[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a genetic cardiac disease characterized by marked variability in morphological expression and natural history. The hypertrophic myocardium is often confined to the septum or lateral wall of the left ventricle, but it can also be encountered in the middle or apical segments of the myocardium. Treatment is based on medical therapy. Others therapies, such as embolization of the septal artery or ventriculomyectomy, are indicated in special situations. Surgery is the standard treatment, and it is classically done via a transaortic approach; however, in cases in which the hypertrophic myocardium is confined to mid-apical segments, a transapical approach is an option. Only a few cases of mid-apical obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy treated with a myectomy using a transapical approach have been reported in the English-language literature. In this report, we present a case of a patient with mid-apical obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy treated using this new approach.
A 63-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a history of chest pain and shortness of breath causing significant limitations on her daily life activities. She had a history of coronary artery disease. Her physical examination was unremarkable. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed normal systolic function and significant concentric left ventricular hypertrophy that was greater in the mid-apical region. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging confirmed significant hypertrophy of the median segments of the left ventricle. The patient had persistent symptoms despite receiving optimized medical treatment, and a surgical approach was indicated. As a myectomy using transaortic technique was thought to be difficult to perform in her case, a transapical approach was used. No complications occurred, and her symptoms resolved.
A transapical myectomy should be taken into consideration for patients with mid-apical obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that is refractory to medical treatment.
Journal of Medical Case Reports 11/2014; 8(1):364. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-8-364
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aim to evaluate in-hospital events and long-term clinical outcomes in patients over 60 years of age with stable coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction undergoing off-pump or on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.
The MASS III was a single-center randomized trial that evaluate 308 patients with stable coronary artery disease and preserved ventricular function assigned for: 155 to off-pump and 153 to on-pump CABG. Of this, 176 (58.3%) patients were 60 years or older at the time of randomization (90 of-pump and 86 on-pump). The primary short-term end point was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and overall mortality occurring within 30 days after surgery or before discharge, whichever was later. The primary long-term end point was death from any cause within 5 years, non-fatal myocardial infarction between 30 days and 5 years, or additional revascularization between 30 days and 5 years.
On-pump CABG had a higher incidence of 30-day composite outcome than off-pump CABG (15,1% and 5.6%, respectively; P = 0.036). However, after the multivariate analysis, this association lost statistical significance, P = 0.05. After 5-year follow-up, there were no significant differences between both strategies of CABG in the composite end points 16.7% and 15.1%; Hazard Ratio 1.07; CI 0.41 – 1.82; P = 0.71, for off-pump and on-pump CABG respectively.
On-pump and off-pump CABG achieved similar results of combined events at short-term and 5-year follow-up.
Clinical Trial Registration Information—URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Registration number:
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 08/2014; 9(1):136. DOI:10.1186/1749-8090-9-136 · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of coronary artery disease (CAD). Despite improvement in the management of patients with stable CAD, diabetes remains a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality. There is no conclusive evidence that either modality is better than medical therapy alone for the treatment of stable multivessel CAD in patients with diabetes in a very long-term follow-up. Our aim was to compare 3 therapeutic strategies for stable multivessel CAD in a diabetic population and non-diabetic population.
It was compared medical therapy (MT), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in 232 diabetic patients and 379 nondiabetic patients with multivessel CAD. Endpoints evaluated were overall and cardiac mortality.
Patients (n = 611) were randomized to CABG (n = 203), PCI (n = 205), or MT (n = 203). In a 10-year follow-up, more deaths occurred among patients with diabetes than among patients without diabetes (P = .001) for overall mortality. In this follow-up, 10-year mortality rates were 32.3% and 23.2% for diabetics and non-diabetics respectively (P = .024). Regarding cardiac mortality, 10-year cardiac mortality rates were 19.4% and 12.7% respectively (P = .031).Considering only diabetic patients and stratifying this population by treatment option, we found mortality rates of 31.3% for PCI, 27.5% for CABG and 37.5% for MT (P = .015 for CABG vs MT) and cardiac mortality rates of 18.8%, 12.5% and 26.1% respectively (P = .005 for CABG vs MT).
Among patients with stable multivessel CAD and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, the 3 therapeutic regimens had high rates of overall and cardiac-related deaths among diabetic compared with non-diabetic patients. Moreover, better outcomes were observed in diabetic patients undergoing CABG compared to MT in relation to overall and cardiac mortality in a 10-year follow-up.
American heart journal 08/2013; 166(2):250-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2013.04.017 · 4.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assuming that coronary interventions, both coronary bypass surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), are directed to preserve left ventricular function, it is not known whether medical therapy alone (MT) can achieve this protection. Thus, we evaluated the evolution of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) treated by CABG, PCI, or MT as a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial with a follow-up of 10 years.
Left ventricle ejection fraction was assessed with transthoracic echocardiography in patients with multivessel CAD, participants of the MASS II trial before randomization to CABG, PCI, or MT, and re-evaluated after 10 years of follow-up.
Of the 611 patients, 422 were alive after 10.32 ± 1.43 years. Three hundred and fifty had LVEF reassessed: 108 patients from MT, 111 from CABG, and 131 from PCI. There was no difference in LVEF at the beginning (0.61 ± 0.07, 0.61 ± 0.08, 0.61 ± 0.09, respectively, for PCI, CABG, and MT, P = 0.675) or at the end of follow-up (0.56 ± 0.11, 0.55 ± 0.11, 0.55 ± 0.12, P = 0.675), or in the decline of LVEF (reduction delta of -7.2 ± 17.13, -9.08 ± 18.77, and -7.54 ± 22.74). Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during the follow-up was associated with greater reduction in LVEF. The presence of previous AMI (OR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.40-4.45; P = 0.0007) and during the follow-up (OR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.25-5.92; P = 0.005) was associated with development of LVEF <45%.
Regardless of the therapeutic option applied, LVEF remains preserved in the absence of a major adverse cardiac event after 10 years of follow-up.
http://www.controlled-trials.com. Registration number ISRCTN66068876.
European Heart Journal 07/2013; 34(43). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/eht201 · 15.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of complete revascularization remains unclear and contradictory. This current investigation compares the effect of complete revascularization on 10-year survival of patients with stable multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) who were randomly assigned to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).
This is a post hoc analysis of the Second Medicine, Angioplasty, or Surgery Study (MASS II), which is a randomized trial comparing treatments in patients with stable multivessel CAD, and preserved systolic ventricular function. We analyzed patients who underwent surgery (CABG) or stent angioplasty (PCI). The survival free of overall mortality of patients who underwent complete (CR) or incomplete revascularization (IR) was compared. Of the 408 patients randomly assigned to mechanical revascularization, 390 patients (95.6%) underwent the assigned treatment; complete revascularization was achieved in 224 patients (57.4%), 63.8% of those in the CABG group and 36.2% in the PCI group (P=0.001). The IR group had more prior myocardial infarction than the CR group (56.2%×39.2%, P=0.01). During a 10-year follow-up, the survival free of cardiovascular mortality was significantly different among patients in the 2 groups (CR, 90.6% versus IR, 84.4%; P=0.04). This was mainly driven by an increased cardiovascular specific mortality in individuals with incomplete revascularization submitted to PCI (P=0.05).
Our study suggests that in 10-year follow-up, CR compared with IR was associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality, especially due to a higher increase in cardiovascular-specific mortality in individuals submitted to PCI.
URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Registration number: ISRCTN66068876.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Second Medicine, Angioplasty, or Surgery Study (MASS II) included patients with multivessel coronary artery disease and normal systolic ventricular function. Patients underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG, n=203), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, n=205), or medical treatment alone (MT, n=203). This investigation compares the economic outcome at 5-year follow-up of the 3 therapeutic strategies.
We analyzed cumulative costs during a 5-year follow-up period. To analyze the cost-effectiveness, adjustment was made on the cumulative costs for average event-free time and angina-free proportion. Respectively, for event-free survival and event plus angina-free survival, MT presented 3.79 quality-adjusted life-years and 2.07 quality-adjusted life-years; PCI presented 3.59 and 2.77 quality-adjusted life-years; and CABG demonstrated 4.4 and 2.81 quality-adjusted life-years. The event-free costs were $9071.00 for MT; $19 967.00 for PCI; and $18 263.00 for CABG. The paired comparison of the event-free costs showed that there was a significant difference favoring MT versus PCI (P<0.01) and versus CABG (P<0.01) and CABG versus PCI (P=0.01). The event-free plus angina-free costs were $16 553.00, $25 831.00, and $24 614.00, respectively. The paired comparison of the event-free plus angina-free costs showed that there was a significant difference favoring MT versus PCI (P=0.04), and versus CABG (P<0.001); there was no difference between CABG and PCI (P>0.05).
In the long-term economic analysis, for the prevention of a composite primary end point, MT was more cost effective than CABG, and CABG was more cost-effective than PCI.
www.controlled-trials.com. Registration number: ISRCTN66068876.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
With progressive aging, coronary artery disease has been diagnosed at more advanced ages. Although patients aged 65 years or more have been referred to surgical or percutaneous coronary interventions, the best option for coronary artery disease treatment remains uncertain. The current study compared the 3 treatment options for coronary artery disease in patients aged 65 years or more and analyzed the impact of age in treatment options.
Patients were separated according to age: 65 years or more (n = 200) and less than 65 years (n = 411). All patients were followed for 10 years. The rates of overall mortality, acute myocardial infarction, and new revascularizations were analyzed.
Of 200 patients aged 65 years or more, 68 were randomized to medical therapy, 68 were randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention, and 64 were randomized to coronary artery bypass grafting. At 10 years, overall survival was 63% (medical therapy), 69% (percutaneous coronary intervention), and 66% (coronary artery bypass grafting) (P = .93). The survival free of combined events was 43% (medical therapy), 38% (percutaneous coronary intervention ), and 66% (coronary artery bypass grafting) (P = .007). The survival free of myocardial infarction was 82% (medical therapy), 77% (percutaneous coronary intervention), and 90% (coronary artery bypass grafting) (P = .17), and survival free of new revascularizations was 59% (medical therapy), 58% (percutaneous coronary intervention ), and 91% (coronary artery bypass grafting) (P = .0003). When the 2 age groups were compared, survival free of myocardial infarction for patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention was 77% (older patients) and 92% (younger patients) (P = .004).
In this analysis, treatment options for patients aged 65 years or more who have coronary artery disease yield similar overall survival. However, coronary artery bypass grafting was associated with fewer coronary events, and percutaneous coronary intervention was associated with a higher incidence of myocardial infarction.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 08/2012; 146(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.08.015 · 4.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Although the release of cardiac biomarkers after percutaneous (PCI) or surgical revascularization (CABG) is common, its prognostic significance is not known. Questions remain about the mechanisms and degree of correlation between the release, the volume of myocardial tissue loss, and the long-term significance. Delayed-enhancement of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) consistently quantifies areas of irreversible myocardial injury. To investigate the quantitative relationship between irreversible injury and cardiac biomarkers, we will evaluate the extent of irreversible injury in patients undergoing PCI and CABG and relate it to postprocedural modifications in cardiac biomarkers and long-term prognosis.
The study will include 150 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) with left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and a formal indication for CABG; 50 patients will undergo CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); 50 patients with the same arterial and ventricular condition indicated for myocardial revascularization will undergo CABG without CPB; and another 50 patients with CAD and preserved ventricular function will undergo PCI using stents. All patients will undergo CMR before and after surgery or PCI. We will also evaluate the release of cardiac markers of necrosis immediately before and after each procedure. Primary outcome considered is overall death in a 5-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes are levels of CK-MB isoenzyme and I-Troponin in association with presence of myocardial fibrosis and systolic left ventricle dysfunction assessed by CMR.
The MASS-V Trial aims to establish reliable values for parameters of enzyme markers of myocardial necrosis in the absence of manifest myocardial infarction after mechanical interventions. The establishments of these indices have diagnostic value and clinical prognosis and therefore require relevant and different therapeutic measures. In daily practice, the inappropriate use of these necrosis markers has led to misdiagnosis and therefore wrong treatment. The appearance of a more sensitive tool such as CMR provides an unprecedented diagnostic accuracy of myocardial damage when correlated with necrosis enzyme markers. We aim to correlate laboratory data with imaging, thereby establishing more refined data on the presence or absence of irreversible myocardial injury after the procedure, either percutaneous or surgical, and this, with or without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary end points of randomized clinical trials evaluating the outcome of therapeutic strategies for coronary artery disease (CAD) have included nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, the need for further revascularization, and overall mortality. Noncardiac causes of death may distort the interpretation of the long-term effects of coronary revascularization.
This post-hoc analysis of the second Medicine, Angioplasty, or Surgery Study evaluates the cause of mortality of patients with multivessel CAD undergoing medical treatment, percutaneous coronary intervention, or surgical myocardial revascularization [coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)] after a 6-year follow-up. Mortality was classified as cardiac and noncardiac death, and the causes of noncardiac death were reported.
Patients were randomized into CABG and non-CABG groups (percutaneous coronary intervention plus medical treatment). No statistical differences were observed in overall mortality (P=0.824). A significant difference in the distribution of causes of mortality was observed among the CABG and non-CABG groups (P=0.003). In the CABG group, of the 203 randomized patients, the overall number of deaths was 34. Sixteen patients (47.1%) died of cardiac causes and 18 patients (52.9%) died of noncardiac causes. Of these, seven deaths (20.6%) were due to neoplasia. In the non-CABG group, comprising 408 patients, the overall number of deaths was 69. Fifty-three patients (77%) died of cardiac causes and 16 patients (23%) died of noncardiac causes. Only five deaths (7.2%) were due to neoplasia.
Different treatment options for multivessel coronary artery disease have similar overall mortality: CABG patients had the lowest incidence of cardiac death, but the highest incidence of noncardiac causes of death, and specifically a higher tendency toward cancer-related deaths.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is a safe, routine procedure. Nevertheless, significant morbidity remains, mostly because of the body's response to the nonphysiological nature of cardiopulmonary bypass. Few data are available on the effects of off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (OPCAB) on cardiac events and long-term clinical outcomes.
In a single-center randomized trial, 308 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly assigned: 155 to OPCAB and 153 to on-pump CAB (ONCAB). Primary composite end points were death, myocardial infarction, further revascularization (surgery or angioplasty), or stroke. After 5-year follow-up, the primary composite end point was not different between groups (hazard ratio 0.71, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.22; P=0.21). A statistical difference was found between OPCAB and ONCAB groups in the duration of surgery (240±65 versus 300±87.5 minutes; P<0.001), in the length of ICU stay (19.5±17.8 versus 43±17.0 hours; P<0.001), time to extubation (4.6±6.8 versus 9.3±5.7 hours; P<0.001), hospital stay (6±2 versus 9±2 days; P<0.001), higher incidence of atrial fibrillation (35 versus 4% of patients; P<0.001), and blood requirements (31 versus 61% of patients; P<0.001), respectively. The number of grafts per patient was higher in the ONCAB than the OPCAB group (2.97 versus 2.49 grafts/patient; P<0.001).
No difference was found between groups in the primary composite end point at 5-years follow-up. Although OPCAB surgery was related to a lower number of grafts and higher episodes of atrial fibrillation, it had no significant implications related to long-term outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN66068876.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared the 10-year follow-up of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery surgery (CABG), and medical treatment (MT) in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease, stable angina, and preserved ventricular function.
The primary end points were overall mortality, Q-wave myocardial infarction, or refractory angina that required revascularization. All data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. At a single institution, 611 patients were randomly assigned to CABG (n=203), PCI (n=205), or MT (n=203). The 10-year survival rates were 74.9% with CABG, 75.1% with PCI, and 69% with MT (P=0.089). The 10-year rates of myocardial infarction were 10.3% with CABG, 13.3% with PCI, and 20.7% with MT (P<0.010). The 10-year rates of additional revascularizations were 7.4% with CABG, 41.9% with PCI, and 39.4% with MT (P<0.001). Relative to the composite end point, Cox regression analysis showed a higher incidence of primary events in MT than in CABG (hazard ratio 2.35, 95% confidence interval 1.78 to 3.11) and in PCI than in CABG (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval 1.39 to 2.47). Furthermore, 10-year rates of freedom from angina were 64% with CABG, 59% with PCI, and 43% with MT (P<0.001).
Compared with CABG, MT was associated with a significantly higher incidence of subsequent myocardial infarction, a higher rate of additional revascularization, a higher incidence of cardiac death, and consequently a 2.29-fold increased risk of combined events. PCI was associated with an increased need for further revascularization, a higher incidence of myocardial infarction, and a 1.46-fold increased risk of combined events compared with CABG. Additionally, CABG was better than MT at eliminating anginal symptoms. Clinical Trial Registration Information- URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Registration number: ISRCTN66068876.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MASS IV-DM Trial is a large project from a single institution, the Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil to study ventricular function and coronary arteries in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The study will enroll 600 patients with type 2 diabetes who have angiographically normal ventricular function and coronary arteries. The goal of the MASS IV-DM Trial is to achieve a long-term evaluation of the development of coronary atherosclerosis by using angiograms and coronary-artery calcium scan by electron-beam computed tomography at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. In addition, the incidence of major cardiovascular events, the dysfunction of various organs involved in this disease, particularly microalbuminuria and renal function, will be analyzed through clinical evaluation. In addition, an effort will be made to investigate in depth the presence of major cardiovascular risk factors, especially the biochemical profile, metabolic syndrome inflammatory activity, oxidative stress, endothelial function, prothrombotic factors, and profibrinolytic and platelet activity. An evaluation will be made of the polymorphism as a determinant of disease and its possible role in the genesis of micro- and macrovascular damage.
The MASS IV-DM trial is designed to include diabetic patients with clinically suspected myocardial ischemia in whom conventional angiography shows angiographically normal coronary arteries. The result of extensive investigation including angiographic follow-up by several methods, vascular reactivity, pro-thrombotic mechanisms, genetic and biochemical studies may facilitate the understanding of so-called micro- and macrovascular disease of DM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MASS III Trial is a large project from a single institution, The Heart Institute of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil (InCor), enrolling patients with coronary artery disease and preserved ventricular function. The aim of the MASS III Trial is to compare medical effectiveness, cerebral injury, quality of life, and the cost-effectiveness of coronary surgery with and without of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with multivessel coronary disease referred for both strategies. The primary endpoint should be a composite of cardiovascular mortality, cerebrovascular accident, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and refractory angina requiring revascularization. The secondary end points in this trial include noncardiac mortality, presence and severity of angina, quality of life based on the SF-36 Questionnaire, and cost-effectiveness at discharge and at 5-year follow-up. In this scenario, we will analyze the cost of the initial procedure, hospital length of stay, resource utilization, repeat hospitalization, and repeat revascularization events during the follow-up. Exercise capacity will be assessed at 6-months, 12-months, and the end of follow-up. A neurocognitive evaluation will be assessed in a subset of subjects using the Brain Resource Center computerized neurocognitive battery. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging will be made to detect any cerebral injury before and after procedures in patients who undergo coronary artery surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass.
Clinical Trial registration information
ISRCTN59539154 Off-pump vs. on-pump surgery in patients with Stable CAD MASS III