Eliana Piantanida

Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi Varese, Varese, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (49)116.59 Total impact

  • Eliana Piantanida · Adriana Lai · Lorenza Sassi · Maria Laura Tanda · Luigi Bartalena ·

    09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40619-015-0139-9
  • E Piantanida · A Lai · L Sassi · D Gallo · E Spreafico · M L Tanda · L Bartalena ·
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    ABSTRACT: Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-replete areas and is ultimately due to antibodies interacting with the TSH receptor on thyroid follicular cells [TSH-receptor antibody (TRAb)]. Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) belonging to the family of thionamides are the first-line treatment in Europe. ATD treatment is commonly continued for 18-24 months. Its major limitation is the high rate of relapses after drug withdrawal. Factors particularly bound to subsequent relapses are the large thyroid volume, smoking habit, persistence of TRAb in the circulation at the end of treatment, and the post-partum period. Under these conditions, consideration should be given to a definitive therapy for hyperthyroidism (radioiodine treatment, thyroidectomy), particularly if the patient is at risk of cardiovascular complications that might be exacerbated by persistence or recurrence of hyperthyroidism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 07/2015; 47(10). DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1555759 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Image-guided thyroid nodule ablation is a relatively new technique for the management of thyroid disease. Notably, if there has been the correct patient selection and if they are performed in high volume centers and via a standardized technique, image-guided thyroid nodule ablation seems to be safe and effective and it can be used to treat thyroid goiters. However, there is still paucity of level 1 evidences and recommendation comparing ablation to surgical or to other non-surgical treatment modalities. Herein, some technical notes for the thyroid nodule ablation to achieve the critical view of safety are presented. Moreover, an additional remark and appraisal from a surgical point of view is described.
    Surgical technology international 11/2014; XXV:103-109.
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary apoplexy is a rare endocrine emergency that occurs in a small number of patients with a pituitary tumor. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of headache, nausea, vomiting, visual impairment, and decreased consciousness, caused by hemorrhage and/or infarction of the pituitary gland. Pituitary apoplexy has very rarely been described during pregnancy, when it is potentially life-threatening to both the mother and the fetus, if unrecognized. Only a few cases have been published to date. The review of the existing literature underlines that pituitary apoplexy, although rare, should be borne in mind when a pregnant woman presents with severe headache and visual defects of sudden onset. After initial management, which includes intravenous glucocorticoid therapy, fluid and electrolyte replacement, the final selection of medical or surgical treatment should result from a multidisciplinary approach involving expert specialists, keeping into account both severity of clinical presentation and gestational week.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 06/2014; 37(9). DOI:10.1007/s40618-014-0095-4 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During thyroid surgery, the functional integrity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is not only threatened by direct nerve injury resulting from accidental transection, clipping or ligation. In fact, indirect trauma, e.g. traction and compression occurring repeatedly throughout gland dissection, contribute to long-term nerve impairment. In order to avoid RLN lesions and preserve nerve function the surgeon must adhere to and comply with a strict standardized intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) technique to preserve results, quality and safety. IONM should be a team work between the surgeon and the anesthesiologist.
    International Journal of Surgery (London, England) 12/2013; 11S1:S120-S126. DOI:10.1016/S1743-9191(13)60031-X · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous case reports have been published on acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) in patients with hypothyroidism, but no prospective studies have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate laboratory and clinical characteristics of aVWS in patients with newly diagnosed overt hypothyroidism. An observational cohort study was performed between May 2007 and February 2012. Consecutive hypothyroid patients before or within the first 48 h of replacement therapy were enrolled. At inclusion, blood was sampled for coagulation tests and bleeding history was documented by means of a standardized bleeding questionnaire. Repeat samples were obtained after restoration of euthyroidism. The prevalence of aVWS, defined as von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) ≤50% and/or VWF ristocetin activity (VWF:RCo) ≤50%, was calculated. Patients with aVWS were subsequently divided into severe (VWF:Ag and/or VWF:RCo ≤10%), moderate (VWF:Ag and/or VWF:RCo between 10 and 30%) or mild (VWF:Ag and/or VWF:RCo between 30 and 50%). A total of 90 patients were included among whom a prevalence of aVWS of 33% was found. There were no patients with severe aVWS. Eight patients (9%) had moderate aVWS and 21 (23%) had mild aVWS. Bleeding score was negatively correlated with both VWF:Ag (β -0.32, P = 0.03) and VWF:RCo (β -0.32, P = 0.02). After restoration of euthyroidism, VWF:Ag had significantly increased by 44%, VWF:RCo by 36%, factor VIII by 39%, and endogenous thrombin potential by 10%. aVWS has a high prevalence in hypothyroid patients. Highest bleeding scores in patients with lower VWF levels suggest clinical relevance.
    Haemophilia 10/2013; 20(3). DOI:10.1111/hae.12275 · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Eliana Piantanida · Maria Laura Tanda · Adriana Lai · Lorenza Sassi · Luigi Bartalena ·
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    ABSTRACT: Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is an autoimmune disorder and the main extrathyroidal expression of Graves' disease. There is a spectrum of ocular involvement in Graves' disease, from complete absence of symptoms and signs to sight-threatening conditions. The prevalence of GO varies in different published series of Graves' patients, due to confounding factors (new diagnosis vs. long-lasting disease, way of defining and assessing ocular involvement, treatment of hyperthyroidism with potentially GO-modifying treatments, such as radioiodine). Recent studies, however, suggest that most Graves' patients have mild or no GO at presentation, while moderate-to-severe GO is rare, and sight-threatening GO (mostly due to dysthyroid optic neuropathy) is exceptional in non-tertiary referral centers. The natural course of GO is incompletely defined, particularly in patients with moderate-to12 severe GO, because these patients require prompt and disease-modifying therapies for orbital disease. In patients with mild GO at presentation, progression to severe forms is rare, while partial or complete remission is frequent. Progression of preexisting GO or de novo occurrence of GO is more likely in smokers. There seems to be a trend towards a decline in progression of GO, possibly due to a better control of risk factors (cigarette smoking, thyroid dysfunction, etc.) and a closer interaction between endocrinologists and ophthalmologists allowing an improved integrated management of thyroid and orbital disease.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 04/2013; 36(6). DOI:10.3275/8937 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The prevalence and natural history of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) are poorly documented. Methods: A large series of 346 patients with newly diagnosed and recent onset Graves' hyperthyroidism seen at a single (nontertiary referral) center over an 8-year period were enrolled in an observational prospective study and evaluated for GO activity and severity according to the EUGOGO (European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy) criteria. After excluding patients immediately treated for moderate-to-severe GO, patients undergoing total thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine treatment, and patients lost to follow-up, 237 patients were submitted to antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment, with ocular evaluation at 6, 12, and 18 months. Results: Among the whole cohort, at presentation 255 (73.7%) had no ocular involvement, 70 (20.2%) had mild and inactive GO, 20 (5.8%) had moderate-to-severe and active GO, and 1 (0.3%) had sight-threatening GO with dysthyroid optic neuropathy. Of the 237 patients who completed the 18-month follow-up during or after ATD treatment, 194 (81.9%) had no GO at baseline. Progression to moderate-to-severe GO occurred in 5 (2.6%) of these patients. Of the 43 (18.1%) patients with mild and inactive GO at baseline, 1 (2.4%) progressed to moderate-to-severe GO, and 25 (58.1%) experienced complete remission. Conclusions: Most patients with newly diagnosed Graves' disease have no ocular involvement. Moderate-to-severe and active GO or sight-threatening GO are rare at presentation and rarely develop during ATD treatment. Most patients (>80%) with no GO at baseline do not develop GO after an 18-month follow-up period. Remission of mild GO occurs in the majority of cases.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 02/2013; 98(4). DOI:10.1210/jc.2012-3873 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased risk of thrombotic events whereas a bleeding tendency is observed in hypothyroidism [1]. Fibrin clot structure/function has been shown to predict predisposition to thrombotic events, as clots with compact structure and resistance to fibrinolysis are associated with premature and more severe atherothrombotic disease [2]. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 05/2012; 10(8):1708-10. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2012.04789.x · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    Maria Laura Tanda · Eliana Piantanida · Luigi Bartalena ·

    Endocrine 01/2012; 41(2):167-8. DOI:10.1007/s12020-012-9607-1 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-surgical treatments for moderate to severe and active Graves' orbitopathy (systemic glucocorticoids with or without orbital radiotherapy) have limited effects on the underlying autoimmune process causing the disease. Although the clinical responses to treatment are often good, at least one third of patients with Graves' orbitopathy are eventually dissatisfied with the treatment outcome. Progress in our understanding of the autoimmune basis of Graves' orbitopathy (although still incomplete) made it possible, similar to other autoimmune disorders, to envision the use of novel immunomodulating drugs. Among the currently available biologic agents, the CD20+ B cell-depleting agent, rituximab, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors are presently the drugs that have the best chance of being employed in the future for the treatment of Graves' orbitopathy. However, randomized, controlled clinical trials to support their use are warranted.
    Pediatric endocrinology reviews: PER 03/2010; 7 Suppl 2:210-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Radioiodine (RAI) therapy may cause progression of mild or absent Graves' orbitopathy (GO), preventable by oral prednisone. Optimal doses of prednisone are undefined. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of reported doses [starting dose, >0.3 mg/kg body weight (bw)], and lower (<0.3 mg/kg bw)] doses of prednisone. Design and Setting: We conducted a retrospective matched cohort study at a University Center. Patients: Of 111 RAI-treated Graves' patients with mild or no GO, 35 received no steroid prophylaxis (absence of GO and/or risk factors for RAI-associated GO progression); 28 received low-dose prednisone (starting dose, 0.16-0.27 mg/kg bw; mean +/- sd, 0.22 +/- 0.03 mg/kg bw; group 1); and 48 received higher doses (group 2). Among the latter, 28 (starting dose, 0.32-0.56 mg/kg bw; mean +/- sd, 0.36 +/- 0.05 mg/kg bw) were matched with group 1 according to several relevant variables. Prednisone was started 1 d after RAI and withdrawn after 6 wk. Main Outcome Measures: We assessed ocular changes (1, 3, and 6 months after RAI) and side effects of prednisone. Results: Two of 35 patients not receiving steroid prophylaxis (6%) developed mild-to-moderate GO (clinical activity score, 2/7 and 3/7) after RAI. No patients in group 1 or group 2 had GO progression. Side effects were very mild and inconstant, although more frequent in group 2. Both groups showed an increase in bw, an increase that was significantly higher in group 2. Conclusion: Lower doses of oral prednisone (about 0.2 mg/kg bw) are as effective as previously reported doses (0.3-0.5 mg/kg bw). A shorter treatment period (6 wk) is probably sufficient. The increase in bw is less using lower doses of prednisone.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 03/2010; 95(3):1333-7. DOI:10.1210/jc.2009-2130 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and functional orthotopic thyroid gland is an extremely rare event. The present report describes the case of a woman presenting with a left submandibular mass, distant from a palpable multinodular goitre. Ultrasonography showed an ovoidal solid mass adjacent to the lower margin of the left submandibular gland. Cytological specimens showed colloid material and thyroid follicular cells with no malignant features. A preoperative CT scan demonstrated a very thin connection between the thyroid and the submandibular mass. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and excision of the submandibular mass. The histopathological diagnosis of the thyroid tissue was multinodular goitre, and the submandibular mass was ectopic thyroid tissue showing a hyperplastic pattern. The main differential diagnosis of the submandibular mass was a metastasis from a well differentiated cancer. This case illustrates that an ectopic thyroid off the midline may not necessarily be a metastasis from a thyroid cancer.
    Case Reports 12/2009; 2009(dec03 1). DOI:10.1136/bcr.07.2009.2136
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment with thyroid hormone is needed in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) after the initial treatment (thyroidectomy followed, in most cases, by radioiodine remnant ablation) for two reasons: a) Correction of hypothyroidism in an athyreotic patient (replacement therapy); b) Blockade of thyrotropin (TSH) secretion in view of the TSH-dependence of DTC (TSH-suppressive therapy). Levothyroxine (L-T4) is the hormone of choice, since combina-tion with levotriiodothyronine does not add any clear advantage with respect to L-T4 monotherapy. While replacement therapy obviously is a lifelong requirement, duration of TSH-suppressive therapy depends on the tumor risk stratification after and the response to the initial treatment. According to recent European and American guidelines, in low-risk DTC L-T4 treatment should be carried out at TSH-suppressive doses until there is evidence that the patient is disease-free. In high-risk DTC, TSH suppression should be maintained for several years after such an evidence has been achieved. After-wards, the patient can be shifted to replacement doses, also to avoid the risks of iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis, especially in the elderly and/or in the presence of cardiovascular disease. The dose of L-T4 must be invidualized; particular attention must be given to the coexistence of pathophysiological conditions or drug treatments that may affect L-T4 absorption or me-tabolism.
    Current Cancer Therapy Reviews 11/2009; 5(4):296-302. DOI:10.2174/157339409789712717
  • M L Tanda · E Piantanida · A Lai · V Lombardi · I. Dalle Mule · L Liparulo · N Pariani · L Bartalena ·
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    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITDs) are the result of a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors, the former account for about 70-80% of liability to develop AITDs. However, at least 20-30% is contributed by environmental factors, which include certainly smoking (at least for Graves' disease and orbitopathy), probably stress, iodine and selenium intake, several drugs, irradiation, pollutants, viral and bacterial infections, allergy, pregnancy, and post-partum. Evidence for the intervention of these factors is often limited, and the mechanisms whereby environmental factors may concur to the onset of AITDs are in many instances unclear. Nevertheless, gene-environment interaction seems a fundamental process for the occurrence of AITDs.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 05/2009; 41(6):436-42. DOI:10.1055/s-0029-1215568 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have investigated delays in the diagnosis of neoplasms to identify delays to treatment on the part of patients and primary care practitioners. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the time interval (TI) required for the diagnosis of symptomatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The study included 97 patients with PTC. Other histologic types and incidental microcarcinomas were excluded. The primary outcome variable was the TI between the occurrence of a sign/symptom and thyroidectomy. TI was composed of: patient's TI (PTI), diagnostic TI (DTI), and therapeutic TI (TTI). The TI between the occurrence of a sign/symptom and thyroidectomy averaged 3 months. PTI ranged from 25-85 days, DTI from 12-40 days, and TTI from 7-30 days. PTI was higher (P < .05) than DTI and TTI. PTI is the most important factor affecting TI. Implementation of information may increase patient's alertness and reduce misinterpretation of signs/symptoms. Collaboration between specialists is fundamental to further reduce DTI and TTI.
    American journal of surgery 09/2008; 197(4):434-8. DOI:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2008.01.031 · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    Gianlorenzo Dionigi · Maria Laura Tanda · Eliana Piantanida ·
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years new technologies have been proposed and applied in thyroid surgery, among these molecular diagnosis and endoscopic procedures. The authors review relevant medical literature published on the influence of these new techniques in the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. Searches were last updated in October 2007. Mutations of the RET proto-oncogene have been demonstrated to be causative of the familial form of medullary thyroid cancer. The number and type of recognized RET genetic mutations have grown over the last years, especially after the introduction of genetic screening in the work-up of all patients with medullary thyroid cancer. Prophylactic surgery for patients carrying a positive RET proto-oncogene is highly effective. Cervical endoscopic procedures have been recently described and applied for positive RET carriers: a video-assisted thyroidectomy with central compartment dissection (level 6) has proved feasible, safe and effective for these patients. There have been some important papers in the recent literature that apply to many aspects of new technologies for medullary thyroid cancer treatment. This article discusses some of these articles, emphasizing where this literature makes new contributions and supports established recommendations.
    Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery 05/2008; 16(2):158-62. DOI:10.1097/MOO.0b013e3282f44789 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate how North American thyroidologists assess and treat amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and to compare the results with those of the same questionnaire-based survey previously carried out among European thyroidologists. Members of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) with clinical interests were sent by e-mail a questionnaire on the diagnosis and management of AIT, 115 responses were received from the United States and Canada, representing about one-third of ATA members with clinical interests. The majority of respondents (91%vs. 68% in Europe, P < 0.05) see < 10 new cases of AIT per year, and AIT seems less frequent than amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH) in North America (34% and 66% of amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction, respectively, vs. 75% and 25%, respectively, in Europe, P < 0.001). When AIT is suspected, in North America hormonal assessment is mostly based on serum free T4 (FT4) and TSH measurements, while serum free T3 (FT3) determination is requested less frequently than in Europe; thyroid autoimmunity is included in the initial assessment less than in Europe. Most commonly used additional diagnostic procedures include, as in Europe, thyroid colour-flow Doppler sonography, and to a lesser extent, thyroid radioactive iodine uptake and scan, but Europeans tend to request multiple tests more than North Americans. Withdrawal of amiodarone is more often considered unnecessary by North American thyroidologists (21%vs. 10% in Europe in type 1 AIT, P < 0.05, 34%vs. 20% in type 2 AIT, P < 0.05). In type 1 AIT thionamides represent the treatment of choice for North Americans as well as for Europeans, but the former use them as monotherapy in 65%vs. 51% of Europeans (P < 0.05) who more often consider potassium perchlorate as an useful addition (31%vs. 15% of North Americans, P < 0.01). Glucocorticoids are the selected treatment for type 2 AIT, alone (62%vs. 46% in Europe, P < 0.05) or in association with thionamides (16%vs. 25% in Europe, P = NS). After restoration of euthyroidism, thyroid ablation in the absence of recurrent thyrotoxicosis is recommended in type 1 AIT less frequently by North Americans. If amiodarone therapy needs to be reinstituted, prophylactic thyroid ablation is advised by 76% in type 1 AIT, while a 'wait-and-see' strategy is adopted by 61% in type 2 AIT, similar to behaviour of European thyroidologists. Similarities and differences exist between expert North American and European thyroidologists concerning the diagnosis and management of AIT. While differences reflect the frequent uncertainty of the underlying mechanism leading to AIT, similarities may represent the basis to refine the diagnostic criteria and to improve the therapeutic outcomes of this challenging clinical situation.
    Clinical Endocrinology 05/2008; 69(5):812-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2008.03268.x · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The number of outpatient surgical procedures performed in hospitals, increases daily. In some countries, such as Italy, outpatient operations outnumber inpatient operations. The incidence of thyroid disorders and, in particular, the cancer forms, has been increasing sharply for many years in several countries. Even if thyroid surgery is performed with low morbidity, no mortality and short operation time, some potentially lethal complications are strong arguments against shortening of hospital stay. The purpose of this review is to examine the relevant updated published results on the outcome measures that can be used to assess the quality of shortstay surgery for thyroid disease with well-controlled trials. We discuss the special ethical and legal issues that this thyroid surgery raises. Searches were last updated in May 2007.
    Expert Review of Medical Devices 02/2008; 5(1):85-96. DOI:10.1586/17434440.5.1.85 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid surgery, one of the most common interventions in endocrine surgery, is practiced by many specialists who perform this procedure exclusively. It accounts for the bulk of work even in reference centers that treat rare endocrine tumors (e.g. adrenal and gastrointestinal tract cancer). Better results are obtained by experienced and skilled operators. Surgeons who correctly perform thyroid surgery can achieve excellent outcomes even in other areas of endocrine surgery. So it is surprising that not more is being done to teach the procedure, which has always been considered something of an art, perhaps because surgical treatment of rare endocrine tumors is more stimulating to teach than routine surgical procedures. Nonetheless, teaching correct surgical technique is essential for reducing and avoiding postoperative complications caused by inadequate experience and knowledge. Numerous studies have reported that the incidence of complications is high and that the rate is growing: 5% involve permanent injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve after intervention for a benign tumor, despite repeated reports that the incidence could be reduced to near zero or at least to 1%. Alarmingly high is the 20% incidence of persistent hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy. Here, too, accurate technique could reduce this rate to 1%. An important point is that permanent laryngeal nerve injury and persistent hypoparathyroidism are both sources of considerable discomfort for patients. One of the chief objectives of modern endocrine surgery is, therefore, to reduce the complications rate to acceptable levels by establishing adequate, uniform teaching protocols and universal guidelines that would help improve the practice of surgery.
    Minerva chirurgica 11/2007; 62(5):359-72. · 0.68 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

630 Citations
116.59 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi Varese
      Varese, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2000-2014
    • Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
      • • Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
      • • Department of Surgical and Morphological Sciences
      Varese, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1994-1998
    • University of Pavia
      • Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics
      Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy