[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some potent chemotherapy drugs including tubulin-binding agents had been developed from nature plants, such as podophyllotoxin and paclitaxel. However, poor cytotoxic selectivity, serious side-effects, and limited effectiveness are still the major concerns in their therapeutic application. We developed a fully synthetic podophyllotoxin derivative named Ching001 and investigated its anti-tumor growth effects and mechanisms in lung cancer preclinical models. Ching001 showed a selective cytotoxicity to different lung cancer cell lines but not to normal lung cells. Ching001 inhibited the polymerization of microtubule resulting in mitotic arrest as evident by the accumulation of mitosis-related proteins, survivin and aurora B, thereby leading to DNA damage and apoptosis. Ching001 also activated pro-apoptotic ER stress signaling pathway. Intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg/kg Ching001 significantly inhibited the tumor growth of A549 xenograft, while injection of 0.2 mg/kg Ching001 decreased the lung colonization ability of A549 cells in experimental metastasis assay. These anti-tumor growth and lung colonization inhibition effects were stronger than those of paclitaxel treatment at the same dosage. The xenograft tumor tissue stains further confirmed that Ching001 induced mitosis arrest and tumor apoptosis. In addition, the hematology and biochemistry tests of blood samples as well as tissue examinations indicated that Ching001 treatment did not show apparent organ toxicities in tested animals. We provided preclinical evidence that novel synthetic microtubule inhibitor Ching001, which can trigger DNA damage and apoptosis by inducing mitotic arrest and ER stress, is a potential anti-cancer compound for further drug development.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e62082. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Previously, we identified a sequence variant (N375S) of c-Met gene, however, its association with lung cancer risk and prognosis remain undefined. Patients and Methods: We investigated the genotype distribution of the c-Met-N375S sequence variant in 206 lung cancer patients and 207 non-cancer controls in the Taiwanese population by DNA sequencing. Results: Lung cancer patients with variant A/G and G/G genotypes showed 1.08-fold increased cancer risk when compared to patients with the wild-type A/A genotype (95% CI, 0.60-1.91). There were no significant differences in postoperative survival between c-Met-N375S and wild-type patients. In the cell model, the c-Met-N375S cells showed a decrease in cell death upon treatment with MET inhibitor SU11274 compared to wild-type cells. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the c-Met-N375S sequence variant may not play a significant role in cancer susceptibility and the prognosis of lung cancer patients. The correlation with chemoresponse of c-Met-N375S is worth further investigation in patients receiving MET therapy.
International journal of medical sciences 01/2013; 10(8):988-994. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overexpression of DNA 5'-cytosine-methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A), which silences genes including tumor suppressor genes (TSG), is involved in many cancers. Therefore, we examined whether the transcriptional deregulation of RB/MDM2 pathway was responsible for DNMT3A overexpression and analyzed the therapeutic potential of MDM2 antagonist for reversing aberrant DNA methylation status in lung cancer.
The regulation of DNMT3A expression and TSG methylation status by RB/MDM2 was assessed in cancer cell lines and patients. The effects of Nutlin-3, an MDM2 antagonist, on tumor growth in relation to DNMT3A expression and TSG methylation status were examined by xenograft model.
We found that RB suppressed DNMT3A promoter activity and mRNA/protein expression through binding with E2F1 protein to the DNMT3A promoter, leading to the decrease of methylation level globally and TSG specifically. In addition, MDM2 dramatically induced DNMT3A expression by negative control over RB. In clinical study, MDM2 overexpression inversely correlated with RB expression, while positively associating with overexpression of DNMT3A in samples from patients with lung cancer. Patients with high MDM2 and low RB expression showed DNMT3A overexpression with promoter hypermethylation in TSGs. Treatment with Nutlin-3, an MDM2 antagonist, significantly suppressed tumor growth and reduced DNA methylation level of TSGs through downregulation of DNMT3A expression in xenograft studies.
This study provides the first cell, animal, and clinical evidence that DNMT3A is transcriptionally repressed, in part, by RB/E2F pathway and that the repression could be attenuated by MDM2 overexpression. MDM2 is a potent target for anticancer therapy to reverse aberrant epigenetic status in cancers.
Clinical Cancer Research 06/2012; 18(16):4325-33. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compound targeting histone deacetylase (HDAC) represents a new era in molecular cancer therapeutics. However, effective HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumors remain to be developed.
Here, we propose a novel HDAC inhibitor, N-Hydroxy-4-(4-phenylbutyryl-amino) benzamide (HTPB), as a potential chemotherapeutic drug for solid tumors. The HDAC inhibition of HTPB was confirmed using HDAC activity assay. The antiproliferative and anti-migratory mechanisms of HTPB were investigated by cell proliferation, flow cytometry, DNA ladder, caspase activity, Rho activity, F-actin polymerization, and gelatin-zymography for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Mice with tumor xenograft and experimental metastasis model were used to evaluate effects on tumor growth and metastasis. Our results indicated that HTPB was a pan-HDAC inhibitor in suppressing cell viability specifically of lung cancer cells but not of the normal lung cells. Upon HTPB treatment, cell cycle arrest was induced and subsequently led to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. HTPB disrupted F-actin dynamics via downregulating RhoA activity. Moreover, HTPB inhibited activity of MMP2 and MMP9, reduced integrin-β1/focal adhesion complex formation and decreased pericellular poly-fibronectin assemblies. Finally, intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of HTPB efficiently inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth in vivo without side effects. HTPB delayed lung metastasis of 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells. Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins, induction of apoptotic-related proteins and de-phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase were confirmed in treated mice.
These results suggested that intrinsic apoptotic pathway may involve in anti-tumor growth effects of HTPB in lung cancer cells. HTPB significantly suppresses tumor metastasis partly through inhibition of integrin-β1/FAK/MMP/RhoA/F-actin pathways. We have provided convincing preclinical evidence that HTPB is a potent HDAC targeted inhibitor and is thus a promising candidate for lung cancer chemotherapy.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30240. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased sialyltransferase (ST) activity promotes cancer cell metastasis, and overexpression of cell surface sialic acid correlates with poor prognosis in cancer patients. To seek therapies targeting metastasis for cancer treatment, we developed a novel ST inhibitor, Lith-O-Asp, and investigated its antimetastatic and antiangiogenic effects and mechanisms. We found that cells treated with Lith-O-Asp showed a reduction of activity on various ST enzymes by in vitro and cell-based activity analyses. Lith-O-Asp inhibited migration and invasion abilities in various cancer cell lines and showed inhibitory effect on the angiogenic activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Indeed, Lith-O-Asp treatment consequently delayed cancer cell metastasis in experimental and spontaneous metastasis assays in animal models. Importantly, Lith-O-Asp decreased the sialic acid modification of integrin-β1 and inhibited the expression of phospho-FAK, phospho-paxillin, and the matrix metalloprotease (MMP) 2 and MMP9. Lith-O-Asp attenuated the Rho GTPase activity leading to actin dynamic impairment. In addition, 2DE-MS/MS and immunoblotting analyses showed that Lith-O-Asp altered the protein expression level and phosphorylation status of various proteins involved in crucial metastasis and angiogenesis pathways such as vimentin and ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor RNH1. Furthermore, Lith-O-Asp treatment significantly inhibited the invasive ability exerted by ectopic overexpression of various ST enzymes catalyzing α-2,6- or α-2,3-sialylation. Our results provide compelling evidence that the potential pan-ST inhibitor, Lith-O-Asp, suppressed cancer cell metastasis likely by inhibiting FAK/paxillin signaling and expressing antiangiogenesis factors. Lith-O-Asp is worthy for further testing as a novel antimetastasis drug for cancer treatment.
Cancer Research 01/2011; 71(2):473-83. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overexpression of DNA 5'-cytosine-methyltransferases (DNMT), which are enzymes that methylate the cytosine residue of CpGs, is involved in many cancers. However, the mechanism of DNMT overexpression remains unclear. Here, we showed that wild-type p53 negatively regulated DNMT1 expression by forming a complex with specificity protein 1 (Sp1) protein and chromatin modifiers on the DNMT1 promoter. However, the stoichiometry between p53 and Sp1 determined whether Sp1 acts as a transcription activator or corepressor. Low level of exogenous Sp1 enhanced the repressive activity of endogenous p53 on the DNMT1 promoter whereas high level of Sp1 upregulated DNMT1 gene expression level in A549 (p53 wild-type) cells. In H1299 (p53 null) cells, exogenous Sp1 induced DNMT1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. We also discovered a new mechanism whereby high level of Sp1, via its COOH-terminal domain, induced interaction between p53 and MDM2, resulting in degradation of p53 by MDM2-mediated ubiquitination. Clinical data from 102 lung cancer patients indicated that overexpression of DNMT1 was associated with p53 mutation (P = 0.014) and high expression of Sp1 protein (P = 0.006). In addition, patients with overexpression of both DNMT1 and Sp1 proteins showed poor prognosis (P = 0.037). Our cell and clinical data provided compelling evidence that deregulation of DNMT1 is associated with gain of transcriptional activation of Sp1 and/or loss of repression of p53. DNMT1 overexpression results in epigenetic alteration of multiple tumor suppressor genes and ultimately leads to lung tumorigenesis and poor prognosis.
Cancer Research 07/2010; 70(14):5807-17. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) catalyzes DNA methylation and is overexpressed in many human diseases, including cancer. The tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK also induces DNA methylation. However, the role of DNMT1-mediated methylation in tobacco carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here we used human and mouse lung cancer samples and cell lines to determine a mechanism whereby NNK induced DNMT1 expression and activity. We determined that in a human lung cell line, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) phosphorylated DNMT1 to recruit beta-transducin repeat-containing protein (betaTrCP), resulting in DNMT1 degradation, and that NNK activated AKT, inhibiting GSK3beta function and thereby attenuating DNMT1 degradation. NNK also induced betaTrCP translocation to the cytoplasm via the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP-U) shuttling protein, resulting in DNMT1 nuclear accumulation and hypermethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. Fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) of lung adenomas from NNK-treated mice and tumors from lung cancer patients that were smokers were characterized by disruption of the DNMT1/betaTrCP interaction and DNMT1 nuclear accumulation. Importantly, DNMT1 overexpression in lung cancer patients who smoked continuously correlated with poor prognosis. We believe that the NNK-induced DNMT1 accumulation and subsequent hypermethylation of the promoter of tumor suppressor genes may lead to tumorigenesis and poor prognosis and provide an important link between tobacco smoking and lung cancer. Furthermore, this mechanism may also be involved in other smoking-related human diseases.
The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2010; 120(2):521-32. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, yet the therapeutic strategy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is limitedly effective. In addition, validated histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumors remain to be developed. Here, we propose a novel HDAC inhibitor, OSU-HDAC-44, as a chemotherapeutic drug for NSCLC.
The cytotoxicity effect of OSU-HDAC-44 was examined in three human NSCLC cell lines including A549 (p53 wild-type), H1299 (p53 null), and CL1-1 (p53 mutant). The antiproliferative mechanisms of OSU-HDAC-44 were investigated by flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, apoptosis assays and genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation-on-chip (ChIP-on-chip) analysis. Mice with established A549 tumor xenograft were treated with OSU-HDAC-44 or vehicle control and were used to evaluate effects on tumor growth, cytokinesis inhibition and apoptosis. OSU-HDAC-44 was a pan-HDAC inhibitor and exhibits 3-4 times more effectiveness than suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in suppressing cell viability in various NSCLC cell lines. Upon OSU-HDAC-44 treatment, cytokinesis was inhibited and subsequently led to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. The cytokinesis inhibition resulted from OSU-HDAC-44-mediated degradation of mitosis and cytokinesis regulators Auroroa B and survivin. The deregulation of F-actin dynamics induced by OSU-HDAC-44 was associated with reduction in RhoA activity resulting from srGAP1 induction. ChIP-on-chip analysis revealed that OSU-HDAC-44 induced chromatin loosening and facilitated transcription of genes involved in crucial signaling pathways such as apoptosis, axon guidance and protein ubiquitination. Finally, OSU-HDAC-44 efficiently inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth and induced acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins and apoptosis in vivo.
OSU-HDAC-44 significantly suppresses tumor growth via induction of cytokinesis defect and intrinsic apoptosis in preclinical models of NSCLC. Our data provide compelling evidence that OSU-HDAC-44 is a potent HDAC targeted inhibitor and can be tested for NSCLC chemotherapy.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(9):e12417. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The etiologic association and prognostic significance of mismatch repair gene/protein alterations have never been examined in nonsmoking lung cancer. Therefore, we investigated protein expression and promoter hypermethylation of hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes in the tumor specimens from 105 nonsmoking female non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Immunohistochemistry and restriction enzyme-based multiplex PCR were used to examine the protein expression and promoter hypermethylation, respectively. The occurrence of gene/protein alteration for each gene was compared with the patients' clinicopathologic variables as well as the overall survival and cancer-specific survival rates.
Protein expression alteration and promoter hypermethylation were observed in 66% to 67% and 30% to 34% of tumor specimens for hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes, respectively. Loss of hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein expression was significantly associated with their promoter hypermethylation (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.049). The overall survival and cancer-specific survival rates were significantly lower in patients with promoter hypermethylation of hMSH2 gene than in those without hypermethylation (P = 0.038 and P = 0.004). The poor prognosis was still especially significant in adenocarcinoma (P = 0.035 and P = 0.061) and early-stage NSCLC patients (P = 0.067 and P = 0.041).
Our data suggest that hMLH1 is the major altered mismatch repair gene involved in nonsmoking NSCLC tumorigenesis and that promoter methylation is the predominant mechanism in hMLH1 and hMSH2 deregulation. In addition, promoter methylation of the hMSH2 gene may be a potential prognostic factor in nonsmoking female lung cancer.
Clinical Cancer Research 09/2005; 11(15):5410-6. · 7.84 Impact Factor