C Di Ilio

Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara, Chieta, Abruzzo, Italy

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Publications (263)838.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Proteomics and metabolomics investigations of body fluids represent the most challenge for biomarker discovery of several diseases. The search for biomarkers is actually conducted in different body fluids, even if the ideal biomarker should be found in a easily accessible biological fluid, because, if validated, the biomarker could be sought in the healthy population. In this vision tears could be considered an optimum material obtainable by non invasive procedures. In the last years, there was more interest from the scientific community in the study of tears for the research of new biomarkers not only for ocular diseases. In this review we provide a discussion on the current state of biomarkers research in tears and their relevance for clinical practice, reporting the main results of clinical proteomics studies on systemic and eye diseases. We summarize the main methods for tear samples analyses reporting recent advances in "omics" platforms for tears investigations. Moreover, we want to take stock of the emerging field of metabolomics and lipidomics as a new and integrated approach to study protein-metabolites interplay for biomarkers research, where tears represent a still unexplored and attractive field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Proteomics. Clinical applications. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate enzymatic reactive aldehyde-scavenging enzyme capacity together with lipid peroxidation as expression of oxidative stress in atherosclerotic plaques of cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Methods: We have assessed specific enzymatic activities of class 1, 2, and 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1, ALDH2, and ALDH3, respectively), glutathione S-transferase (isozyme A4-4, GSTA4-4), and aldose reductase (AR), namely the major reactive aldehyde-scavenging enzymes, together with lipid peroxidation, i.e., fluorescent damage products of lipid peroxidation (FDPL), in carotid atherosclerotic plaques surgically removed from 17 cigarette smokers and 17 nonsmokers. Results: The enzymatic activities of ALDH1 plus ALDH2, ALDH3, GSTA4-4, and AR were significantly lower in the atherosclerotic plaques of smokers than in those of nonsmokers, while plaque FDPL levels were significantly higher in the smokers than in the nonsmokers. The amount of cigarette smoking was correlated inversely with the aforementioned plaque enzymatic activities and directly with plaque FDPL content. Plaque FDPL levels were inversely correlated with plaque enzymatic activities in smokers and nonsmokers. The degree of carotid atherosclerotic stenosis, as expression of atherosclerosis severity, was correlated inversely with plaque enzymatic activities and directly with plaque FDPL levels in smokers and nonsmokers; moreover, the degree of carotid stenosis was directly correlated with the amount of cigarette smoking. Conclusion: atherosclerotic lesions of cigarette smokers are endowed with a depressed enzymatic reactive aldehyde-scavenging capacity eventually favoring oxidative stress and the severity of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Atherosclerosis 12/2014; 238(2):190-194. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of studies suggest that cancer stem cells are essential for tumour growth, and failure to target these cells can result in tumour relapse. As this population of cells has been shown to be resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, it is essential to understand their biology and identify new therapeutic approaches. Targeting cancer metabolism is a potential alternative strategy to counteract tumour growth and recurrence. Here we applied a proteomic and targeted metabolomic analysis in order to point out the main metabolic differences between breast cancer cells grown as spheres and thus enriched in cancer stem cells were compared with the same cells grown in adherent differentiating conditions. This integrated approach allowed us to identify a metabolic phenotype associated with the stem-like condition and shows that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) shift from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation towards fermentative glycolysis. Functional validation of proteomic and metabolic data provide evidences for increased activities of key enzymes of anaerobic glucose fate such as pyruvate kinase M2 isoform, lactate dehydrogenase and glucose 6-phopshate dehydrogenase in cancer stem cells as well as different redox status. Moreover, we show that treatment with 2-deoxyglucose, a well known inhibitor of glycolysis, inhibits BCSC proliferation when used alone and shows a synergic effect when used in combination with doxorubicin. In conclusion, we suggest that inhibition of glycolysis may be a potentially effective strategy to target BCSCs.
    Cell Death & Disease 07/2014; 5:e1336. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cryopreservation is the only method for long-term storage of viable cells and tissues used for cellular therapy, stem cell transplantation and/or tissue engineering. However, the freeze-thaw process strongly contributes to cell and tissue damage through several mechanisms, including oxidative stress, cell injury from intracellular ice formation and altered physical cellular properties. Our previous proteomics investigation was carried out on Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells (WJSCs) having similar properties to adult mesenchymal stem cells and thus representing a rich source of primitive cells to be potentially used in regenerative medicine. The aim of the present work was to investigate molecular changes that occur in WJSCs proteome in different experimental conditions: fresh primary cell culture and frozen cell. To analyze changes in protein expression of WJSCs undergoing different culturing procedures, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis (2DE followed by MALDI-TOF MS/MS nanoESI-Q-TOF MS coupled with nanoLC) between WJSCs from fresh and frozen cell culturing, respectively. Frozen WJSCs showed qualitative and quantitative changes compared to cells from fresh preparation, expressing proteins involved in replication, cellular defence mechanism and metabolism, that could ensure freeze-thaw survival. The results of this study could play a key role in elucidating possible mechanisms related to maintaining active proliferation and maximal cellular plasticity and thus making the use of WJSCs in cell therapy safe following bio-banking.
    Stem cell reviews 03/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: p63 is an important regulator of epithelial development expressed in different variants, containing (TA) or lacking (ΔN) the N-terminal transactivation domain. The different isoforms regulate stem cell renewal and differentiation as well as cell senescence. Several studies indicate that p63 isoforms also play a role in cancer development, however very little is known on the role played by p63 in regulating the Cancer Stem phenotype. Here we investigate the cellular signals regulated by TAp63 andΔNp63 in a model of epithelial-cancer stem cells. To this end we used colon cancer stem cells, over-expressing either TAp63 or ΔNp63 isoforms, to carry out a proteomic study by chemical labeling approach coupled to network analysis. Our results indicate that p63 is implicated in a wide range of biological processes, including metabolism. This was further investigated by a targeted strategy, both at protein and metabolite level. The overall data show that TAp63 over-expressing cells are more glycolytic active than ΔNp63 cells, indicating that the two isoforms may regulate the key steps of glycolysis in an opposite manner. The mass spectrometry proteomics data of the study have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository with dataset identifiers PXD000769 and PXD000768.
    Journal of Proteome Research 03/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metal ions are necessary for the proper functioning of the immune system, and, therefore, they might have a significant influence on the interaction between bacteria and host. Ionic dyshomeostasis has been recently observed also in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, whose respiratory tract is frequently colonized by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. For the first time, here we used an inductively mass spectrometry method to perform a spatial and temporal analysis of the pattern of changes in a broad range of major trace elements in response to pulmonary infection by S. maltophilia. To this, DBA/2 mouse lungs were comparatively infected by a CF strain and by an environmental one. Our results showed that pulmonary ionomic profile was significantly affected during infection. Infected mice showed increased lung levels of Mg, P, S, K, Zn, Se, and Rb. To the contrary, Mn, Fe, Co, and Cu levels resulted significantly decreased. Changes of element concentrations were correlated with pulmonary bacterial load and markers of inflammation, and occurred mostly on day 3 post-exposure, when severity of infection culminated. Interestingly, CF strain - significantly more virulent than the environmental one in our murine model - provoked a more significant impact in perturbing pulmonary metal homeostasis. Particularly, exposure to CF strain exclusively increased P and K levels, while decreased Fe and Mn ones. Overall, our data clearly indicate that S. maltophilia modulates pulmonary metal balance in a concerted and virulence-dependent manner highlighting the potential role of the element dyshomeostasis during the progression of S. maltophilia infection, probably exacerbating the harmful effects of the loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator function. Further investigations are required to understand the biological significance of these alterations and to confirm they are specifically caused by S. maltophilia.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e88769. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Cell Death & Disease 01/2014; 5:e1427. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blastoschizomyces capitatus is an uncommon, opportunistic pathogenic fungus, which causes invasive and disseminated infections. This microorganism is normally present in both environmental and normal human flora. Within a host, B. capitatus is able to grow in both unicellular yeast and multicellular filamentous growth forms. In this study, we obtained in vitro morphological conversion of B. capitatus from yeast-to-mycelial phase to investigate the presence and expression of glutathione transferase (GST) enzymes in both cell forms. A protein with GST activity using the model substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene was detected in both morphologies and identified by tandem mass spectrometry as a eukaryotic elongation factor 1Bγ (eEF1Bγ) protein, a member of the GST superfamily. No significant difference in GST-specific activity and kinetic constants were observed between mycelial and yeast forms, indicating that eEF1Bγ protein did not show differential expression between the two phases.
    Folia Microbiologica 08/2013; · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondria carry maternally inherited genetic material, called the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), which can be defined as the 25th human chromosome. The chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (c-HPP) has initially focused its activities addressing the characterization and quantification of the nuclear encoded proteins. Following the last International HUPO Congress in Boston (September 2012) it was clear that however small the mitochondrial chromosome is, it plays an important role in many biological and physiopathological functions. Mutations in the mtDNA have been shown to be associated with dozens of unexplained disorders and the information contained in the mtDNA should be of major relevance to the understanding of many human diseases. Within this paper we describe the Italian initiative of the Human Proteome Project dedicated to mitochondria as part of both programs: chromosome-centric (c-HPP) and Biology/Disease (B/D-HPP). The mt-HPP has finally shifted the attention of the HUPO community outside the nuclear chromosomes with the general purpose to highlight the mitochondrial processes influencing the human health. Following this vision and considering the large interest and evidence collected on the non-Mendelian heredity of Homo sapiens associated with mt-chromosome and with the microbial commensal ecosystem constituting our organism we may speculate that this program will represent an initial step toward other HPP initiatives focusing on human phenotypic heredity.
    Molecular BioSystems 05/2013; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction or dementia. Insulin resistance is often associated with T2DM and can induce defective insulin signaling in the central nervous system as well as increase the risk of cognitive impairment in the elderly. Glucagone like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone and, like GLP-1 analogs, stimulates insulin secretion and has been employed in the treatment of T2DM. GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs also enhance synaptic plasticity and counteract cognitive deficits in mouse models of neuronal dysfunction and/or degeneration. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of long-term treatment with exenatide, a GLP-1 analog, in two animal models of neuronal dysfunction: the PS1-KI and 3xTg-AD mice. We found that exenatide promoted beneficial effects on short- and long-term memory performances in PS1-KI but not in 3xTg-AD animals. In PS1-KI mice, the drug increased brain lactate dehydrogenase activity leading to a net increase in lactate levels, while no effects were observed on mitochondrial respiration. On the contrary, exenatide had no effects on brain metabolism of 3xTg-AD mice. In summary, our data indicate that exenatide improves cognition in PS1-KI mice, an effect likely driven by increasing the brain anaerobic glycolysis rate.
    Cell Death & Disease 05/2013; 4:e612. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and defective chloride transport across the epithelial cell membranes. Abnormal epithelial ion transport is the primary cause of persistent airway infections and chronic inflammation in CF patients. In order to gain further insight into the mechanisms of epithelial dysfunctions linked to CFTR mutations, we performed and integrated proteomic and ionomic analysis of human bronchial epithelial IB3-1 cells and compared them with a CFTR-complemented isogenic cell line (C38). Aside from changes that were consistent with known effects related to CFTR mutations, such as differences in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways and unfolded protein responses, differential proteomics highlighted significant alteration of protein expression and, in particular, of the 14-3-3 signalling pathway that is known to be involved in cellular calcium (Ca) homeostasis. Of note, restoring chloride efflux by acting on Ca cellular homeostasis has been shown to be a promising therapeutic intervention for CF. Ionomic analysis showed significant changes in the IB3-1 element profile compared with C38 cells and in particular we observed an increase of intracellular Ca that significantly correlates with intracellular zinc (Zn) levels, suggesting a synergistic role of Ca and Zn influx. This finding is particularly intriguing because Zn has been reported to be effective in CF treatment increasing Ca influx. Taken together, our proteomic and ionomic data reveal that CFTR mutation sets in motion endogenous mechanisms counteracting impaired chloride transport mainly acting on epithelial ion transport and increasing intracellular Ca, suggesting potential links between protein expression and this response.
    Molecular BioSystems 04/2013; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is one of the main causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. The pathogenesis of POAG is still unclear. Alteration and sclerosis of trabecular meshwork with changes in aqueous humor molecular composition seem to play the key role. Increased intraocular pressure is widely known to be the main risk factor for the onset and progression of the disease. Unfortunately, the early diagnosis of POAG still remains the main challenge. In order to provide insight into the patho-physiology of glaucoma, here we report a shotgun proteomics approach to tears of patients with POAG naïve to therapy. Our proteomics results showed 27 differential tear proteins in POAG vs. CTRL comparison (25 up regulated proteins in the POAG group and two unique proteins in the CTRL group), 16 of which were associated with inflammatory response, free radical scavenging, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction. Overall the protein modulation shown in POAG tears proves the involvement of biochemical networks linked to inflammation. Among all regulated proteins, a sub-group of 12 up-regulated proteins in naïve POAG patients were found to be down-regulated in medically controlled POAG patients treated with prostanoid analogues (PGA), as reported in our previous work (i.e., lipocalin-1, lysozyme C, lactotransferrin, proline-rich-protein 4, prolactin-inducible protein, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, cystatin S, Ig kappa chain C region, Ig alpha-2 chain C region, immunoglobulin J chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region). In summary, our findings indicate that the POAG tears protein expression is a mixture of increased inflammatory proteins that could be potential biomarkers of the disease, and their regulation may be involved in the mechanism by which PGA are able to decrease the intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients.
    Molecular BioSystems 04/2013; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is an abundant nucleolar protein implicated in ribosome maturation and export, centrosome duplication and response to stress stimuli. NPM1 is the most frequently mutated gene in acute myeloid leukemia. Mutations at the C-terminal domain led to variant proteins that aberrantly and stably translocate to the cytoplasm. We have previously shown that NPM1 C-terminal domain binds with high affinity G-quadruplex DNA. Here, we investigate the structural determinants of NPM1 nucleolar localization. We show that NPM1 interacts with several G-quadruplex regions found in ribosomal DNA, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the most common leukemic NPM1 variant completely loses this activity. This is the consequence of G-quadruplex-binding domain destabilization, as mutations aimed at refolding the leukemic variant also result in rescuing the G-quadruplex-binding activity and nucleolar localization. Finally, we show that treatment of cells with a G-quadruplex selective ligand results in wild-type NPM1 dislocation from nucleoli into nucleoplasm. In conclusion, this work establishes a direct correlation between NPM1 G-quadruplex binding at rDNA and its nucleolar localization, which is impaired in the acute myeloid leukemia-associated protein variants.
    Nucleic Acids Research 01/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transthyretin (TTR) is an homotetrameric protein of the Central Nervous System (CNS) that plays the role of the major Thyroxine (T4) carrier from blood to Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF). T4 physiologically helps oligodendrocyte precursor cells to turn into myelinating oligodendrocytes, enhancing remyelination after myelin sheet damage. We investigated post-translational oxidative modifications of serum and CSF TTR in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) subjects, highlighting high levels of S-sulfhydration and S-sulfonation of cysteine in position ten only in the cerebral TTR, which correlate with an anomalous TTR protein folding as well as with disease duration. Moreover we found low levels of free T4 in CSF of MS patients, suggestive of a potential role of these modifications on T4 transport into the brain.
    Proteomics 01/2013; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many adult tissues contain a population of stem cells with the ability to regenerate structures similar to the microenvironments from which they are derived in vivo and represent a promising therapy for the regeneration of complex tissues in the clinical disorder. Human adult stem cells (SCs) including bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) have been characterized for their high proliferative potential, expression of characteristic SC-associated markers and for the plasticity to differentiate in different lineage in vitro. The aim of this study is to define the molecular features of stem cells from oral tissue by comparing the proteomic profiles obtained with 2-DE followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF of ex-vivo cultured human PDLSCs, DPSCs and BMSCs. Our results showed qualitative similarities in the proteome profiles among the SCs examined including some significant quantitative differences. To enrich the knowledge of oral SCs proteome we performed an analysis in narrow range pH 4-7 and 6-9, and we found that DPSCs vs PDLSCs express differentially regulated proteins that are potentially related to growth, regulation and genesis of neuronal cells, suggesting that SCs derived from oral tissue source populations may possess the potential ability of neuronal differentiation which is very consistent with their neural crest origin. This study identifies some differentially expressed proteins by using comparative analysis between DPSCs and PDLSCs and BMSCs and suggests that stem cells from oral tissue could have a different cell lineage potency compared to BMSCs.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e71101. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a proteomic analysis of the rat carotid body (CB) preparation by comparison between normoxia and hypoxia. Proteomic investigation would be helpful to identify the stress-induced protein during hypoxia and to know what O(2) species are being sensed by CB cells. Adult Wistar rats were used, one group was kept in room air (21% O(2)) as control, and the other was kept in a Plexiglas chamber for 12 days in chronic hypoxia (10-11% inspired oxygen). A total protein extract for each lysated tissue was separated using a broad pH range no-linear IPG strip (3-10) and the second dimension was performed on a 9-16% polyacrylamide gel. Exposure to hypoxia for 12 days produced significant changes in protein expression, providing an initial insight into the mechanism underlying differences in susceptibility to hypoxia. Further investigation is needed to have an overview of the specific set of proteins present in the CB and the functions of such proteins in signal transduction and adaptation during hypoxia.
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 01/2013; 756:349-53. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli remains one of the most frequent causes of several common bacterial infections in humans and animals. E. coli is the prominent cause of enteritis, urinary tract infection, septicaemia and other clinical infections, such as neonatal meningitis. E. coli is also prominently associated with diarrhoea in pet and farm animals. The therapeutic treatment of E. coli infections is threatened by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli strains is increasing worldwide principally due to the spread of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids. The rise of multidrug-resistant strains of E. coli also occurs in Europe. Therefore, the spread of resistance in E. coli is an increasing public health concern in European countries. This paper summarizes the current status of E. coli strains clinically relevant in European countries. Furthermore, therapeutic interventions and strategies to prevent and control infections are presented and discussed. The article also provides an overview of the current knowledge concerning promising alternative therapies against E. coli diseases.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 01/2013; 10(12):6235-54. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metal dyshomeostasis plays a crucial role in promoting several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), a condition that has been linked to deregulation of brain levels of Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Thus, quantitative multi-element profiling of brain tissues from AD models can be of great value in assessing the pathogenic role of metals as well as the value of therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring metal homeostasis in the brain. In this study, we employed low resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to evaluate levels of ultra-trace, trace, and major elements in brains and cerebella of 3xTg-AD mice, a well characterized transgenic (Tg) AD model. This method is based on alternated cool and hot plasma ICP-MS. The essay fulfilled analytical requirements for the quantification of 14 elements in the Central Nervous System (CNS) of our Tg model. Quantification of Li, Al, Cr, and Co, a procedure that requires a pre-concentration step, was validated by high resolution ICP-MS. Changes in element profiles occurring in 3xTg-AD mice were compared to the ones observed in wild type (WT) mice. We also investigated variations in element profiles in 3xTg-AD mice receiving a long-term (17 months) dietary supplementation of Zn. Our data indicate that, compared to WT animals, 3xTg-AD mice displayed signs of altered brain metal homeostasis. We also found that long-term Zn administration promoted decreased brain levels of some metals (K, Ca, and Fe) and restored levels of Al, Cr, and Co to values found in WT mice.
    Metallomics 11/2012; · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the active research in this field, molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced beneficial effects on brain physiology and functions are still matter of debate, especially with regard to biological processes activated by regular exercise affecting the onset and progression of hippocampal aging in individuals unfamiliar with habitual physical activity. Since such responses seem to be mediated by changes in antioxidative, antiglycative and metabolic status, a possible exercise-induced coordinated response involving redox, methylglyoxal-and sirtuin-related molecular networks may be hypothesized. In this study, hippocampi of CD1 mice undergoing the transition from mature to middle age were analyzed for redox-related profile, oxidative and methylglyoxal-dependent damage patterns, energy metabolism, sirtuin1 and glyoxalase1 expression after a 2-or 4-mo treadmill running program. Our findings suggested that the 4-mo regular running lowered the chance of dicarbonyl and oxidative stress, activated mitochondrial catabolism and preserved sirtuin1-related neuroprotection. Surprisingly, the same cellular pathways were negatively affected by the first 2 months of exercise, thus showing an interesting biphasic response. In conclusion, the duration of exercise caused a profound shift in the response to regular running within the rodent hippocampus in a time-dependent fashion. This research revealed important details of the interaction between exercise and mammal hippocampus during the transition from mature to middle age, and this might help to develop non-pharmacological approaches aimed at retarding brain senescence, even in individuals unfamiliar with habitual exercise.
    PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e48334. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the initial description of apoptosis, a number of different forms of cell death have been described. In this review we will focus on classic caspase-dependent apoptosis and its variations that contribute to diseases. Over fifty years of research have clarified molecular mechanisms involved in apoptotic signaling as well and shown that alterations of these pathways lead to human diseases. Indeed both reduced and increased apoptosis can result in pathology. More recently these findings have led to the development of therapeutic approaches based on regulation of apoptosis, some of which are in clinical trials or have entered medical practice.
    Aging 05/2012; 4(5):330-49. · 4.70 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
838.20 Total Impact Points


  • 1976–2014
    • Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara
      • • Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia
      • • Center for Aging Sciences CESI
      • • Dipartimento di Medicina e Scienze dell'Invecchiamento
      Chieta, Abruzzo, Italy
  • 2012–2013
    • Kore University of Enna
      Enna, Sicily, Italy
  • 1987–2012
    • Università degli Studi dell'Aquila
      • • Department of Basic and Applied Biology
      • • Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences
      Aquila, Abruzzo, Italy
  • 1985–2011
    • University of Rome Tor Vergata
      • Dipartimento di Biologia
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2009
    • Foundation Santa Lucia
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      • Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2008
    • University of Padova
      • Department of Biology
      Padova, Veneto, Italy
  • 2004–2006
    • Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2005
    • Environmental Health Center
      Klausenburg, Cluj, Romania
  • 1998
    • Università degli Studi del Sannio
      Benevento, Campania, Italy
  • 1996
    • University of Florence
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1993
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      • Department of Biochemical Sciences "Alessandro Rossi Fanelli
      Roma, Latium, Italy