Karl Werdan

Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle-on-the-Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

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Publications (592)1927.44 Total impact

  • 01/2013; 8(2):73. DOI:10.15420/icr.2013.8.2.73
  • Intensiv- und Notfallbehandlung 01/2013; 38(10):173-198. DOI:10.5414/IBX00405
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    ABSTRACT: Background Human ß-defensins are a family of antimicrobial peptides located at the mucosal surface. Both sequence multi-site variations (MSV) and copy-number variants (CNV) of the defensin-encoding genes are associated with increased risk for various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis and acute pancreatitis. In a case–control study, we investigated the association between MSV in DEFB104 as well as defensin gene (DEF) cluster copy number (CN), and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Results Two groups of PDAC (N=70) and CP (N=60) patients were compared to matched healthy control groups CARLA1 (N=232) and CARLA2 (N=160), respectively. Four DEFB104 MSV were haplotyped by PCR, cloning and sequencing. DEF cluster CN was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Neither the PDAC nor the CP cohorts show significant differences in the DEFB104 haplotype distribution compared to the respective control groups CARLA1 and CARLA2, respectively. The diploid DEF cluster CN exhibit a significantly different distribution between PDAC and CARLA1 (Fisher’s exact test P=0.027), but not between CP and CARLA2 (P=0.867). Conclusion Different DEF cluster b CN distribution between PDAC patients and healthy controls indicate a potential protective effect of higher CNs against the disease.
    BMC Research Notes 11/2012; 5(1):629. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-5-629
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Serelaxin, recombinant human relaxin-2, is a vasoactive peptide hormone with many biological and haemodynamic effects. In a pilot study, serelaxin was safe and well tolerated with positive clinical outcome signals in patients with acute heart failure. The RELAX-AHF trial tested the hypothesis that serelaxin-treated patients would have greater dyspnoea relief compared with patients treated with standard care and placebo. METHODS: RELAX-AHF was an international, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, enrolling patients admitted to hospital for acute heart failure who were randomly assigned (1:1) via a central randomisation scheme blocked by study centre to standard care plus 48-h intravenous infusions of placebo or serelaxin (30 μg/kg per day) within 16 h from presentation. All patients had dyspnoea, congestion on chest radiograph, increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal prohormone of BNP, mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency, and systolic blood pressure greater than 125 mm Hg. Patients, personnel administering study drug, and those undertaking study-related assessments were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoints evaluating dyspnoea improvement were change from baseline in the visual analogue scale area under the curve (VAS AUC) to day 5 and the proportion of patients with moderate or marked dyspnoea improvement measured by Likert scale during the first 24 h, both analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00520806. FINDINGS: 1161 patients were randomly assigned to serelaxin (n=581) or placebo (n=580). Serelaxin improved the VAS AUC primary dyspnoea endpoint (448 mm × h, 95% CI 120-775; p=0·007) compared with placebo, but had no significant effect on the other primary endpoint (Likert scale; placebo, 150 patients [26%]; serelaxin, 156 [27%]; p=0·70). No significant effects were recorded for the secondary endpoints of cardiovascular death or readmission to hospital for heart failure or renal failure (placebo, 75 events [60-day Kaplan-Meier estimate, 13·0%]; serelaxin, 76 events [13·2%]; hazard ratio [HR] 1·02 [0·74-1·41], p=0·89] or days alive out of the hospital up to day 60 (placebo, 47·7 [SD 12·1] days; serelaxin, 48·3 [11·6]; p=0·37). Serelaxin treatment was associated with significant reductions of other prespecified additional endpoints, including fewer deaths at day 180 (placebo, 65 deaths; serelaxin, 42; HR 0·63, 95% CI 0·42-0·93; p=0·019). INTERPRETATION: Treatment of acute heart failure with serelaxin was associated with dyspnoea relief and improvement in other clinical outcomes, but had no effect on readmission to hospital. Serelaxin treatment was well tolerated and safe, supported by the reduced 180-day mortality. FUNDING: Corthera, a Novartis affiliate company.
    The Lancet 11/2012; 381(9860). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61855-8 · 45.22 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2012; 60(17):B3. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2012.08.016 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transcoronary pacing for the treatment of bradycardias during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a useful technique in interventional cardiology. The standard technique is unipolar pacing with the guidewire in the coronary artery against a cutaneous patch electrode. We developed a novel approach for transcoronary pacing by using intravascular electrodes in different positions in the aorta in a porcine model. Unipolar transcoronary pacing was applied in 8 pigs under general anesthesia using a standard floppy guidewire in a coronary artery as the cathode with additional insulation of the guidewire by a monorail angioplasty balloon. Intravascular electrodes positioned in the aorta thoracalis and the aorta abdominalis served as indifferent anodes. The efficacy of transcoronary pacing with intravascular anodal electrodes was assessed by measurement of threshold and impedance data and the magnitude of the epicardial electrogram in comparison to unipolar transvenous pacing using the same indifferent anodal electrodes. Transcoronary pacing with the guidewire-balloon combination using indifferent intravascular electrodes was effective in all cases. Transcoronary pacing thresholds obtained against the indifferent coil electrodes in the aorta thoracalis (0.8 ± 0.5 V) and in the aorta abdominalis (0.8 ± 0.5 V) were similar to those obtained with unipolar transvenous pacing (0.7 ± 0.3 V and 0.6 ± 0.2 V, respectively), whereas the tip-electrode in the aorta thoracalis serving as indifferent anode produced significantly higher pacing thresholds (guidewire, 2.8 ± 2.6 V; transvenous lead, 1.5 ± 0.8 V). The lower pacing threshold of the coil-electrodes was associated with significantly lower impedance values (aorta thoracalis, 285 ± 63 ohm; aorta abdominalis, 294 ± 61 ohm) as compared to the tip-electrode in the aorta thoracalis (718 ± 254 ohm). The amplitude of the epicardial electrogram acquired by the intracoronary guidewire was without significant differences between the indifferent electrodes. Transcoronary pacing in the animal model using a standard guidewire with balloon insulation and intravascular indifferent electrodes is depending on the optimal configuration of the anodal electrode. The use of intravascular coil electrodes with a sufficient surface area can produce 100% capture at thresholds comparable to transvenous pacing. Therefore, technical integration of these coil electrodes into the access sheath or the guiding catheter with respect to handling these tools in daily clinical practice in the catheterization laboratory could further facilitate the transcoronary pacing approach.
    The Journal of invasive cardiology 09/2012; 24(9):451-5. · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In current international guidelines, intraaortic balloon counterpulsation is considered to be a class I treatment for cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. However, evidence is based mainly on registry data, and there is a paucity of randomized clinical trials. In this randomized, prospective, open-label, multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 600 patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction to intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP group, 301 patients) or no intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (control group, 299 patients). All patients were expected to undergo early revascularization (by means of percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery) and to receive the best available medical therapy. The primary efficacy end point was 30-day all-cause mortality. Safety assessments included major bleeding, peripheral ischemic complications, sepsis, and stroke. A total of 300 patients in the IABP group and 298 in the control group were included in the analysis of the primary end point. At 30 days, 119 patients in the IABP group (39.7%) and 123 patients in the control group (41.3%) had died (relative risk with IABP, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 1.17; P=0.69). There were no significant differences in secondary end points or in process-of-care measures, including the time to hemodynamic stabilization, the length of stay in the intensive care unit, serum lactate levels, the dose and duration of catecholamine therapy, and renal function. The IABP group and the control group did not differ significantly with respect to the rates of major bleeding (3.3% and 4.4%, respectively; P=0.51), peripheral ischemic complications (4.3% and 3.4%, P=0.53), sepsis (15.7% and 20.5%, P=0.15), and stroke (0.7% and 1.7%, P=0.28). The use of intraaortic balloon counterpulsation did not significantly reduce 30-day mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction for whom an early revascularization strategy was planned. (Funded by the German Research Foundation and others; IABP-SHOCK II ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00491036.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 08/2012; 367(14):1287-96. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1208410 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Severe infections play an important role in the emergency department (ED) and early risk stratification is essential. We compared the prognostic value of APACHE II, SOFA, and MEDS scores, and the biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study. Patients aged 18 years or older with a severe infection, from whom blood cultures were taken, were included. RESULTS: Two hundred and eleven patients were included. The 30-day mortality rate was 8.5%. All scores and biomarkers showed significant area under the curve (AUC) values of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for death within 30 days: 0.801 for APACHE II, 0.785 for MEDS, 0.708 for SOFA, 0.693 for CRP, 0.651 for PCT, and 0.716 for IL-6. For treatment in an ICU and need for mechanical ventilation, these parameters had significant AUC values, too. For renal replacement therapy, only APACHE II, SOFA, and PCT showed significant AUC values. According to the trend observed, the AUC values were highest for the APACHE II score. CONCLUSIONS: All investigated parameters have a predictive value in patients with an infection in the ED. According to the trend observed, the APACHE II score seems to have the best discriminative power. Use of the APACHE II score already at the time of admission to the ED may be useful for stratifying patients at risk for ICU treatment, thereby using the same score in the ED and the ICU.
    08/2012; 107(7):558-563. DOI:10.1007/s00063-012-0147-5
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The IABP SHOCK trial was designed as a morbidity-based randomized controlled trial to determine the effect of intraaortic balloon pulsation (IABP) in patients with infarct-related cardiogenic shock (CS). The primary endpoint was the change in the APACHE II score over a 4-day period. The prospective hypothesis was that adding IABP therapy to "standard care" would reduce CS-triggered multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The primary endpoint showed no difference between conventionally managed cardiogenic shock patients and those with additional IABP support. In an inflammatory marker substudy, we analyzed the prognostic value of the cytokines interferon-γ (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1β (MCP-1β). We also investigated the influence of IABP support, age, and gender on cytokine levels. DESIGN: The inflammatory marker substudy of the prospective, randomized, controlled, open label IABP SHOCK Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT00469248). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized, single-center study in a 12-bed intensive care unit at a university hospital was performed. A total of 40 consecutive patients were enrolled. The observational period was 96 h. RESULTS: The investigated cytokines showed a significant contribution in the prediction of mortality. Initial (on admission) and maximal cytokine levels during the observational period showed a similar predictive power. Patients with elevated levels of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines had a higher risk of dying. The maximal level measured over the observation period in the hospital was also suited to identify the survivors. Close correlations between maximal cytokine levels resulted in the choice of only one independent marker (MIP-1β) into the multivariate model (OR 1.024, 95% CI 1.005-1.043). Initial cytokine levels were also suitable to predict the survivors; the risk of death significantly increases with increasing IFN-γ level (OR 1.119, 95% CI 1.005-1.246). Cytokine levels were not affected by the presence of IABP support. Age (< 75 or > 75 years) and gender did not have a clinically relevant effect on INF-γ, TNF-α, MIP-1β, G-CSF, and MCP-1 in CS patients. CONCLUSION: The inflammatory response in patients with myocardial infarction complicated by CS, as reflected by the inflammatory markers INF-γ, TNF-α, MIP-1β, G-CSF, and MCP-1β, have been shown to be of prognostic value in estimating clinical outcome.
    07/2012; 107(6):476-484. DOI:10.1007/s00063-012-0117-y
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke and other thromboembolic events are mainly caused by emboli from heart, aorta and other arteries. In this paper we describe a group of 5 middle-aged patients suffering from emboli caused by large thrombi in the aorta. Since the development of giant thrombi under high flow conditions in the aorta is a pathophysiological process which is not well understood, a model of flow distribution by numerically simulating the Navier-Stokes equation for an incompressible fluid was generated. This model simulated how such thrombi may develop in the aorta. We hypothesize that large thrombi issuing from the aortic vessel wall represent a underestimated entity in middleaged persons and are probably overlooked as the cause of stroke or other embolic events in some cases.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 07/2012; DOI:10.1007/s11239-012-0775-x · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • European Heart Journal 06/2012; 34(1). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehs178 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Die CARLA-Studie (,,Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle“) ist eine populationsbezogene Kohortenstudie der älteren Allgemeinbevölkerung der Stadt Halle (Saale) (Alter 45 bis 83 Jahre) zur Untersuchung von Risikofaktoren für Herz-Kreislauf-Krankheiten, insbesondere für eine eingeschränkte Herzfrequenzvariabilität als Indikator für eine autonome Dysfunktion. Es wurden 1779 Probanden (812 Frauen und 967 Männer) untersucht. Nach einem Vier-Jahres-Follow-up-Zeitraum nahmen 1436 von ihnen an einer erneuten Untersuchung teil. Die Responserate der Basisuntersuchung lag bei 64,1%, die Untersuchungsresponse nach dem Vier-Jahres-Follow-up bei 92%. Bei den Basis-Querschnittsanalysen wurden für den primären Outcome der Herzfrequenzvariabilität (HRV) außer einer deutlichen Abnahme mit dem Alter keine konsistenten Assoziationen zu Herz-Kreislauf-Risikofaktoren und -krankheiten gefunden. Bemerkenswert ist eine auffällige Risikokonstellation aus extrem häufigem Bluthochdruck, gehäuftem Auftreten von zentralem Übergewicht (erhöhten Taillen-Hüft-Quotienten-Werten) und erhöhter Prävalenz an Diabetes mellitus. Diese Befunde werden in den laufenden Auswertungen der Follow-up-Untersuchung und in der 2012 beginnenden Zehn-Jahres-Follow-up-Erhebung besondere Beachtung finden.
    Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz 06/2012; 55(6-7). DOI:10.1007/s00103-012-1493-4 · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CARLA study (Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle) is a population-based cohort study of the elderly general population of the city of Halle (Saale) aged 45-83 years. The aim is to investigate established cardiovascular risk factors and a reduced heart rate variability (HRV) as indicator of autonomous dysfunction. In total, 1779 probands (812 women and 967 men) were investigated at baseline. Of those, 1436 participants were re-examined at a 4-years follow-up. The corresponding response rates were 64.1% in the baseline and 92% in the follow-up investigation. In the cross-sectional analysis a clear decrease was found in all parameters of HRV with increasing age, but no consistent associations to cardiovascular classical risk factors and diseases could be shown. Compared to other German cohorts a striking risk constellation was found consisting of high prevalence of hypertension, frequent occurrence of central overweight (measured by waist-hip ratio) and high prevalence of diabetes mellitus. These findings will be further scrutinized in the ongoing analyses of the 4-year follow-up and the 10-years follow-up which will start in 2012.
    Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz 06/2012; 55(6-7):795-800. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In current guidelines, intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) is considered a class 1 indication in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. However, evidence is mainly based on retrospective or prospective registries with a lack of randomized clinical trials. Therefore, IABP is currently only used in 20% to 40% of cardiogenic shock cases. The hypothesis of this trial is that IABP in addition to early revascularization by either percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting will improve clinical outcome of patients in cardiogenic shock. The IABP-SHOCK II study is a 600-patient, prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled trial. The study is designed to compare the efficacy and safety of IABP versus optimal medical therapy on the background of early revascularization by either percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. Patients will be randomized in a 1:1 fashion to 1 of the 2 treatments. The primary efficacy end point of IABP-SHOCK II is 30-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome measures, such as hemodynamic, laboratory, and clinical parameters, will serve as surrogate end points for prognosis. Furthermore, an intermediate and long-term follow-up at 6 and 12 months will be performed. Safety will be assessed, by the GUSTO bleeding definition, peripheral ischemic complications, sepsis, and stroke. The IABP-SHOCK II trial addresses important questions regarding the efficacy and safety of IABP in addition to early revascularization in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating myocardial infarction.
    American heart journal 06/2012; 163(6):938-45. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2012.03.012 · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • M. Russ, M. Buerke, K. Werdan
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    ABSTRACT: Infarction-related cardiogenic shock, which is usually a result of left ventricular failure, still has a poor prognosis with a mortality rate of 50-80%. A crucial factor for therapy is the earliest possible reopening of the occluded coronary artery. The medical treatment of shock includes cardiovascular therapy with dobutamine as an inotrope and norepinephrine as a vasopressor of choice, guided by the combination of pressure and flow parameters (e.g. mean blood pressure 65-75 mmHg and cardiac index > 2.5 l/min(/)m(2)). The best available therapy of cardiogenic shock includes intensive medical therapeutic measures for the prevention and treatment of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS).
    Notfall 06/2012; 15(5):445-454. DOI:10.1007/s10049-012-1627-0 · 0.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The European ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) guideline suggested the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) with a recommendation level I and a level of evidence C as an effective measure in combination with balloon angioplasty in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS), stent implantation, and inotropic and vasopressor support. Similarly, upon mechanical complication due to myocardial infarction (MI), the guideline suggests that in patients with a ventricular septal defect or in most patients with acute mitral regurgitation, preoperative IABP implantation is indicated for circulatory support. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association STEMI guideline recommends the use of the IABP with a recommendation level I and a level of evidence B if CS does not respond rapidly to pharmacological treatment. The guideline notes that the IABP is a stabilizing measure for angiography and early revascularization. Even in MI complications, the use of preoperative IABP is recommended before surgery. Within this overview, we summarize the current evidence on IABP use in patients with CS complicated by MI. From our Cochrane data analysis, we conclude that in CS due to acute MI (AMI) treated with adjuvant systemic fibrinolysis, the IABP should be implanted. In patients with CS following AMI, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the IABP can be implanted, although data are not distinctive (i.e., indicating positive and negative effects). In the future, randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the use of IABP in CS patients treated with PCI. When patients with CS are transferred to a PCI center with or without thrombolysis, patients should receive mechanical support with an IABP. To treat mechanical MI complications-in particular ventricular septal defect-patients should be treated with an IABP to stabilize their hemodynamic situation prior to cardiac surgery. Similar recommendations are given in the German Austrian guidelines on treatment of infarction-related CS patients (http://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/019-013.html).
    Artificial Organs 05/2012; 36(6):505-11. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1594.2011.01408.x · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the importance of genetic variants of TNFα for the severity of periodontal disease and periodontal risk factors with respect to periodontal risk factors in a cohort of coronary patients. A total of 942 consecutive patients with angiographic proven coronary heart disease were prospectively included in the study entitled "Periodontitis and Its Microbiological Agents as Prognostic Factors in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease" (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier:NCT01045070). After including of patients, an extensive periodontal examination also involving PCR-sampling for 11 periodontal bacteria was performed. In this subanalysis, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) c.-308G>A, c.-238G>A and haplotypes for TNFα were analysed by CTS-PCR-SSP Tray kit (Heidelberg, Germany). The AG+AA genotype of SNP c.-238G>A of TNFα gene was associated with the amount of clinical attachment loss in patients with coronary heart disease in multivariate regression analysis. Moreover, Prevotella intermedia occurred more frequently in carriers who were positive for the AG+AA genotype and A-allele of SNP c.-308G>A in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, only in bivariate analyses significant associations of genetic variants of TNFα with intensified bleeding on probing and with higher plasma level of interleukin 6 could be shown. Genetic variants of TNFα gene, namely c.-308G>A and c.-238G>A, are associated with periodontal conditions in patients with coronary heart disease.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 05/2012; 39(8):699-706. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2012.01909.x · 3.61 Impact Factor
  • Henning Ebelt, Karl Werdan
    Intensivmedizin up2date 05/2012; 08(02):117-127. DOI:10.1055/s-0032-1306787
  • Karl Werdan
    Critical care medicine 05/2012; 40(5):1669-70. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182474c20 · 6.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infarction-related cardiogenic shock (ICS) is usually due to left-ventricular pump failure. With a mortality of 30% to 80%, ICS is the most common cause of death from acute myocardial infarction. The S3 guideline presented here characterizes the current evidence-based treatment of ICS: early revascularization, treatment of shock, and intensive care treatment of multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) if it arises. The success or failure of treatment for MODS determines the outcome in ICS. Experts from eight German and Austrian specialty societies analyzed approximately 3600 publications that had been retrieved by a systematic literature search. Three interdisciplinary consensus conferences were held, resulting in the issuing of 111 recommendations and algorithms for this S3 guideline. Early revascularization of the occluded vessel, usually with a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), is of paramount importance. The medical treatment of shock consists of dobutamine as the inotropic agent and norepinephrine as the vasopressor of choice and is guided by a combination of pressure and flow values, or by the cardiac power index. Levosimendan can be given in addition to treat catecholamine-resistant shock. For patients with ICS who are treated with PCI, the current S3 guideline differs from the European and American myocardial infarction guidelines with respect to the recommendation for intra-aortic balloon pulsation (IABP): Whereas the former guidelines give a class I recommendation for IABP, this S3 guideline states only that IABP "can" be used in this situation, in view of the poor state of the evidence. Only for patients being treated with systemic fibrinolysis is IABP weakly recommended (IABP "should" be used in such cases). With regard to the optimal intensive-care interventions for the prevention and treatment of MODS, recommendations are given concerning ventilation, nutrition, erythrocyte-concentrate transfusion, prevention of thrombosis and stress ulcers, follow-up care, and rehabilitation. The goal of this S3 guideline is to bring together the types of treatment for ICS that lie in the disciplines of cardiology and intensive-care medicine, as patients with ICS die not only of pump failure, but also (and even more frequently) of MODS. This is the first guideline that adequately emphasizes the significance of MODS as a determinant of the outcome of ICS.
    Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 05/2012; 109(19):343-51. DOI:10.3238/arztebl.2012.0343 · 3.61 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,927.44 Total Impact Points


  • 1970–2015
    • Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
      • • Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology
      • • Clinic for Internal Medicine III
      • • Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Computer Science
      • • Institut für Humangenetik und Medizinische Biologie
      • • Poliklinik für Herz- und Thoraxchirurgie
      • • Institute for Pathology
      Halle-on-the-Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
  • 2014
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Medical Informatics
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2004–2014
    • Universitätsklinikum Halle (Saale)
      Halle-on-the-Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
  • 2013
    • University of Leipzig
      • Department of Cardiac Surgery
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 2011
    • Carl-von-Basedow Hospital
      Merseburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
  • 2010
    • Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena
      • Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany
  • 2003–2008
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      • • Medizinische Klinik I
      • • Medizinische Klinik II - Kardiologie und Angiologie
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • University of Tartu
      Dorpat, Tartu County, Estonia
    • University Hospital RWTH Aachen
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2005
    • University Hospital Essen
      • Klinik für Kardiologie
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2001
    • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2000
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Santa Maria Nuova di Reggio Emilia
      Reggio nell'Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1990–1998
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Internal Medicine I
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1995
    • Deutsches Herzzentrum München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1972–1995
    • University Hospital München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1991
    • University of Tuebingen
      • Institute for Physiology
      Tübingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
    • Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 1990–1991
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Institute of Pharmacology
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany