similar to other species-rich taxa in the Indo-Australian Archipelago, taxonomy of the genus Aglaia (mahogany family, Meliaceae) remains problematic. This study aims to evaluate taxonomic concepts within Aglaia based on the largest dataset to-date. We analyzed sequences of 237 accessions of Aglaia and representatives of all other genera of the tribe Aglaieae, including nuclear ribosomal ITS, the trnL-trnF intron and intergenic spacer, the atpF intron and the petD region comprising the petB-petD spacer, the petD-5' exon and the petD intron (all but the first from the plastid genome). Our analyses were set both in maximum likelihood and Bayesian frameworks, which (1) supported paraphyly of Aglaia and Aphanamixis; (2) demonstrated polyphyly of previously described sections for Aglaia; and (3) suggested delimitation problems with of 57% of the morphologically "variable species" and all "complex species". In general, there were more genetic entities than species described, which shows that the taxonomy of this group is more complex than has sometimes been previously assumed. For some species, morphological variation suggests the existence of more variants, subspecies or species within various taxa. Furthermore, our study detected additional phylogenetic entities that were geographically distinct, occurring on either side of Wallace's Line but not on both sides. The delineation of these inter-specific taxa needs further investigation by taking into account the morphological variation within and between populations across the entire distribution.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 01/2014; · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation in some plant groups has occurred on islands and due to the characteristic rapid pace of phenotypic evolution, standard molecular markers often provide insufficient variation for phylogenetic reconstruction. To resolve relationships within a clade of 21 closely related New Caledonian Diospyros species and evaluate species boundaries we analysed genome-wide DNA variation via amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). A neighbour-joining (NJ) dendrogram based on Dice distances shows all species except D. minimifolia, D. parviflora and D. vieillardii to form unique clusters of genetically similar accessions. However, there was little variation between these species clusters, resulting in unresolved species relationships and a star-like general NJ topology. Correspondingly, analyses of molecular variance showed more variation within species than between them. A Bayesian analysis with BEAST produced a similar result. Another Bayesian method, this time a clustering method, Structure, demonstrated the presence of two groups, highly congruent with those observed in a principal coordinate analysis (PCO). Molecular divergence between the two groups is low and does not correspond to any hypothesised taxonomic, ecological or geographical patterns. We hypothesise that such a pattern could have been produced by rapid and complex evolution involving a widespread progenitor for which an initial split into two groups was followed by subsequent fragmentation into many diverging populations, which was followed by range expansion of then divergent entities. Overall, this process resulted in an opportunistic pattern of phenotypic diversification. The time since divergence was probably insufficient for some species to become genetically well-differentiated, resulting in progenitor/derivative relationships being exhibited in a few cases. In other cases, our analyses may have revealed evidence for the existence of cryptic species, for which more study of morphology and ecology are now required.
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 12/2013; 13(1):269. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify phylogenetic relationships among New Caledonian species of Diospyros, sequences of four plastid markers (atpB, rbcL, trnK-matK and trnS-trnG) and two low-copy nuclear markers (ncpGS and PHYA) were analysed. New Caledonian Diospyros species fall into three clades, two of which have only a few members (1 or 5 species); the third has 21 closely related species for which relationships among species have been mostly unresolved in a previous study. Although species of the third group (NC clade III) are morphologically distinct and largely occupy different habitats, they exhibit little molecular variability. Diospyros vieillardii is sister to the rest of the NC clade III, followed by D. umbrosa and D. flavocarpa, which are sister to the rest of this clade. Species from coastal habitats of western Grande Terre (D. cherrieri and D. veillonii) and some found on coralline substrates (D. calciphila and D. inexplorata) form two well-supported subgroups. The species of NC clade III have significantly larger genomes than found in diploid species of Diospyros from other parts of the world, but they all appear to be diploids. By applying a molecular clock, we infer that the ancestor of the NC clade III arrived in New Caledonia around nine million years ago. The oldest species are around seven million years old and the youngest ones probably much less than one million years.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 07/2013; · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances have highlighted the ubiquity of whole-genome duplication (polyploidy) in angiosperms, although subsequent genome size change and diploidization (returning to a diploid-like condition) are poorly understood. An excellent system to assess these processes is provided by Nicotiana section Repandae, which arose via allopolyploidy (approximately 5 million years ago) involving relatives of Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana obtusifolia. Subsequent speciation in Repandae has resulted in allotetraploids with divergent genome sizes, including Nicotiana repanda and Nicotiana nudicaulis studied here, which have an estimated 23.6% genome expansion and 19.2% genome contraction from the early polyploid, respectively. Graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence data enabled assessment of the global genome composition of these allotetraploids and their diploid progenitors. Unexpectedly, in both allotetraploids, over 85% of sequence clusters (repetitive DNA families) had a lower abundance than predicted from their diploid relatives; a trend seen particularly in low-copy repeats. The loss of high-copy sequences predominantly accounts for the genome downsizing in N. nudicaulis. In contrast, N. repanda shows expansion of clusters already inherited in high copy number (mostly chromovirus-like Ty3/Gypsy retroelements and some low-complexity sequences), leading to much of the genome upsizing predicted. We suggest that the differential dynamics of low- and high-copy sequences reveal two genomic processes that occur subsequent to allopolyploidy. The loss of low-copy sequences, common to both allopolyploids, may reflect genome diploidization, a process that also involves loss of duplicate copies of genes and upstream regulators. In contrast, genome size divergence between allopolyploids is manifested through differential accumulation and/or deletion of high-copy-number sequences.
    The Plant Journal 06/2013; 74(5). · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many molecular studies have shown the monocot order Liliales to be well supported; morphologically, it is defined by synapomorphies of tepalar nectaries and extrorse anthers, in contrast with septal nectaries and introrse anthers commonly found in other monocots, especially Asparagales, with which it was often confused in the past. It comprises c. 1500 species, 67 genera and 9–11 families. Although monophyly is clear, the phylogenetic relationships among some of the families are still unclear. In this study, we examine the inter- and infrafamilial relationships among Liliales in phylogenetic analyses based on four plastid loci (matK, rbcL, atpB and atpF-H). We performed phylogenetic analyses and constructed maximum parsimony and Bayesian trees for 49 genera and 148 taxa in ten families of Liliales sensu Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) III using the combined DNA data. The monophyly of Liliales, except for Corsiaceae (Arachnitis), was strongly supported by both analyses. Campynemataceae were sister to the rest of the order, excluding Corsiaceae. The other families formed two well-defined clades, (Colchicaceae + Alstroemeriaceae) and (Liliaceae, Smilacaceae, (Rhipogonaceae + Philesiaceae)), and one weakly supported clade with Melanthiaceae and Petermanniaceae. Subfamilial and tribal circumscriptions for the three larger families, Colchicaceae, Melanthiaceae and Liliaceae, agreed well with the results of this study, except for the subfamily Calochortoideae of Liliaceae, which was split into two separate clades of Calochortus and Tricyrtis. In addition, we found several taxa with a 10-bp inversion in matK, which could contribute additional homoplasy to these analyses if included without re-coding. Phylogenetic relationships among families of Liliales were better defined here than in a previous molecular analysis, although the placement of Corsiaceae with plastid data remains problematic. Based on these results, reconsideration of the circumscriptions of Rhipogonaceae + Philesiaceae and the subfamilial circumscription for Calochortoideae of Liliaceae is suggested. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 05/2013; 172(1). · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a taxonomic and molecular phylogenetic study using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA sequences and anatomical data, the taxonomic status and relationships of Irano‐Turanian Limonium spp. were investigated. The results of molecular phylogenetic analysis and anatomical synapomorphies showed that the Iranian Limonium spp. can be grouped into four major clades: (1) an unresolved clade including species of section Pteroclados as sister to all other Limonium spp.; (2) the L. axillare clade as sister to all Irano‐Turanian and Mediterranean species; (3) a poorly supported clade consisting of species of section Nephrophyllum, L. caspium, L. bellidifolium and L. iconium of section Limonium subsection Hyalolepidae and the isolated species L. sogdianum (section Siphonocalyx) and L. nudum (section Platyhymenium); and (4) a well‐supported clade including species of section Limonium subsection Limonium, part of section Sarcophyllum and L. lilacinum of section Sphaerostachys. The most diverse Mediterranean clade with many microspecies and apomictic taxa has no representatives in the Irano‐Turanian area. The ITS results agree with distribution and some morphological and anatomical characters, giving strong support for separating L. perfoliatum and L. reniforme that have been considered conspecific in all recent taxonomic treatments. An updated key to all known Iranian Limonium spp., a synopsis of all species, with distribution maps, and descriptions and illustrations of Iranian species of section Nephrophyllum are provided. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 03/2013; 171(3):519-550. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In their most recent classification of Apocynaceae in 2000, Endress and Bruyns recognized five subfamilies of Apocynaceae (Rauvolfioideae, Apocynoideae, Periplocoideae, Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae). Subsequently, through various studies using molecular data, it has been shown that most tribes and subtribes of Rauvolfioideae were not monophyletic, and new tribes and subtribes have been erected to reflect improved phylogenetic understanding of the family: Aspidospermeae in Rauvolfioideae; Nerieae, Odontadenieae and Baisseeae in Apocynoideae; Fockeeae in Asclepiadoideae; and Orthosiinae in Asclepiadeae. Several genera in Rauvolfioideae have been reassigned to different tribes in order to improve the monophyly of these tribes. The sister group of Asclepiadoideae plus Secamonoideae is not Periplocoideae, as formerly assumed, but tribe Baisseeae. Periplocoideae are nested in Apocynoideae. However, tribal composition remains unclear in some parts of the family. Clade structure in Apocynaceae is now generally well understood. The principal challenges now lie in identifying characters that can reflect and articulate these clades in a formal classification. Species‐rich, recent radiations such as core Asclepiadinae in Africa and the Metastematinae in Latin America present particular problems in this regard. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 03/2013; 171(3). · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nicotiana (Solanaceae) provides an ideal system for understanding polyploidization, a pervasive and powerful evolutionary force in plants, as this genus contains several groups of allotetraploids that formed at different times from different diploid progenitors. However, the parental lineages of the largest group of allotetraploids, Nicotiana section Suaveolentes, have been problematic to identify. Using data from four regions of three low-copy nuclear genes, nuclear ribosomal DNA, and regions of the plastid genome, we have reconstructed the evolutionary origin of sect. Suaveolentes and identified the most likely diploid progenitors by using a combination of gene trees and network approaches to uncover the most strongly supported evidence of species relationships. Our analyses best support a scenario where a member of the sect. Sylvestres lineage acted as the paternal progenitor and a member of either sect. Petunioides or sect. Noctiflorae that also contained introgressed DNA from the other, or a hypothetical hybrid species between these two sections, was the maternal progenitor. Nicotiana exemplifies many of the factors that can complicate the reconstruction of polyploid evolutionary history and highlights how reticulate evolution at the diploid level can add even greater complexity to allopolyploid genomes.
    Evolution 01/2013; 67(1):80-94. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic analysis aims to produce a bifurcating tree, which disregards conflicting signals and displays only those that are present in a large proportion of the data. However, any character (or tree) conflict in a dataset allows the exploration of support for various evolutionary hypotheses. Although data-display network approaches exist, biologists cannot easily and routinely use them to compute rooted phylogenetic networks on real datasets containing hundreds of taxa. Here, we constructed an original neighbour-net for a large dataset of Asparagales to highlight the aspects of the resulting network that will be important for interpreting phylogeny. The analyses were largely conducted with new data collected for the same loci as in previous studies, but from different species accessions and greater sampling in many cases than in published analyses. The network tree summarised the majority data pattern in the characters of plastid sequences before tree building, which largely confirmed the currently recognised phylogenetic relationships. Most conflicting signals are at the base of each group along the Asparagales backbone, which helps us to establish the expectancy and advance our understanding of some difficult taxa relationships and their phylogeny. The network method should play a greater role in phylogenetic analyses than it has in the past. To advance the understanding of evolutionary history of the largest order of monocots Asparagales, absolute diversification times were estimated for family-level clades using relaxed molecular clock analyses.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e59472. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • A revision of Guarea (Meliaceae), Edited by T.D. Pennington, J.J. Clarkson, 01/2013: pages 180-189; Cambridge University Press.
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    ABSTRACT: The great majority of plant species in the tropics require animals to achieve pollination, but the exact role of floral signals in attraction of animal pollinators is often debated. Many plants provide a floral reward to attract a guild of pollinators, and it has been proposed that floral signals of non-rewarding species may converge on those of rewarding species to exploit the relationship of the latter with their pollinators. In the orchid family (Orchidaceae), pollination is almost universally animal-mediated, but a third of species provide no floral reward, which suggests that deceptive pollination mechanisms are prevalent. Here, we examine floral colour and shape convergence in Neotropical plant communities, focusing on certain food-deceptive Oncidiinae orchids (e.g. Trichocentrum ascendens and Oncidium nebulosum) and rewarding species of Malpighiaceae. We show that the species from these two distantly related families are often more similar in floral colour and shape than expected by chance and propose that a system of multifarious floral mimicry-a form of Batesian mimicry that involves multiple models and is more complex than a simple one model-one mimic system-operates in these orchids. The same mimetic pollination system has evolved at least 14 times within the species-rich Oncidiinae throughout the Neotropics. These results help explain the extraordinary diversification of Neotropical orchids and highlight the complexity of plant-animal interactions.
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 01/2013; 280(1765):20130960. · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [This corrects the article on p. e42932 in vol. 7.].
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8). · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of different and often outmoded systems for the arrangement of collections in botanic gardens and herbaria hampers international research because it makes finding the location of a specific genus and family unpredictable. Following a series of international workshops, intended to develop a set of widely accepted circumscriptions of vascular plant families, a European and Australian consortium, the Vascular Plant Classification Committee (VPCC), was formed in 2008 to address the challenge of harmonizing collections (of living and preserved material and associated literary archives) across Europe and Australia; this was envisaged as an ambitious first step towards a globally accepted alignment of family circumscriptions and the use of an accepted unified linear sequence. In 2009, agreement on this was reached among six of the largest European botanical organizations, a pioneering scientific and political accomplishment. Global acceptance of this arrangement is now beginning to gather pace. A network of organizations adopting this new classification and sequence (or intending to, when resources allow) is developing and now reaches across five continents. In this article, we outline the aims of and progress made by the VPCC, and acknowledge the resources required for the reorganization of large collections, with a particular focus on those at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The importance of a dynamic sequence, reflective of taxonomic changes, and the ways in which such changes can be incorporated into collections are discussed. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013, 172, 127–141.
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 01/2013; 172(2). · 2.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

13k Citations
1,234.43 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • University of Western Australia
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
    • Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana
      • Department of Biological Science
      Feira de Santana, Estado da Bahia, Brazil
    • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
      • Department of Botany
      Mexico City, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 1997–2014
    • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
      • Jodrell Laboratory
      TW9, England, United Kingdom
    • DePaul University
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • New York Botanical Garden
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2004–2013
    • Imperial College London
      • • Division of Ecology and Evolution
      • • NERC Centre for Population Biology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • University of Texas at Austin
      Austin, Texas, United States
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology
      Columbus, OH, United States
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
    • Indiana University Bloomington
      • Department of Biology
      Bloomington, IN, United States
    • Universidad de Salamanca
      • Departamento de Botánica
      Salamanca, Castile and Leon, Spain
  • 2001–2013
    • Queen Mary, University of London
      • School of Biological and Chemical Sciences
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Oklahoma
      Norman, Oklahoma, United States
    • Florida Museum of Natural History
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
    • Natural History Museum, London
      • Department of Botany
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Lund University
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2012
    • University of Zaragoza
      • High Technical College
      Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain
    • Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
      Gatersleben, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
  • 2011
    • University of São Paulo
      • Department of Botany
      São Paulo, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • 2001–2011
    • University of Vienna
      • Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany
      Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 2010
    • Gachon University
      • Department of Life Science
      Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea
    • University of Gdansk
      • Department of Plant Taxonomy and Nature Conservation
      Gdańsk, Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Plant Biology
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • University of La Réunion
      • Plant Communities and Biological Invaders in Tropical Environment (PVBMT)
      Saint-Denis, Réunion, Reunion
    • University of Adelaide
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
    • København Zoo
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2007–2009
    • Institute of Research for Development
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2006–2009
    • Senckenberg Research Institute
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
    • University of New Caledonia
      Port de France, Province Sud, New Caledonia
    • Aarhus University
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 2006–2008
    • Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
      • Biofyzikální ústav
      Praha, Hlavni mesto Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2005
    • Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
      • Institute of Microbiology
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2003–2005
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Biology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
    • Polytechnic Kota Kinabalu
      Jesselton, Sabah, Malaysia
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
    • Ghent University
      • Department of Biology
      Gent, VLG, Belgium
    • University of Missouri - St. Louis
      • Department of Biology
      Saint Louis, MI, United States
    • Trinity College
      Hartford, Connecticut, United States
  • 1999–2003
    • Washington State University
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Pullman, WA, United States
    • Université de Montpellier 1
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2002
    • Missouri Botanical Garden
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • University of Reading
      Reading, England, United Kingdom
    • Trinity College Dublin
      • Department of Botany
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 1998–2002
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Botany
      Madison, MS, United States
    • Uppsala University
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1999–2001
    • University of Florida
      • • Florida Museum of Natural History
      • • Department of Environmental Horticulture
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 2000
    • University of London
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Melbourne Water
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia