Gregory A Mignery

Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (60)514.38 Total impact

  • Natesan Sankar, Pieter P Detombe, Gregory A Mignery
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    ABSTRACT: In heart, the type-2 Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (InsP3R2) is the predominant isoform expressed and is localized in the nuclear membrane of ventricular myocytes. InsP3R2 mediated Ca2+ release regulates hypertrophy specific gene expression by modulating CaMKIIδ, HDAC and calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathways. InsP3R2 protein is a hypertrophy specific marker and is over-expressed in heart-failure animal models and in humans. However, the regulation of InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression during cardiac hypertrophy and heart-failure is not known. Here we show the transcriptional regulation of the ITPR2 gene in adult cardiomyocytes. Our data demonstrates that, InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression is activated by hypertrophic agonists and attenuated by the InsP3R inhibitors 2-APB and Xestospongin-C. The ITPR2 promoter is regulated by the calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathway. NFATc1 regulates ITPR2 gene expression by directly binding to the ITPR2 promoter. The calcineurin-NFATc mediated up-regulation of the ITPR2 promoter was attenuated by cyclosporine-A. InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression were up-regulated in calcineurin-A transgenic mice and in human heart-failure. Collectively, our data suggests that ITPR2 and hypertrophy specific gene expression is regulated, in part, by a positive feed-back regulation between InsP3R2 and calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathways.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2014; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.495242 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The functional role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) signaling in cardiomyocytes is not entirely understood but it was linked to an increased propensity for triggered activity. The aim of this study was to determine how InsP3 receptors can translate Ca(2+) release into a depolarization of the plasma membrane and consequently arrhythmic activity. We used embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESdCs) as a model system since their spontaneous electrical activity depends on InsP3-mediated Ca(2+) release. [InsP3]i was monitored with the FRET-based InsP3-biosensor FIRE-1 (Fluorescent InsP3 Responsive Element) and heterogeneity in sub-cellular [InsP3]i was achieved by targeted expression of FIRE-1 in the nucleus (FIRE-1nuc) or expression of InsP3 5-phosphatase (m43) localized to the plasma membrane. Spontaneous activity of ESdCs was monitored simultaneously as cytosolic Ca(2+) transients (Fluo-4/AM) and action potentials (current clamp). During diastole, the diastolic depolarization was paralleled by an increase of [Ca(2+)]i and spontaneous activity was modulated by [InsP3]i. A 3.7% and 1.7% increase of FIRE-1 FRET ratio and 3.0 and 1.5 fold increase in beating frequency was recorded upon stimulation with endothelin-1 (ET-1, 100 nmol/L) or phenylephrine (PE, 10 µmol/L), respectively. Buffering of InsP3 by FIRE-1nuc had no effect on the basal frequency while attenuation of InsP3 signaling throughout the cell (FIRE-1), or at the plasma membrane (m43) resulted in a 53.7% and 54.0% decrease in beating frequency. In m43 expressing cells the response to ET-1 was completely suppressed. Ca(2+) released from InsP3Rs is more effective than Ca(2+) released from RyRs to enhance INCX. The results support the hypothesis that in ESdCs InsP3Rs form a functional signaling domain with NCX that translates Ca(2+) release efficiently into a depolarization of the membrane potential.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e83715. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083715 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Joshua T Maxwell, Sankar Natesan, Gregory A Mignery
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    ABSTRACT: InsP3-mediated calcium release through the type-2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R2) in cardiac myocytes results in the activation of associated CaMKII (1,2), thus enabling the kinase to act on downstream targets, such as histone deacetylases 4 & 5 (HDAC4 & HDAC5) (3). The CaMKII activity also feedback modulates InsP3R2 function by direct phosphorylation and results in a dramatic decrease in the receptor-channel open probability (Po). We have identified serine-150 (S150) in the InsP3R2 core suppressor domain (amino acids 1-225) as the specific residue that is phosphorylated by CaMKII. Site-directed mutagenesis reveals that S150 is the CaMKII phosphorylation site responsible for modulation of channel activity. Non-phosphorylatable (S150A) and phospho-mimetic (S150E) mutations were studied in planar lipid bilayers. The InsP3R2 S150A channel showed no decrease in activity when treated with CaMKII. Conversely, the phosphomimetic (S150E) channel displayed a very low Po under normal recording conditions in the absence of CaMKII (2μM InsP3 and 250nM [Ca2+]FREE), and mimicked a wt channel that has been phosphorylated by CaMKII. Phopho-specific antibodies demonstrate that InsP3R2 Ser150 is phosphorylated in vivo by CaMKIIδ. The results of this study show that serine-150 of the InsP3R2 is phosphorylated by CaMKII and results in a decrease in the channels open probability.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2012; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M112.374058 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysferlin was previously identified as a key player in muscle membrane repair and its deficiency leads to the development of muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy. However, little is known about the oligomerization of this protein in the plasma membrane. Here we report for the first time that dysferlin forms a dimer in vitro and in living adult skeletal muscle fibers isolated from mice. Endogenous dysferlin from rabbit skeletal muscle exists primarily as a ∼460 kDa species in detergent-solubilized muscle homogenate, as shown by sucrose gradient fractionation, gel filtration and cross-linking assays. Fluorescent protein (YFP) labeled human dysferlin forms a dimer in vitro, as demonstrated by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and photon counting histogram (PCH) analyses. Dysferlin also dimerizes in living cells, as probed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Domain mapping FRET experiments showed that dysferlin dimerization is mediated by its transmembrane domain and by multiple C2 domains. However, C2A did not significantly contribute to dimerization; notably, this is the only C2 domain in dysferlin known to engage in a Ca-dependent interaction with cell membranes. Taken together, the data suggest that Ca-insensitive C2 domains mediate high affinity self-association of dysferlin in a parallel homodimer, leaving the Ca-sensitive C2A domain free to interact with membranes.
    PLoS ONE 11/2011; 6(11):e27884. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0027884 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Biophysical Journal 01/2010; 98(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2009.12.1678 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Joshua T. Maxwell, A. S. Aromolaran, Gregory A. Mignery
    Biophysical Journal 01/2010; 98(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2009.12.2797 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Biophysical Journal 01/2010; 98(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2009.12.2791 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Biophysical Journal 01/2010; 98(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2009.12.2703 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the presence of a BH4 domain distinguishes the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 from its proapoptotic relatives, little is known about its function. BH4 deletion converts Bcl-2 into a proapoptotic protein, whereas a TAT-BH4 fusion peptide inhibits apoptosis and improves survival in models of disease due to accelerated apoptosis. Thus, the BH4 domain has antiapoptotic activity independent of full-length Bcl-2. Here we report that the BH4 domain mediates interaction of Bcl-2 with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor, an IP3-gated Ca(2+) channel on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). BH4 peptide binds to the regulatory and coupling domain of the IP3 receptor and inhibits IP3-dependent channel opening, Ca(2+) release from the ER, and Ca(2+)-mediated apoptosis. A peptide inhibitor of Bcl-2-IP3 receptor interaction prevents these BH4-mediated effects. By inhibiting proapoptotic Ca(2+) signals at their point of origin, the Bcl-2 BH4 domain has the facility to block diverse pathways through which Ca(2+) induces apoptosis.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2009; 106(34):14397-402. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0907555106 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Biophysical Journal 02/2009; 96(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2008.12.406 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Biophysical Journal 02/2009; 96(3):97-. DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2008.12.411 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 inhibits Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). One proposed mechanism involves an interaction of Bcl-2 with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) Ca2+ channel localized with Bcl-2 on the ER. Here we document Bcl-2-IP3R interaction within cells by FRET and identify a Bcl-2 interacting region in the regulatory and coupling domain of the IP3R. A peptide based on this IP3R sequence displaced Bcl-2 from the IP3R and reversed Bcl-2-mediated inhibition of IP3R channel activity in vitro, IP3-induced ER Ca2+ release in permeabilized cells, and cell-permeable IP3 ester-induced Ca2+ elevation in intact cells. This peptide also reversed Bcl-2's inhibition of T cell receptor-induced Ca2+ elevation and apoptosis. Thus, the interaction of Bcl-2 with IP3Rs contributes to the regulation of proapoptotic Ca2+ signals by Bcl-2, suggesting the Bcl-2-IP3R interaction as a potential therapeutic target in diseases associated with Bcl-2's inhibition of cell death.
    Molecular cell 07/2008; 31(2):255-65. DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2008.06.014 · 14.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor (IP(3)R)-dependent Ca(2+) signaling exerts positive inotropic, but also arrhythmogenic, effects on excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) in the atrial myocardium. The role of IP(3)R-dependent sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release in ECC in the ventricular myocardium remains controversial. Here we investigated the role of this signaling pathway during ECC in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes. Immunoblotting of proteins from ventricular myocytes showed expression of both type 2 and type 3 IP(3)R at levels approximately 3.5-fold less than in atrial myocytes. In permeabilized myocytes, direct application of IP(3) (10 microM) produced a transient 21% increase in the frequency of Ca(2+) sparks (P < 0.05). This increase was accompanied by a 13% decrease in spark amplitude (P < 0.05) and a 7% decrease in SR Ca(2+) load (P < 0.05) and was inhibited by IP(3)R antagonists 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB; 20 microM) and heparin (0.5 mg/ml). In intact myocytes endothelin-1 (100 nM) was used to stimulate IP(3) production and caused a 38% (P < 0.05) increase in the amplitude of action potential-induced (0.5 Hz, field stimulation) Ca(2+) transients. This effect was abolished by the IP(3)R antagonist 2-APB (2 microM) or by using adenoviral expression of an IP(3) affinity trap that buffers cellular IP(3). Together, these data suggest that in rabbit ventricular myocytes IP(3)R-dependent Ca(2+) release has positive inotropic effects on ECC by facilitating Ca(2+) release through ryanodine receptor clusters.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 02/2008; 294(2):H596-604. DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.01155.2007 · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 inhibits Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). One proposed mechanism involves an interaction of Bcl-2 with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) Ca2+ channel localized with Bcl-2 on the ER. Here we document Bcl-2-IP3R interaction within cells by FRET and identify a Bcl-2 interacting region in the regulatory and coupling domain of the IP3R. A peptide based on this IP3R sequence displaced Bcl-2 from the IP3R and reversed Bcl-2-mediated inhibition of IP3R channel activity in vitro, IP3-induced ER Ca2+ release in permeabilized cells, and cell-permeable IP3 ester-induced Ca2+ elevation in intact cells. This peptide also reversed Bcl-2's inhibition of T cell receptor-induced Ca2+ elevation and apoptosis. Thus, the interaction of Bcl-2 with IP3Rs contributes to the regulation of proapoptotic Ca2+ signals by Bcl-2, suggesting the Bcl-2-IP3R interaction as a potential therapeutic target in diseases associated with Bcl-2's inhibition of cell death.
    Molecular Cell 01/2008; 31(2):255-265. DOI:10.1016/j.moicel.2008.06.014 · 14.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In cardiac myocytes the type-2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R2) is the predominant isoform expressed. The IP(3)R2 channel is localized to the SR and to the nuclear envelope. We studied IP(3)-dependent nuclear Ca(2+) signals ([Ca(2+)](Nuc)) in permeabilized atrial myocytes and in isolated cardiac nuclei. In permeabilized myocytes IP(3) (20 microm) and the more potent IP(3)R agonist adenophostin (5 microm) caused an elevation of [Ca(2+)](Nuc). An IP(3)-dependent increase of [Ca(2+)](Nuc) was still observed after pretreatment with tetracaine to block Ca(2+) release from ryanodine receptors (RyRs), and the effect of IP(3) was partially reversed or prevented by the IP(3)R blockers heparin and 2-APB. Isolated nuclei were superfused with an internal solution containing the Ca(2+) indicator fluo-4 dextran. Exposure to IP(3) (10 microm) and adenophostin (0.5 microm) increased [Ca(2+)](Nuc) by 25 and 27%, respectively. [Ca(2+)](Nuc) increased to higher levels than [Ca(2+)](Cyt) immediately adjacent to the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope, suggesting that a significant portion of nuclear IP(3) receptors are facing the nucleoplasm. When nuclei were pretreated with heparin or 2-APB, IP(3) failed to increase [Ca(2+)](Nuc). Isolated nuclei were also loaded with the membrane-permeant low-affinity Ca(2+) probe fluo-5N AM which compartmentalized into the nuclear envelope. Exposure to IP(3) and adenophostin resulted in a decrease of the fluo-5N signal that could be prevented by heparin. Stimulation of IP(3)R caused depletion of the nuclear Ca(2+) stores by approximately 60% relative to the maximum depletion produced by the ionophores ionomycin and A23187. The fluo-5N fluorescence decrease was particularly pronounced in the nuclear periphery, suggesting that the nuclear envelope may represent the predominant nuclear Ca(2+) store. The data indicate that IP(3) can elicit Ca(2+) release from cardiac nuclei resulting in localized nuclear Ca(2+) signals.
    The Journal of Physiology 11/2007; 584(Pt 2):601-11. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.140731 · 4.54 Impact Factor
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    Nidhi Kapur, Gregory A Mignery, Kathrin Banach
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    ABSTRACT: During cell cycle progression, somatic cells exhibit different patterns of intracellular Ca(2+) signals during the G(0) phase, the transition from G(1) to S, and from G(2) to M. Because pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells progress through cell cycle without the gap phases G(1) and G(2), we aimed to determine whether mouse ES (mES) cells still exhibit characteristic changes of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration during cell cycle progression. With confocal imaging of the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye fluo-4 AM, we identified that undifferentiated mES cells exhibit spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations. In control cultures where 50.4% of the cells reside in the S phase of the cell cycle, oscillations appeared in 36% of the cells within a colony. Oscillations were not initiated by Ca(2+) influx but depended on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-mediated Ca(2+) release and the refilling of intracellular stores by a store-operated Ca(2+) influx (SOC) mechanism. Using cell cycle synchronization, we determined that Ca(2+) oscillations were confined to the G(1)/S phase ( approximately 70% oscillating cells vs. G(2)/M with approximately 15% oscillating cells) of the cell cycle. ATP induced Ca(2+) oscillations, and activation of SOC could be induced in G(1)/S and G(2)/M synchronized cells. Intracellular Ca(2+) stores were not depleted, and all three IP(3) receptor isoforms were present throughout the cell cycle. Cell cycle analysis after EGTA, BAPTA-AM, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, thapsigargin, or U-73122 treatment emphasized that IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) release is necessary for cell cycle progression through G(1)/S. Because the IP(3) receptor sensitizer thimerosal induced Ca(2+) oscillations only in G(1)/S, we propose that changes in IP(3) receptor sensitivity or basal levels of IP(3) could be the basis for the G(1)/S-confined Ca(2+) oscillations.
    AJP Cell Physiology 05/2007; 292(4):C1510-8. DOI:10.1152/ajpcell.00181.2006 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During action potential conduction, the axonal specializations at the node, together with the adjacent paranodal terminations of the myelin sheath, interact with glial processes that invest the nodal gap. The nature of the mutual signals between axons and myelinating glia, however, are not well understood. Here we have characterized the distribution of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) in the axoglial apparatus by immunohistochemistry, using known myelin domain-specific markers. While IP(3)R1 is not expressed in the Schwann cells or the axon, IP(3)R2 and IP(3)R3 are expressed in distinct cellular domains, suggesting distinct signaling roles for the two receptors. IP(3)R3 is the most predominant isoform in Schwann cells, and is expressed in particularly dense patches in the paranodal region. In addition to IP(3)Rs, two other members of the metabotropic Ca(2+) signaling pathway, G(alpha)q, and P(2)Y1 type of purinoceptors were also found in Schwann cells. Their pattern of expression matches the expression of their signaling partners, the IP(3)Rs. One interesting finding to emerge from this study is the expression of connexin 32 (Cx32) in close proximity with IP(3)R3. Although IP(3)R3 and Cx32 are not colocalized, their expression in the same membrane areas raises the question whether Schwann cell Ca(2+) signals either control the function of the gap junctions, or whether the gap junctional channels serve as conduits for rapid radial spread of Ca(2+) signals initiated during action potential propagation.
    Glia 01/2007; 55(2):202-13. DOI:10.1002/glia.20448 · 5.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositides participate in many signaling cascades via phospholipase C stimulation, which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, producing second messengers diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3). Destructive chemical approaches required to measure [InsP3] limit spatiotemporal understanding of subcellular InsP3 signaling. We constructed novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based InsP3 biosensors called FIRE (fluorescent InsP3-responsive element) by fusing plasmids encoding the InsP3-binding domain of InsP3 receptors (types 1-3) between cyan fluorescent protein and yellow fluorescent protein sequences. FIRE was expressed and characterized in COS-1 cells, cultured neonatal cardiac myocytes, and incorporated into an adenoviral vector for expression in adult cardiac ventricular myocytes. FIRE-1 exhibits an approximately 11% increase in the fluorescence ratio (F530/F480) at saturating [InsP3] (apparent K(d) = 31.3 +/- 6.7 nm InsP3). In COS-1 cells, neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and adult cat ventricular myocytes FIRE-1 exhibited comparable dynamic range and a 10% increase in donor (cyan fluorescent protein) fluorescence upon bleach of yellow fluorescent protein, indicative of fluorescence resonance energy transfer. In FIRE-1 expressing ventricular myocytes endothelin-1, phenylephrine, and angiotensin II all produced rapid and spatially resolved increases in [InsP3] using confocal microscopy (with free [InsP3] rising to approximately 30 nm). Local entry of intracellular InsP3 via membrane rupture by a patch pipette (containing InsP3)in myocytes expressing FIRE-1 allowed detailed spatiotemporal monitoring of intracellular InsP3 diffusion. Both endothelin-1-induced and direct InsP3 application (via pipette rupture) revealed that InsP3 diffusion into the nucleus occurs with a delay and blunted rise of [InsP3] versus cytosolic [InsP3]. These new biosensors allow studying InsP3 dynamics at high temporal and spatial resolution that will be powerful in under-standing InsP3 signaling in intact cells.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2006; 281(1):608-16. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M509645200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence indicate that increases in nuclear Ca(2+) have specific biological effects that differ from those of cytosolic Ca(2+), suggesting that they occur independently. The mechanisms involved in controlling nuclear Ca(2+) signaling are both controversial and still poorly understood. Using hypotonic shock combined with mechanical disruption, we obtained and characterized a fraction of purified nuclei from cultured rat skeletal myotubes. Both immunoblot studies and radiolabeled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [IP(3)] binding revealed an important concentration of IP(3) receptors in the nuclear fraction. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy studies localized type-1 and type-3 IP(3) receptors in the nucleus with type-1 receptors preferentially localized in the inner nuclear membrane. Type-2 IP(3) receptor was confined to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Isolated nuclei responded to IP(3) with rapid and transient Ca(2+) concentration elevations, which were inhibited by known blockers of IP(3) signals. Similar results were obtained with isolated nuclei from the 1B5 cell line, which does not express ryanodine receptors but releases nuclear Ca(2+) in an IP(3)-dependent manner. Nuclear Ca(2+) increases triggered by IP(3) evoked phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein with kinetics compatible with sequential activation. These results support the idea that Ca(2+) signals, mediated by nuclear IP(3) receptors in muscle cells, are part of a distinct Ca(2+) release component that originates in the nucleus and probably participates in gene regulation mediated by cAMP response element binding protein.
    Journal of Cell Science 08/2005; 118(Pt 14):3131-40. DOI:10.1242/jcs.02446 · 5.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP(3)R2) was identified previously as the predominant isoform in cardiac ventricular myocytes. Here we reported the subcellular localization of InsP(3)R2 to the cardiomyocyte nuclear envelope (NE). The other major known endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-release channel (ryanodine receptor) was not localized to the NE, indicating functional segregation of these channels and possibly a unique role for InsP(3)R2 in regulating nuclear calcium dynamics. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that the NE InsP(3)R2 associates with Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIdelta (CaMKIIdelta), the major isoform expressed in cardiac myocytes. Recombinant InsP(3)R2 and CaMKIIdelta(B) also co-immunoprecipitated after co-expression in COS-1 cells. Additionally, the amino-terminal 1078 amino acids of the InsP(3)R2 were sufficient for interaction with CaMKIIdelta(B) and associated upon mixing following separate expression. CaMKII can also phosphorylate InsP(3)R2, as demonstrated by (32)P labeling. Incorporation of CaMKII-treated InsP(3)R2 into planar lipid bilayers revealed that InsP(3)-mediated channel open probability is significantly reduced ( approximately 11 times) by phosphorylation via CaMKII. We concluded that the InsP(3)R2 and CaMKIIdelta likely represent two central components of a multiprotein signaling complex, and this raises the possibility that calcium release via InsP(3)R2 in the myocyte NE may activate local CaMKII signaling, which may feedback on InsP(3)R2 function.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2005; 280(16):15912-20. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M414212200 · 4.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
514.38 Total Impact Points


  • 1997–2014
    • Loyola University Chicago
      • • Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology
      • • Physiology
      • • Stritch School of Medicine
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2011
    • Loyola University Medical Center
      Maywood, Illinois, United States
  • 2010
    • The Ohio State University
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2003
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 1989–1999
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • • Department of Physiology
      • • Department of Molecular Genetics
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 1991
    • University of Nevada, Reno
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Reno, NV, United States
  • 1990
    • Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1988–1989
    • Texas A&M University
      • Department of Biochemistry/Biophysics
      College Station, Texas, United States