[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the skin represents a common site of adverse drug reactions, few data are reported at this time regarding the development of skin rash during the treatment with antidiabetic drugs.
We report a 29-year old woman that developed a facial skin rash during the treatment with metformin. Clinical and laboratory findings excluded the presence of systemic diseases, but several diagnosis and many drugs were administered without clinical improvement. The self-dismission of metformin induced an improvement of symptoms, while the re-challenge documented an impairments of skin rash. The Naranjo probability scale suggested a probable association between metformin and skin rash and metformin was definitively dismissed.
We report for the first time a non vasculitis facial skin manifestation related to metformin in a young woman. However, this case may emphasizes the need to consider the ADRs as a differential diagnosis in order to reduce medical errors and the related medical costs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) are relatively insulin sensitive and have a favorable cardio-metabolic risk profile compared with metabolically abnormal obese (MAO). To evaluate whether MAO individuals have a decreased insulin clearance compared with MHO individuals, 49 MHO, 147 MAO, and 172 non-obese individuals were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity were assessed through euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. MHO subjects exhibited significant lower triglycerides, total cholesterol, 2-h post-challenge glucose, fasting and 2-h post-challenge insulin, steady-state plasma insulin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase as compared with MAO individuals. Disposition index was higher in MHO subjects as compared with MAO individuals after adjusting for gender and age (P = 0.04). Insulin clearance was significantly lower in MAO individuals as compared with MHO and non-obese individuals. The difference between the two obese subgroups remained significant after adjusting for gender, age, waist circumference, fat mass, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (P = 0.03). The hepatic insulin extraction (C-peptide/insulin) in the fasting state was significantly higher in MHO subjects as compared with MAO individuals (P < 0.0001). In univariate analysis adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was correlated with hepatic insulin extraction (P = 0.01). In conclusion, insulin clearance differs among obese subjects with different metabolic phenotypes. Impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia observed in MAO individuals.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether insulin clearance is independently associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), a well-recognized index of vascular damage.
361 Non-diabetic Caucasian subjects were subjected to euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess insulin sensitivity, and insulin clearance. IMT of the common carotid was measured by ultrasonography.
Among the study group, 270 subjects had normal glucose tolerance, 33 had impaired fasting glucose, and 58 had impaired glucose tolerance. Univariate correlations showed that age, BMI, waist, blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose and insulin levels were positively correlated with carotid IMT whereas HDL, insulin clearance, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal were negatively correlated with IMT. A multivariate regression analysis in a model including, in addition to insulin clearance, age, gender, BMI, waist, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, fasting and 2-h post-load insulin showed that the traits independently associated with carotid IMT were BMI (β = 0.42, P < 0.0001), insulin clearance (β = -0.29, P < 0.0001), age (β = 0.19, P < 0.0001), waist (β = 0.18, P = 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.17, P = 0.01), and 2-h post-load glucose (β = 0.12, P = 0.03). These factors explained 26% of the variance in carotid IMT. Subjects in the lowest tertile of insulin clearance had a 4.06-fold higher odds of having vascular damage (IMT > 0.9 mm) as compared with those in the highest tertile (OR 4.06, 95%CI 1.15-13.24).
Insulin clearance is independently associated with carotid IMT in adult non-diabetic subjects. Individuals with lower levels of insulin clearance have a higher odds of vascular damage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (C-IMT) is a reliable predictor of cardiovascular events. We examined if increased C-IMT was associated with defects in glucose metabolism in non-diabetic subjects independently of age.
In 366 Caucasian non-diabetic subjects of the CARAMERIS study, we measured glucose response during a 75 g-Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), insulin sensitivity index (ISI, by Matsuda Index), Liver Insulin Resistance Index (Liver-IR), insulin secretion by ΔAUC Ins0-120/Glu0-120 (ΔI/ΔG) and beta cell function (Disposition Index, DI).
Subjects were divided in two groups according to the median age (AGE1 ≤ 45 y; AGE2 > 45 y). Only 5 subjects in AGE1 and 32 in AGE2 had C-IMT > 0.9 mm. Compared to AGE1, AGE2 had a worse cardio-metabolic profile, increased cholesterol, glucose and insulin concentrations, blood pressure and C-IMT. Both ΔI/ΔG ratio and DI were significantly reduced in AGE2. By considering tertiles of C-IMT in each AGE group (G1-G3, where G3 comprised the highest C-IMT), we found that G3 showed increased OGTT glucose profiles and Liver IR, decreased ISI and DI, compared to G1 in each AGE group.
Increased C-IMT, but within normal ranges, is associated independently of age with altered postprandial glucose profile, increased peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance, decreased b-cell function. C-IMT measurement should become a routine analysis even in younger subjects to predict the risk of cardio-metabolic disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The A1C diagnostic criterion for identifying individuals at increased risk for diabetes, introduced by the American Diabetes Association in 2010, was not defined on the basis of the principal pathophysiological abnormalities responsible for the development and progression of type 2 diabetes; we therefore wished to gain a deeper insight into the metabolic abnormalities characterizing the group of at risk individuals with an A1C value of 5.7-6.4%. METHODS AND RESULTS: As many as 338 non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic patients were consecutively recruited. Insulin secretion was assessed using both indexes derived from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. As compared with subjects with A1C <5.7%, individuals with A1C of 5.7-6.4% exhibited lower insulin sensitivity after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index (BMI). Insulin secretion estimated from the OGTT, did not differ between the two groups. By contrast, as compared with subjects with A1C <5.7%, the acute insulin response (AIR) during an IVGTT and both IVGTT-derived and OGTT-derived disposition indexes were reduced in individuals with A1C of 5.7-6.4% after adjusting for age, gender and BMI. As A1C increased to ≥5.7%, a sharp decrease in insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, measured as disposition index, was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Caucasian individuals with A1C ≥5.7% exhibit both core pathophysiological defects of type 2 diabetes i.e. insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl) at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low). To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001) and insulin clearance (P = 0.006) after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02) in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77440. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Aims
Normoglucosetolerants (NGT) are considered at low risk, even if a 1-hour post-load glucose (PLG) value ≥155mg/dl identifies NGT at high-risk for type-2 diabetes (T2) and subclinical organ damage. Specific dietary factors may affect insulin sensitivity and the risk of T2D. However, it’s unknown whether dietary components affect 1-h PLG in NGT hypertensives.
Methods and Results
We selected 188 subjects (94 NGT<155 and 94 NGT>155), well matched for age, gender and BMI. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using Matsuda index. Dietary intake was quantified by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire validated in the EPIC study. NGT>155 had significantly reduced insulin sensitivity (40.3+19.8 vs 73.3+28.8; P<0.0001). With the exclusion of total calories, lipids, alcohol and fiber consumption we observed a significant difference, between groups, in starch (214.1+52.4 vs 268.8+71.8 g; P<0.0001), saturated (27.4+8.7 vs 24.1+8.5 g; P=0.009), monounsaturated (45.5+8.9 vs 48.8+10.7 g; P=0.023) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) (14.5+4.0 vs 16.8+4.7 g; P<0.0001), fructose (14.5+5.3 vs 11.2+4.8 g; P<0.0001), and oligosaccharides (103.2+26.6g vs 89.9+29.2g; P=0.001) consumption. In the whole population, starch was the major predictor of 1-h PLG, explaining 23.2% of variation (P<0.0001). In NGT<155, fructose was the strongest predictor, accounting for 15.4% of variation; BMI, gender and polyunsaturated FA, added another 6.6%, 3.6% and 3.2%, respectively. In NGT>155, saturated and polyunsaturated FA were retained as the major predictors of 1-h PLG, explaining 18.2% and 11.4% of variation.
Present data demonstrate that dietary patterns affect 1-h PLG, remarking the importance of both quantitative and qualitative composition of diet.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid angiosarcoma is an uncommon thyroid carcinoma and its incidence is the highest in the European Alpine regions. Thyroid angiosarcoma is also a very aggressive tumor that can rapidly spread to the cervical lymph nodes, lungs, and brain or can metastasize to the duodenum, small boewl, and large bowel. Although it is histologically well defined, clear-cut separation between the angiosarcoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is difficult. A 49-year-old Caucasian female patient, born and resident in Southern Italy (Calabria), in an iodine-sufficient area, was admitted to the Surgery Department because she presented with a painless mass in the anterior region of neck enlarged rapidly in the last three months. After total thyroidectomy and right cervical lymphadenectomy, postoperative histological examination revealed the presence of a thyroid angiosarcoma with positive staining for CD31 and for both Factor VIII-related antigen and Vimentin and only partially positive for staining pancytokeratin and presence of metastasis in cervical, supraclavicular, mediastinal and paratracheal lymph nodes. The patient started adjuvant chemotherapy and she was treated for 6 cycles with Doxorubicin, Dacarbazine, Ifosfamide, and Mesna (MAID). After 22 months from surgery, the patient is still alive without both local and systemic recurrence of the disease.
Case reports in oncological medicine. 01/2013; 2013:901246.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperglycaemia in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)is common, and is an independent predictor of mortality and morbidity in patients both with and without diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycaemia may be a marker of pre-existing diabetes or glucose intolerance or may also represent a transient stress response mediated through the autonomic nervous system with release of adrenal corticosteroids and catecholamines. Several evidences suggest that an intensive control of hyperglycaemia results in a significant improvement of the adverse outcomes in the short and long term. In fact, an intensive metabolic treatment can counteract the negative effects of hyperglycaemia. However, the main difficulty to intensive glucose control in patients with ACS remains hypoglycaemia that is associated with an increased risk of mortality and myocardial re-infarction. No definitive data are available about the beneficial effects of insulin intensive treatment. Therefore, randomized multicenter clinical trials will be needed to definitively establish whether intensive glucose control will reduce the associated increased mortality rate and higher rates of complications in hospitalized ACS patients with hyperglycaemia. Clin Ter 2012; 163(5):403-409.
La Clinica terapeutica 09/2012; 163(5):403-409. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated whether cardiometabolic risk profiles differ for subjects identified as having prediabetes by A1C, fasting glucose (FPG), or 2-h postchallenge glucose (2-PG) criteria.
Atherosclerosis risk factors, oral glucose tolerance test, and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were analyzed in 780 nondiabetic individuals.
Poor agreement existed for A1C and FPG criteria for identification of subjects with prediabetes (κ coefficient = 0.332). No differences in cardiometabolic risk profiles were observed among the three groups of individuals with prediabetes by A1C only, FPG only, and both A1C and FPG. Poor agreement also existed for A1C and 2-PG criteria for identification of individuals with prediabetes (κ coefficient = 0.299). No significant differences in cardiometabolic risk factors were observed between IGT-only and individuals with prediabetes by A1C and 2-PG. Compared with subjects with prediabetes identified by A1C only, IGT-only individuals exhibited a worse cardiometabolic risk profile, with significantly higher systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, 2-h postchallenge insulin, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and carotid IMT, and lower HDL cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity.
These results suggest that considerable discordance between A1C, FPG, and 2-PG exists for the identification of individuals with prediabetes and that the cardiometabolic risk profile of these individuals varies by metabolic parameter, with 2-PG showing the stronger association with cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis than FPG or A1C.
Diabetes care 03/2012; 35(5):1144-9. · 7.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), whose 1-h postload plasma glucose is ≥155 mg/dL (NGT 1h-high), have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to characterize their metabolic phenotype.
A total of 305 nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic patients was consecutively recruited. Insulin secretion was assessed using both indexes derived from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp.
Compared with individuals with a 1-h postload plasma glucose <155 mg/dL (NGT 1h-low), NGT 1h-high individuals exhibited lower insulin sensitivity after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI. Insulin secretion estimated from the OGTT did not differ between the two groups of individuals. By contrast, compared with NGT 1h-low individuals, the acute insulin response during an IVGTT and the disposition index were significantly reduced in NGT 1h-high individuals after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI. Incretin effect, estimated as the ratio between total insulin responses during OGTT and IVGTT, was higher in NGT 1h-high individuals compared with NGT 1h-low individuals.
NGT 1h-high individuals may represent an intermediate state of glucose intolerance between NGT and type 2 diabetes characterized by insulin resistance and reduced β-cell function, the two main pathophysiological defects responsible for the development of type 2 diabetes. Postload hyperglycemia is the result of an intrinsic β-cell defect rather than impaired incretin effect.
Diabetes care 02/2012; 35(4):868-72. · 7.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, which was associated with insulin resistance. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) is the major determinant of plasma ADMA. Examining data from the DIAGRAM+ (Diabetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis), we identified a variant (rs9267551) in the DDAH2 gene nominally associated with type 2 diabetes (P = 3 × 10(-5)).
initially, we assessed the functional impact of rs9267551 in human endothelial cells (HUVECs), observing that the G allele had a lower transcriptional activity resulting in reduced expression of DDAH2 and decreased NO production in primary HUVECs naturally carrying it. We then proceeded to investigate whether this variant is associated with insulin sensitivity in vivo. To this end, two cohorts of nondiabetic subjects of European ancestry were studied. In sample 1 (n = 958) insulin sensitivity was determined by the insulin sensitivity index (ISI), while in sample 2 (n = 527) it was measured with a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. In sample 1, carriers of the GG genotype had lower ISI than carriers of the C allele (67 ± 33 vs.79 ± 44; P = 0.003 after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI). ADMA levels were higher in subjects carrying the GG genotype than in carriers of the C allele (0.68 ± 0.14 vs. 0.57 ± 0.14 µmol/l; P = 0.04). In sample 2, glucose disposal was lower in GG carriers as compared with C carriers (9.3 ± 4.1 vs. 11.0 ± 4.2 mg × Kg(-1) free fat mass × min(-1); P = 0.009).
A functional polymorphism of the DDAH2 gene may confer increased risk for type 2 diabetes by affecting insulin sensitivity throughout increased ADMA levels.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e36224. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) subjects have a favourable cardio-metabolic risk profile, but whether they are also at lower risk for kidney dysfunction is still questionable.
A total of 106 MHO, 122 normal-weight and 212 insulin-resistant obese (IRO) subjects were stratified on the basis of their insulin sensitivity and body mass index (BMI). The CKD-EPI equation was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and ISI index was used to estimate insulin sensitivity. eGFR was significantly lower in IRO as compared to MHO subjects after adjusting for age, gender and BMI (P = 0.008). In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender and BMI, IRO subjects showed an increased risk of having eGFR in the lowest quartile (odds ratio (OR) 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-3.58; P = 0.04) as compared with MHO subjects. This association was maintained when waist, lean body mass, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting glucose and insulin levels were additionally included into the model (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.17-5.27; P = 0.01), but its independence was not retained with further inclusion of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels (OR 2.16, 95%CI 0.93-5.04; P = 0.07) No differences in eGFR were observed between non-obese and MHO individuals.
These results indicate that heterogeneity in obese phenotypes may account for conflicting evidence regarding the significance of obesity as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Our findings suggest that obesity is associated with lower kidney function only when insulin sensitivity is reduced, and that plasma IGF-1 is likely to be an important mechanism linking the IRO phenotype with reduced eGFR.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has revised criteria for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes recommending an A1C cut point of ≥6.5% in addition to criteria based on glucose levels. We compared A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or 2-h post-challenge glucose (2-hPG) criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes in a cohort of Italian Caucasians.
A total of 1019 individuals without known diabetes completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and had A1C measured. Moderate agreement existed for A1C and FPG criteria for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (κ coefficient = 0.522), with 85.5% of individuals classified as not having diabetes by both A1C and FPG criteria, and 5.8% classified as having diabetes by both A1C and FPG criteria. Discordant classifications occurred for 5.5% of individuals who had an A1C ≥ 6.5% and FPG <126 mg dl(-1), and for 3.2% who had an A1C <6.5% and FPG ≥126 mg dl(-1). Modest agreement existed for A1C and 2-hPG criteria for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (κ coefficient = 0.427), with 81.8% of individuals classified as not having diabetes by both A1C and 2-hPG criteria, and 6.0% classified as having diabetes by both A1C and 2-hPG criteria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of A1C for identifying subjects with diabetes according to FPG or 2-hPG criteria was 0.856 and 0.794, respectively. Modest agreement existed for A1C and FPG and/or 2-hPG criteria for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (κ coefficient = 0.446).
A1C ≥ 6.5% demonstrates a moderate agreement with fasting glucose and 2-hPG for diagnosing diabetes among adult Italian Caucasians subjects.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Among the potential factors that may account for the increased cardiometabolic risk, IGF-I is a plausible candidate because the liver is the main site of its production.
Our objective was to examine the relationship between NAFLD and IGF-I levels and to test the hypothesis that free fatty acids-induced insulin resistance might impair insulin-induced increase of GH receptor (GHR) expression in human hepatoma cells. SUBJECTS, DESIGN, AND SETTING: Five hundred three nondiabetic Caucasians participated in this ambulatory-care cross-sectional study.
Cardiometabolic risk factors and liver ultrasound scanning were assessed. Insulin-induced expression of GHR in HuH7 human hepatoma cells exposed for 24 h to palmitate was determined by Western blotting and real-time PCR.
After adjustment for age and gender, individuals with NAFLD had significantly higher body mass index, waist circumference, fasting insulin, triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment index, liver enzymes, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with control subjects. IGF-I levels were significantly lower in individuals with NAFLD (P = 0.001). Exposure of HuH7 hepatoma cells to palmitate caused a dose-dependent reduction in the insulin-induced increase of GHR expression.
These data show that IGF-I levels are reduced in subjects with NAFLD and suggest that hepatic insulin resistance may affect IGF-I levels by modulating GH-stimulated synthesis of hepatic IGF-I.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 08/2011; 96(10):E1640-4. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose-tolerant subjects who have 1-h post-load glucose levels ≥155 mg dl(-1) (normal glucose tolerance (NGT)-1h-high) are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Prospectively conducted studies indicated that high levels of liver enzymes are predictors of a tendency to develop type 2 diabetes; however, it is unknown whether the NGT-1h-high subjects are at increased risk for secreting higher levels of liver biomarkers.
In this study, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were performed in a cohort of 1000 non-diabetic Caucasians and levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were measured in these subjects. The NGT-1h-high subjects had increased levels of ALT and GGT, but not AST, as compared with the NGT-1h-low. Following adjustment for age and gender, the ALT, AST and GGT levels were all found to be significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides as well as fasting and post-challenge glucose and insulin levels. In a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, NGT-1h-high subjects were found to be at increased risk of having ALT levels in the highest quartile as compared with NGT-1h-low subjects (odds ratio (OR) = 1.71; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-2.52). In addition, NGT-1 h-high subjects exhibited an increased risk for having GGT levels in the highest quartile (OR = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.02-2.17). These associations remained significant after adjustment for BMI, blood pressure and lipids, but were not significant following further adjustment for an insulin sensitivity index. NGT-1h-high subjects were at increased risk of having AST levels in the highest quartile as compared with NGT-1h-low subjects (OR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.04-2.22). This association ceased to be significant following adjustment for BMI, blood pressure and lipids.
These data suggest that a 1hPG ≥ 155 mg dl(-1) cut-off may facilitate the identification of NGT individuals at risk of developing liver abnormalities.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, recognizes a multifactorial pathogenesis. A plasma glucose value ≥155 mg/dL for the 1-h postload plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) identifies subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at high risk for type 2 diabetes. We addressed the question if glucose tolerance status, particularly 1-h postload plasma glucose levels, affects left ventricular mass (LVM) and cardiac geometry in essential hypertension.
We enrolled 767 never-treated hypertensive subjects, 393 women and 374 men (mean age 49.6 ± 8.5 years). All patients underwent an OGTT for the evaluation of glucose tolerance and standard echocardiography. LVM was calculated using the Devereux formula and normalized by body surface area (LVM index [LVMI]). Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the Matsuda index. Among all participants, 514 had NGT, 168 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 85 had type 2 diabetes. According to the 1-h postload plasma glucose cutoff point of 155 mg/dL, we divided normotolerant subjects into two groups: NGT <155 mg/dL (n = 356) and NGT ≥155 mg/dL (n = 158).
Subjects in the NGT ≥155 mg/dL group had worse insulin sensitivity than subjects in the NGT <155 mg/dL group (Matsuda index 63.9 vs. 88.8; P < 0.0001). Men with NGT ≥155 mg/dL had a higher LVMI than men with NGT <155 mg/dL (126.6 vs. 114.3 g/m(2); P = 0.002) and a different LVH prevalence (41.1 vs. 25.8%; P < 0.0001). At multiple regression analysis, 1-h glucose resulted in the major determinant of LVMI in normotolerant, IGT, and diabetic groups.
These data show that NGT ≥155 mg/dL subjects, compared with NGT <155 mg/dL subjects, have a higher LVMI and a greater prevalence of LVH similar to that of IGT and diabetic patients.
Diabetes care 06/2011; 34(6):1406-11. · 7.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the performance of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) versus the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in diagnosing the metabolic syndrome and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the metabolic syndrome definition using HbA1c in identifying insulin-resistant subjects. The cardiometabolic risk factors, HbA1c, and glucose tolerance were analyzed in 774 nondiabetic white subjects. Insulin sensitivity was estimated with an oral glucose tolerance test-derived insulin sensitivity index. Insulin resistance was defined as the lower quartile of insulin sensitivity index. A 90.9% agreement existed between the use of HbA1c and the FPG for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (κ coefficient = 0.813); however, the proportion of subjects who met the metabolic syndrome criteria using the HbA1c was greater (42.1% vs 39.7%). Compared to the subjects who met the metabolic syndrome criteria using the FPG alone, those with the metabolic syndrome using the HbA1c-alone criterion were younger, had greater visceral adiposity, greater levels of inflammatory markers and liver enzymes, and lower blood pressure. In a logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and gender, the subjects with the metabolic syndrome using the HbA1c criterion only had a 3.6-fold increase risk of having insulin resistance, defined as the lowest quartile of the insulin sensitivity index. A similar risk (3.8-fold) was observed in those who met the metabolic syndrome criteria using FPG alone. Insulin-resistant subjects who did not meet the criteria for the metabolic syndrome using the HbA1c had an unfavorable cardiovascular disease risk profile. In conclusion, although a good agreement existed between the HbA1c and FPG criteria for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome, appreciably different groups of subjects were classified using each method.
The American journal of cardiology 03/2011; 107(11):1650-5. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRIB3, a mammalian tribbles homologue, affects insulin signalling and action by inhibiting Akt phosphorylation. A TRIB3 Q84R gain-of-function polymorphism has been associated with insulin resistance both in vitro and in vivo and with several atherosclerotic phenotypes, including increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). We wanted to replicate this latter association and, if so, to get deeper insights about the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of the TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism in atherosclerosis.
in 430 Caucasians of European ancestry, carotid IMT was increased in QR (n = 116) and RR (n = 15) when compared with QQ (n = 299) subjects (P= 0.009), thus replicating similar data recently obtained among Asians. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) naturally carrying the QQ genotype, 24 h insulin stimulation increased monocyte adhesion, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK)-MAPK activation. Conversely, QR- and RR-HUVECs had increased unstimulated monocyte adhesion, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression, and MEK-MAPK activation which did not increase further upon insulin stimulation. In addition, QQ-, QR-, and RR-HUVECs showed similar basal Akt phosphorylation and nitric oxide synthase activity which, however, were significantly increased by insulin only in QQ cells.
the TRIB3 R4 variant is associated with increased carotid IMT also in Caucasians, thus replicating previous data obtained in Asians. In addition, in HUVECs, this variant is associated with unbalanced insulin signalling. This abnormality may favour vasoreactivity, intima-media thickening, and plaque formation and may, therefore, underlie the deleterious role exerted by the variant on the susceptibility to atherosclerosis.
Cardiovascular research 01/2011; 89(1):184-92. · 5.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SNP rs2943641 near the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) gene has been found to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and insulin-resistance in genome-wide association studies. We investigated whether this SNP is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) among diabetic individuals.
SNP rs2943641 was typed in 2133 White T2D subjects and tested for association with BMI, serum HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, hypertension history, and CAD risk.
HDL cholesterol decreased by 1mg/dl (p = 0.004) and serum triglycerides increased by 6 mg/dl (p = 0.016) for each copy of the insulin-resistance allele. Despite these effects, no association was found with increased CAD risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.88-1.13).
The insulin-resistance and T2D locus near the IRS1 gene is a determinant of lower HDL cholesterol among T2D subjects. However, this effect is small and does not translate into a detectable increase in CAD risk in this population.