[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A wide range of evidence supports the methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning and improvements in behavioral symptoms in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although working memory (WM) has been hypothesized to be impaired in patients with ADHD, no pharmacological studies have examined visuospatial WM (VSWM) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
The present study was designed to investigate the acute effects of MPH on neuropsychological performance and hemodynamic activation in children with ADHD during VSWM tasks.
The subject group included 10 boys and 1 girl previously diagnosed with ADHD. Two VSWM tasks of differing degrees of difficulty were conducted. This is the first study on the pharmacological effects of MPH in children with ADHD to evaluate hemodynamic responses in the PFC with simultaneous NIRS.
No significant differences were found in the scores for both spatial working memory (SWM) and score of spatial span (SSP) tasks between the MPH-off and MPH-on conditions. However, a significant MPH-effect on changes in oxy-hemoglobin levels in the PFC was found only in the SWM task.
These findings suggest that PFC activation might be affected by MPH, depending on the degree of difficulty of the particular task. Although the MPH-induced change on behavior may or may not be obvious, NIRS measurements might be useful for assessing the psychological effects of MPH even when performance changes were not observed in the cognitive tasks.
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 12/2014; 8(1):273. DOI:10.1186/s13034-014-0032-5
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share many common symptoms, including attention deficit, behavioral problems, and difficulties with social skills. The aim of this study is to distinguish between ASD and ADHD by identifying the characteristic features of both the disorders, by using multidimensional assessments, including screening behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and comprehensive neurological battery. After screening for comorbid disorders, we carefully selected age-, sex-, IQ-, and socio-economic status-matched children with typical development (TD). In the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, a lower score was observed for the ASD group than for the TD group in Picture Concept, which is a subscale of Perceptual Reasoning. A lower score was shown by the ADHD group than by the TD group in the spatial working memory test in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB®). Although ASD and ADHD have many similar symptoms, they can be differentiated by focusing on the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of executive function.
Asian Journal of Psychiatry 07/2014; 12(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2014.06.011
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the following hypotheses: (1) a child abuse history (CAH), domestic violence (DV), and child abuse by an intimate partner might have a crucial and specific influence but act differently on women's negative mental health; (2) CAH, DV, child abuse by an intimate partner, and negative mental health might be predictors of maternal child abuse, with complex interactions. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of mothers (N=304) and their children (N=498) staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV experiences, along with their current mental health problems, including dissociated, depressed, and traumatic symptoms. A structural equation modeling (SEM) was adapted to test whether a complex theoretical model fits the actual relationship among a set of observed measures. Our model confirmed the linkage with broader aspects of violence within the family such as CAH and DV, focusing on women's mental health problems reported by them. In addition, CAH, DV, child abuse by intimate partner, and maternal mental health might have a crucial and specific but act influence on maternal child abuse.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.
The Journal of Genetic Psychology 03/2013; 174(1):73-87. DOI:10.1080/00221325.2011.641040 · 0.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Female juvenile offenders are more likely to have a history of childhood abuse, emotional disturbances, mental health problems, and serious problems involving substance abuse. The aim of this study were: (1) to investigate the characteristics of self-esteem, aggressiveness, depressiveness, and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), (2) to examine the relationships of these characteristics between female inmates of a juvenile correctional facility and age- and gender-matched controls, and (3) to propose an appropriate cause–effect relation model using structural equal modeling. The subjects were 81 female juveniles admitted to a female juvenile correctional facility and 285 age- and sex-matched comparisons. There was clear evidence for strong relationship between ACEs, aggression, depression, and low self-esteem. In addition, path analysis by structural equation modeling showed a simple clear model diagram regarding self-esteem in the female juvenile offenders.
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology 02/2013; 24(1):111-127. DOI:10.1080/14789949.2012.746384 · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eighty-three inmates of a correctional facility, who committed serious offences, participated in this study. They were all male and aged 14-17 years, with a mean age of 15.5 (SD=1.21) years. Eighty-six age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Some psychological questionnaires such as on self-esteem and aggression were conducted in both groups. The aims of the present study were as follows: first, to clarify the characteristics of the subjects, such as IQ, psychological traits, and AD/HD symptoms; second, to examine how the subjects' self-esteem and aggression changed and/or improved on admission and at the time of parole (during the correctional educational period). For the results of paired t-tests, the self-esteem of subjects changed little. Therefore, our findings suggest that the improvement of antisocial behavior and transition of self-esteem are not directly linked with each other. Most inmates of the correctional facility showed a borderline IQ, markedly low self-esteem, unstable aggression, and serious AD/HD symptoms. In addition, the low self-esteem of subjects was not consistently elevated during the correctional education period. Moreover, their aggression was strongly correlated with AD/HD symptoms, both on admission and at the time of parole.
Research in developmental disabilities 11/2010; 31(6):1197-203. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2010.07.026 · 4.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail.
We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label.
Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls.
These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 09/2009; 3(1):27. DOI:10.1186/1753-2000-3-27
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to clarify the following 2 points: (1) whether self-esteem changes after correctional education, and (2) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity characteristics affect self-esteem. The subjects were 118 juveniles (all males) admitted to “A” juvenile correctional facility. Our findings indicated that during the correctional education period, changes in self-esteem were limited. The AD/HD-YSR attention deficit score was negatively correlated with the self-esteem score on admission but was not associated with the self-esteem score at the time of parole. Next, the subjects were classified according to the self-esteem score. Consequently, the attention deficit score was significantly associated with self-esteem in all groups. Our results were suggested that total AD/HD-YSR score in the high self-esteem group was lower than that in the other groups. Our cross-sectional surveys have shown an association between the AD/HD-YSR score and self-esteem, suggesting the influences of developmental problems on self-esteem. Research implications were discussed.
Research in developmental disabilities 09/2009; 30(5-30):884-890. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2008.12.007 · 4.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the following hypothesis: (i) Self-esteem and aggressiveness, adverse childhood experiences (ACE), and a depressive tendency interact with each other. (ii) The subjects show a strong depressive tendency, and each of the other factors exerts a main effect on, and interacts with, the depressive tendency.
Method: The subjects were 91 juveniles (all female) admitted to a female juvenile correctional facility between November 2005 and December 2006. They were aged 15–19 years, with a mean age of 17.0 (SD = 1.18) years. Self-esteem scale, aggression scale, ACE questionnaire, and depression scale were conducted.
Results: Significant main effects (R2 = 0.50, P < 0.001) on the depression score were observed in self-esteem (β = −0.41, P < 0.001) and aggression (β = 0.21, P < 0.05). Self-esteem, aggression, ACE, and depression were found to be interrelated.
Conclusion: Low self-esteem was also shown to exert marked effects on various factors. About half of the inmates of the facility were depressed, and the main effects of self-esteem, aggression, and the ACE score were shown to influence the depression score.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to survey and clarify the characteristics of self-esteem, aggressiveness, AD/HD symptoms, and ACE in inmates of a female juvenile correctional facility and age- and gender-matched controls, analyze relationships among factors, and establish a causal model. The subjects were 41 juvenile (all females) admitted to "A" female juvenile correctional facility, aged 15-18. Average students at an average high school were used as the control group. The inmate group showed markedly lower levels of self-esteem but no difference in aggressiveness compared with the control group. Results of AD/HD youth self report suggested marked AD/HD symptoms in the inmate group even in the primary school period. Multidimensional factors correlated with their aggression. There was a possibility that low self-esteem, a high AD/HD-YSR score, and high ACE score increase aggressiveness.
Children and Youth Services Review 05/2009; 31(5):577-583. DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2008.10.016 · 1.27 Impact Factor