Jin-Long Chen

Amgen, Thousand Oaks, California, United States

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Publications (15)73.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: PPARγ is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family and plays a key role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. This Letter describes the discovery of a novel chemical class of diarylsulfonamide partial agonists that act as selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARγMs) and display a unique pharmacological profile compared to the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of PPARγ full agonists. Herein we report the initial discovery of partial agonist 4 and the structure-activity relationship studies that led to the selection of clinical compound INT131 (3), a potent PPARγ partial agonist that displays robust glucose-lowering activity in rodent models of diabetes while exhibiting a reduced side-effects profile compared to marketed TZDs.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 12/2012; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An initial SAR study resulted in the identification of the novel, potent MCHR1 antagonist 2. After further profiling, compound 2 was discovered to be a potent inhibitor of the hERG potassium channel, which prevented its further development. Additional optimization of this structure resulted in the discovery of the potent MCHR1 antagonist 11 with a dramatically reduced hERG liability. The decrease in hERG activity was confirmed by several in vivo preclinical cardiovascular studies examining QT prolongation. This compound demonstrated good selectivity for MCHR1 and possessed good pharmacokinetic properties across preclinical species. Compound 11 was also efficacious in reducing body weight in two in vivo mouse models. This compound was selected for clinical evaluation and was given the code AMG 076.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 04/2012; 22(11):3781-5. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new class of MCHR1 antagonists was discovered via a high-throughput screen. Optimization of the lead structure resulted in the identification of indole 10e. This compound possesses good pharmacokinetic properties across preclinical species and is efficacious in reducing food consumption in an MCH cannulated rat model and a cynomolgus monkey food consumption model.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 12/2011; 21(23):7001-5. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of spiropiperidine carbazoles were synthesized and evaluated as MCHR2 antagonists using a FLIPR assay. The pharmacokinetic properties of selected compounds have also been studied. This effort led to the discovery of potent and specific MCHR2 antagonists. Compound 38 demonstrated good pharmacokinetic properties across rat, beagle dog and rhesus monkey and had a favorable selectivity profile against a number of other receptors. These MCHR2 antagonists are considered appropriate tool compounds for study of the function of MCHR2 in vivo.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 11/2011; 22(1):363-6. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Agonists of GPR40 (FFA1) have been proposed as a means to treat type 2 diabetes. Through lead optimization of a high throughput screening hit, we have identified a novel GPR40 agonist called AMG 837. The objective of these studies was to understand the preclinical pharmacological properties of AMG 837. The activity of AMG 837 on GPR40 was characterized through GTPγS binding, inositol phosphate accumulation and Ca(2+) flux assays. Activity of AMG 837 on insulin release was assessed on isolated primary mouse islets. To determine the anti-diabetic activity of AMG 837 in vivo, we tested AMG 837 using a glucose tolerance test in normal Sprague-Dawley rats and obese Zucker fatty rats. AMG 837 was a potent partial agonist in the calcium flux assay on the GPR40 receptor and potentiated glucose stimulated insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo. Acute administration of AMG 837 lowered glucose excursions and increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion during glucose tolerance tests in both normal and Zucker fatty rats. The improvement in glucose excursions persisted following daily dosing of AMG 837 for 21-days in Zucker fatty rats. Preclinical studies demonstrated that AMG 837 was a potent GPR40 partial agonist which lowered post-prandial glucose levels. These studies support the potential utility of AMG 837 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e27270. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma; NR1C3) plays a central role in adipogenesis and is the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs. To overcome the well-known shortcomings of thiazolidinediones, we have identified INT131 (formerly T131 and AMG131) as a potent selective ligand for PPAR gamma that is structurally and pharmacologically distinct from glitazone agonists. In vitro biochemical and cell-based functional assays showed that INT131 mediates a distinct pattern of coregulator recruitment to PPAR gamma. In adipocytes, INT131 showed minimal stimulation of adipocyte differentiation and partially activated PPAR gamma target genes involved in adipogenesis and, at the same time, showed more agonistic activity on another set of target genes that may influence insulin sensitivity directly. These unique properties of INT131 may provide a mechanistic basis for its distinct pharmacological profile. In vivo, increases in glucose tolerance were observed in Zucker (fa/fa) rats following a 14-day oral treatment with INT131. Although the maximal efficacies of INT131 and rosiglitazone were similar with respect to improvements in glucose tolerance, INT131 had less effect on heart and lung weights, weight gain, hemodilution, and plasma volume. Thus, INT131 appears to selectively modulate PPAR gamma responses in an in vivo preclinical model, showing antidiabetic efficacy while exhibiting an improved hemodynamic and cardiovascular adverse effect profile compared to the full agonist rosiglitazone. X-ray crystallography revealed that INT131 interacts with PPAR gamma through a distinct binding mode, forming primarily hydrophobic contacts with the ligand-binding pocket without direct hydrogen-bonding interactions to key residues in helix 12 that are characteristic of full agonists. Mutagenesis studies on Tyr473 in helix 12 demonstrated this residue as essential for rosiglitazone-induced receptor activation, but nonessential for INT131 function in vitro, providing one possible molecular determinant for INT131's distinct pharmacology. INT131 is currently being evaluated in a clinical setting as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 04/2009; 386(5):1301-11. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: FGF19 subfamily proteins (FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23) are unique members of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that regulate energy, bile acid, glucose, lipid, phosphate, and vitamin D homeostasis in an endocrine fashion. Their activities require the presence of alpha or betaKlotho, two related single-pass transmembrane proteins, as co-receptors in relevant target tissues. We previously showed that FGF19 can bind to both alpha and betaKlotho, whereas FGF21 and FGF23 can bind only to either betaKlotho or alphaKlotho, respectively in vitro. To determine the mechanism regulating the binding and specificity among FGF19 subfamily members to Klotho family proteins, chimeric proteins between FGF19 subfamily members or chimeric proteins between Klotho family members were constructed to probe the interaction between those two families. Our results showed that a chimera of FGF19 with the FGF21 C-terminal tail interacts only with betaKlotho and a chimera with the FGF23 C-terminal tail interacts only with alphaKlotho. FGF signaling assays also reflected the change of specificity we observed for the chimeras. These results identified the C-terminal tail of FGF19 as a region necessary for its recognition of Klotho family proteins. In addition, chimeras between alpha and betaKlotho were also generated to probe the regions in Klotho proteins that are important for signaling by this FGF subfamily. Both FGF23 and FGF21 require intact alpha or betaKlotho for signaling, respectively, whereas FGF19 can signal through a Klotho chimera consisting of the N terminus of alphaKlotho and the C terminus of betaKlotho. Our results provide the first glimpse of the regions that regulate the binding specificity between this unique family of FGFs and their co-receptors.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2008; 283(48):33304-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important metabolic regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the role of FGF21 in energy metabolism and to provide mechanistic insights into its glucose and lipid-lowering effects in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) model. DIO or normal lean mice were treated with vehicle or recombinant murine FGF21. Metabolic parameters including body weight, glucose, and lipid levels were monitored, and hepatic gene expression was analyzed. Energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity were assessed using indirect calorimetry and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp techniques. FGF21 dose dependently reduced body weight and whole-body fat mass in DIO mice due to marked increases in total energy expenditure and physical activity levels. FGF21 also reduced blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels and reversed hepatic steatosis. The profound reduction of hepatic triglyceride levels was associated with FGF21 inhibition of nuclear sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and the expression of a wide array of genes involved in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. FGF21 also dramatically improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in both lean and DIO mice independently of reduction in body weight and adiposity. FGF21 corrects multiple metabolic disorders in DIO mice and has the potential to become a powerful therapeutic to treat hepatic steatosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetes 11/2008; 58(1):250-9. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) has been identified as a receptor for short-chain fatty acids that include acetate and propionate. A potential involvement of GPR43 in immune and inflammatory response has been previously suggested because its expression is highly enriched in immune cells. GPR43 is also expressed in a number of other tissues including adipocytes; however, the functional consequences of GPR43 activation in these other tissues are not clear. In this report, we focus on the potential functions of GPR43 in adipocytes. We show that adipocytes treated with GPR43 natural ligands, acetate and propionate, exhibit a reduction in lipolytic activity. This inhibition of lipolysis is the result of GPR43 activation, because this effect is abolished in adipocytes isolated from GPR43 knockout animals. In a mouse in vivo model, we show that the activation of GPR43 by acetate results in the reduction in plasma free fatty acid levels without inducing the flushing side effect that has been observed by the activation of nicotinic acid receptor, GPR109A. These results suggest a potential role for GPR43 in regulating plasma lipid profiles and perhaps aspects of metabolic syndrome.
    Endocrinology 06/2008; 149(9):4519-26. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) plays central roles in adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis and is the molecular target for the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of antidiabetic drugs. Activation of PPARgamma by TZDs improves insulin sensitivity; however, this is accompanied by the induction of several undesirable side effects. We have identified a novel synthetic PPARgamma ligand, T2384, to explore the biological activities associated with occupying different regions of the receptor ligand-binding pocket. X-ray crystallography studies revealed that T2384 can adopt two distinct binding modes, which we have termed "U" and "S", interacting with the ligand-binding pocket of PPARgamma primarily via hydrophobic contacts that are distinct from full agonists. The different binding modes occupied by T2384 induced distinct patterns of coregulatory protein interaction with PPARgamma in vitro and displayed unique receptor function in cell-based activity assays. We speculate that these unique biochemical and cellular activities may be responsible for the novel in vivo profile observed in animals treated systemically with T2384. When administered to diabetic KKAy mice, T2384 rapidly improved insulin sensitivity in the absence of weight gain, hemodilution, and anemia characteristics of treatment with rosiglitazone (a TZD). Moreover, upon coadministration with rosiglitazone, T2384 was able to antagonize the side effects induced by rosiglitazone treatment alone while retaining robust effects on glucose disposal. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that interactions between ligands and specific regions of the receptor ligand-binding pocket might selectively trigger a subset of receptor-mediated biological responses leading to the improvement of insulin sensitivity, without eliciting less desirable responses associated with full activation of the receptor. We suggest that T2384 may represent a prototype for a novel class of PPARgamma ligand and, furthermore, that molecules sharing some of these properties would be useful for treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2008; 283(14):9168-76. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GPR81 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has a high degree of homology to the nicotinic acid receptor GPR109A. GPR81 expression is highly enriched and specific in adipocytes. However, the function and signaling properties of GPR81 are unknown because of the lack of natural or synthetic ligands. Using chimeric G proteins that convert Gi-coupled receptors to Gq-mediated inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation, we show that GPR81 can constitutively increase IP accumulation in HEK293 cells and suggest that GPR81 couples to the Gi signaling pathway. We also constructed a chimeric receptor that expresses the extracellular domains of cysteinyl leukotriene 2 receptor (CysLT2R) and the intracellular domains of GPR81. We show that the CysLT2R ligand, leukotriene D(4) (LTD4), is able to activate this chimeric receptor through activation of the Gi pathway. In addition, LTD4 is able to inhibit lipolysis in adipocytes expressing this chimeric receptor. These results suggest that GPR81 couples to the Gi signaling pathway and that activation of the receptor may regulate adipocyte function and metabolism. Hence, targeting GPR81 may lead to the development of a novel and effective therapy for dyslipidemia and a better side effect profile than nicotinic acid.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 05/2008; 49(4):797-803. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: FGF19 is a unique member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of secreted proteins that regulates bile acid homeostasis and metabolic state in an endocrine fashion. Here we investigate the cell surface receptors required for signaling by FGF19. We show that betaKlotho, a single-pass transmembrane protein highly expressed in liver and fat, induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to FGF19 treatment and significantly increased the interactions between FGF19 and FGFR4. Interestingly, our results show that alphaKlotho, another Klotho family protein related to betaKlotho, also induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to FGF19 treatment and increased FGF19-FGFR4 interactions in vitro, similar to the effects of betaKlotho. In addition, heparin further enhanced the effects of both alphaKlotho and betaKlotho in FGF19 signaling and interaction experiments. These results suggest that a functional FGF19 receptor may consist of FGF receptor (FGFR) and heparan sulfate complexed with either alphaKlotho or betaKlotho.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2007; 282(40):29069-72. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    Jamila Gupte, Gene Cutler, Jin-Long Chen, Hui Tian
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of endogenous or surrogate ligands for orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represents one of the most important tasks in GPCR biology and pharmacology. The challenge lies in choosing an appropriate assay in the absence of ways to activate the receptor of interest. We investigated the signaling pathway for an orphan GPCR referred to here as vasopressin receptor-related receptor 1 (VRR1) by generating a chimeric receptor, V1a/VRR1. The engineered construct contained vasopressin V1a receptor with all three intracellular loops and C terminus replaced by those of VRR1. The chimera behaved like a typical GPCR when transiently and stably expressed in mammalian cell lines based on radioligand binding and receptor internalization studies. Upon arginine vasopressin stimulation, this chimeric receptor induced robust calcium mobilization and increase of adenylate cyclase activity. The observed signaling activities are through the activation of the chimera instead of endogenously expressed receptors, as single amino acid changes in the second transmembrane regions of the chimera drastically reduced receptor efficacy and potency. Our results suggest that VRR1 has dual signaling properties in coupling to both G(q) and G(S) pathways. Analysis of native VRR1 receptor signaling pathway by using a recently identified ligand for VRR1 confirmed this conclusion and therefore validated the utility of the chimeric receptor approach for signaling pathway identification.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2004; 101(6):1508-13. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma (NR1C3)) plays a central role in adipogenesis and is the molecular target for the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of antidiabetic drugs. In a search for novel non-TZD ligands for PPARgamma, T0070907 was identified as a potent and selective PPARgamma antagonist. With an apparent binding affinity (concentration at 50% inhibition of [(3)H]rosiglitazone binding or IC(50)) of 1 nm, T0070907 covalently modifies PPARgamma on cysteine 313 in helix 3 of human PPARgamma2. T0070907 blocked PPARgamma function in both cell-based reporter gene and adipocyte differentiation assays. Consistent with its role as an antagonist of PPARgamma, T0070907 blocked agonist-induced recruitment of coactivator-derived peptides to PPARgamma in a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence-based assay and promoted recruitment of the transcriptional corepressor NCoR to PPARgamma in both glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays and a PPARgamma/retinoid X receptor (RXR) alpha-dependent gel shift assay. Studies with mutant receptors suggest that T0070907 modulates the interaction of PPARgamma with these cofactor proteins by affecting the conformation of helix 12 of the PPARgamma ligand-binding domain. Interestingly, whereas the T0070907-induced NCoR recruitment to PPARgamma/RXRalpha heterodimer can be almost completely reversed by the simultaneous treatment with RXRalpha agonist LGD1069, T0070907 treatment has only modest effects on LGD1069-induced coactivator recruitment to the PPARgamma/RXRalpha heterodimer. These results suggest that the activity of PPARgamma antagonists can be modulated by the availability and concentration of RXR agonists. T0070907 is a novel tool for the study of PPARgamma/RXRalpha heterodimer function.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2002; 277(22):19649-57. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a neuropeptide expressed in central and peripheral nervous systems, plays an important role in the control of feeding behaviors and energy metabolism. An orphan G protein-coupled receptor (SLC-1/GPR24) has recently been identified as a receptor for MCH (MCHR1). We report here the identification and characterization of a G protein-coupled receptor as the MCH receptor subtype 2 (MCHR2). MCHR2 has higher protein sequence homology to MCHR1 than any other G protein-coupled receptor. The expression of MCHR2 has been detected in many regions of the brain. In contrast to MCHR1, which is intronless in the coding region and is located at the chromosomal locus 22q13.3, the MCHR2 gene has multiple exons and is mapped to locus 6q21. MCHR2 is specifically activated by nanomolar concentrations of MCH, binds to MCH with high affinity, and signals through Gq protein. This discovery is important for a full understanding of MCH biology and the development of potential therapeutics for diseases involving MCH, including obesity.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2001; 98(13):7576-7581. · 9.81 Impact Factor