Kwang-Wook Jung

Konkuk University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (13)10.36 Total impact

  • Jae-Ho Jang, Kwang-Wook Jung, Chun Gyeong Yoon
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    ABSTRACT: The focus of water quality modeling of Korean streams needs to be shifted from dissolved oxygen to algae or organic matter. In particular, the structure of water quality models should be modified to simulate the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), which is a key factor in calculating total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in Korea, using 5-day BOD determined in the laboratory (Bottle BOD(5)). Considering the limitations in simulating organic matter under domestic conditions, we attempted to model total organic carbon (TOC) as well as BOD by using a watershed model. For this purpose, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was modified and extended to achieve better correspondence between the measured and simulated BOD and TOC concentrations. For simulated BOD in the period 2004-2008, the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient increased from a value of -2.54 to 0.61. Another indicator of organic matter, namely, the simulated TOC concentration showed that the modified SWAT adequately reflected the observed values. The improved model can be used to predict organic matter and hence, may be a potential decision-making tool for TMDLs. However, it needs further testing for longer simulation periods and other catchments.
    Water Science & Technology 10/2012; 66(11):2355-62. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Water stress has become a major concern in agriculture. Korea suffers from limited agricultural water supply, and wastewater reuse has been recommended as an alternative solution. A study was performed to examine the effects of microorganism concentration in the ponded-water of a paddy rice field with reclaimed-water irrigation for evaluating the microbial risk to farmers and neighborhood children. Most epidemiological studies were performed based on an upland field, and they may not directly applicable to paddy fields. Beta-Poisson model was used to estimate the micro-bial risk of pathogen ingestion. Their risk value increased significantly high level after irrigation and precipitation. It implies that agricultural acti-vities such as plowing, and fertilizing, and precipitation need be practiced a few days after irrigation considering health risks. The results about field application of the microbial risk assessment using E. coli showed difference according to monitoring time and treatment plot. Result of the microbial risk assessment showed that risk values of ground-water and reclaimed secondary wastewater irrigation were lower than directly use of wastewater treatment plants' effluent. This paper should be viewed as a first step in the application of quantitative microbial risk assessment of E. coli to waste-water reuse in a paddy rice farming.
    Environ. Eng. Res. Korean Society of Environmental Engineers. 01/2009; 14:120-125.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to improve water quality of upper watershed of Paldang reservoir, it is necessary to evaluate non-point source pollution loads and identify critical watershed pollution sources. A GIS based Soil and Water Assessment Tool was applied to evaluate model application and reliability, estimate NPS pollution load, identify critical watershed by NPS pollution sources, and suggest various best management practices for Kyongan Stream watershed. Yearly NPS pollution loads were estimated 30.0% SS, 60.1% TN and 35.4% TP, respectably. The watershed pollution load is mainly decided by precipitation condition and SS and nutrients load have a significant regression relationship. Based on 10-year average yearly NPS pollution load, critical sub-watersheds were identified. The No. 5 and 17 which have lots of relatively intensive agricultural fields and scattered industrial area were vary critical sub-watersheds and under more intensive pollution load. In order to control critical watershed, watershed best management practices such as scientific fertilizer, contour farming and parallel terrace, transferring the sloppy farmland to grass or forest and constructing a buffer zone, and constructing wetlands and retention ponds will be applied. Overall the SWAT model can be efficiently used for identification of critical sub-watersheds in order to develop a priority watershed management plan to reduce water pollutions.
    Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers. 01/2009; 51(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Researchers generally accept that land use types within a watershed closely relate with the water quality characteristics of streams. Despite numerous studies investigating the relationships between water quality and land use, there are increasing concerns about the geographical variation and lack of spatial integration in previous studies. We investigated the relationships between land use and water quality characteristics including biological oxygen demand (BOD5), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and Escherichia coli in the Wha-Ong estuarine reservoir watershed in Korea, which has spatially integrated land uses. Residential and paddy areas appear to be positively and negatively correlated, respectively, with degraded water quality. The spatial variations of these relationships were also examined using zonal analysis. Some results contrasted with those of previous studies that were conducted mostly in developed Western countries and may reflect the different land use intensities and agricultural practices in Korea. Relationships across zones, distinguished by distances from streams, were inconsistent and erratic, suggesting that the relationships between remote land uses and water quality may be affected more significantly by sub-basin characteristics than by the land use itself. The geographical differences and spatial variations found in this study indicate that caution must be taken in generalizing the relationship between land use and water quality.
    Paddy and Water Environment 08/2008; 6(3):275-284. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effective watershed management often demands qualitative and quantitative predictions of the effect of future management activities as arguments for policy makers and administration. The BASINS geographic information system was developed to compute total maximum daily loads, which are helpful to establish hydrological process and water quality modeling system. In this paper the BASINS toolkit HSPF model is applied in 20,271 km(2) large watershed of the Han River Basin is used for applicability of HSPF and BMPs scenarios. For proper evaluation of watershed and stream water quality, comprehensive estimation methods are necessary to assess large amounts of point source and nonpoint-source (NPS) pollution based on the total watershed area. In this study, The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) was estimated to simulate watershed pollutant loads containing dam operation and applied BMPs scenarios for control NPS pollution. The 8-day monitoring data (about three years) were used in the calibration and verification processes. Model performance was in the range of "very good" and "good" based on percent difference. The water-quality simulation results were encouraging for this large sizable watershed with dam operation practice and mixed land uses; HSPF proved adequate, and its application is recommended to simulate watershed processes and BMPs evaluation.
    Water Science & Technology 02/2008; 58(12):2329-38. · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • Youn-Joo An, Chun G Yoon, Kwang-Wook Jung, Jong-Hwa Ham
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial risk was quantified to assess human health risk as a result of exposure to E. coli in reclaimed wastewater irrigation. Monitoring data on E. coli were collected from pond water in paddy rice plots during the growing season. Five treatments were used and each was triplicated to evaluate the changes in E. coli concentrations in experiments performed in 2003 and 2004. The Beta-Poisson model was used to estimate the microbial risk of pathogen ingestion among farmers and neighboring children. A Monte Carlo simulation (10,000 trials) was conducted to estimate the risk associated with uncertainty. In this study, risk values ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-8). UV-disinfected irrigation water showed a lower risk value than others, and its level was within the range of the actual paddy rice field with surface water. Agricultural activity was thought to be safer after 1-2 days, when the paddy field was irrigated with reclaimed wastewater. Also, children were found to have a greater risk of infection with E. coli. This paper should be viewed as a first step in the application of quantitative microbial risk assessment of wastewater reuse in paddy rice culture.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 07/2007; 129(1-3):53-60. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A pilot study of microorganism repair after UV disinfection was performed for agricultural reuse of secondary-level effluent in paddy rice fields in Korea. Effluent from the bio-filter of a 16-unit apartment was used in a flow-through type UV-disinfection system. The average concentration of suspended solids (SS) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were 3.4 and 5.9mgL−1, respectively. The mean total coliform level was in the range of 1.5×104MPN 100mL−1. Photoreactivation and dark repair were apparent at a low UV dose (6mWscm−2). In low-dose UV disinfection, microorganisms increased within 12 h by approximately 5 and 1% due to photoreactivation and dark repair, respectively. This increase was not significant at a high UV dose (16mWscm−2). The repaired microorganisms were further inactivated, rather than reactivated, by solar irradiation, and numbers decreased to non-detectible levels after 4 h of exposure to solar irradiation. Based on UV disinfection and repair studies, a UV dose of 30mWscm−2 is recommended as sufficient to produce reclaimed water virtually free of pathogens and may be adequate for disinfection of secondary effluent for agricultural irrigation in paddy rice culture.
    Paddy and Water Environment 01/2007; 5(1):57-62. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) was modified to simulate watershed pollutant loads in paddy farming regions. Dike height and the Dirac delta function were added to a modified HSPF code (HSPF-Paddy) to incorporate the behavior of ponded water and nutrients in rice paddy fields. HSPF-Paddy was validated by examining its application to a rice paddy plot (3000 m2) and a watershed (1803 km2) that contained a significant proportion of rice paddy fields (30%). The model efficiency at the plot scale was very high showing 0.52, 0.93, and 0.93 for ponded water depth, and accumulation of total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, respectively, and simulated values and observed data were in close agreement. Model efficiency was somewhat lower at the watershed scale showing 0.82, 0.78, 0.44, 0.61, and 0.63 for stream flow, temperature, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, respectively. However, model performance was generally within expectations, and generally model efficiency greater than 0.5 is deemed acceptable considering the complexity of the watershed in terms of size and land use. This comprehensive, dynamic model is applicable to a wide range of scales, from plot to watershed, and can be used to simulate various paddy field and watershed environmental conditions, including loads from point and nonpoint source pollution. It may be a practical alternative to the unit-load method for estimates of watershed pollution loads, especially in paddy farming regions, where nonpoint source pollution loads may be poorly estimated because of highly site-specific conditions. The application of HSPF-Paddy is recommended for watershed management and best management practices (BMPs) evaluation in paddy farming regions.
    Agricultural Water Management. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: A field experiment was performed at two Korean research sites to evaluate water and nutrient behavior in paddy rice culture operations for 2 years. One site was irrigated with groundwater, whereas the other site was irrigated with surface water. Both sites received average annual rainfall of about 1,300mm, and about 70–80% of it was concentrated during July–September coinciding with rice growing season. Although most of the nutrient outflow was attributed to plant uptake, nutrient loss by surface drainage was substantial. The simplified computer model, PADDIMOD, was developed to simulate water and nutrient behaviors in the paddy rice field. The model predicts daily ponded water depth, surface drainage, and nutrient concentrations. It was formulated with a few equations and simplified assumptions, but its application and a model fitness test indicated that the simulation results reasonably matched the observed data. It is a simple and practical planning model that could be used to evaluate nutrient loading from paddy rice fields alone or in combination with other complex watershed models. Further validation might be required for general application of the PADDIMOD to the simulation of paddy rice fields with various agricultural environments.
    Paddy and Water Environment 01/2005; 3(2):93-101. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) was modified to simulate nonpoint pollutant loadings from paddy fields using a field experimental data collected during 2001-2002. The concept of a 'dike height' was added in a modified HSPF code, named HSPF-Paddy, to consider the function of retaining water by a weir at the field outlet. The effect of fertilization on the variances of nutrients on the soil surface and shallow soil layer was described mathematically with a Dirac delta function (or first-order kinetics). As confirmed through model verification, the HSPF-Paddy modifications were shown to represent the function of retaining water, varied ponded water, and surface runoff by forced drain during both rainy and non-rainy seasons and reasonably predicted the water balance and nutrients behavior in paddy fields. It is a distributed watershed model which, with the paddy modifications, can now simulate nonpoint pollutant loadings where paddy fields are dominant, and it can be used to evaluate the effects of paddy fields on the water quality at a basin scale, and assess the impacts of proposed BMPs applied to paddy fields.
    Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers. 01/2005; 47(7).
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    ABSTRACT: A pilot study was performed from July 1998 to December 2002 to examine the feasibility of a constructed wetland system for sewage treatment in small communities of Korea. To maintain treatment performance during the winter period, an intermittent-discharge pond was connected to the wetland; its effects were evaluated from December 2001 to April 2003. The subsurface flow (SSF) wetland was satisfactory for treating sewage with good removal efficiency even during the winter period. The wetland effluent concentrations of BOD5 and TSS were often higher in winter than in the growing season, but this was explained by the higher loading rates, rather than lower removal efficiency. The relatively poor-quality wetland effluent was further polished during winter in the pond. The upper layer of the pond water column became remarkably clear immediately after ice melt. Overall, the wetland system was found to be adequate for treating sewage with stable removal efficiency, and the intermittent-discharge pond was found to be effective for further polishing if necessary. Therefore, a wetland and subsequent pond system is recommended as a practical alternative for treating sewage in small communities in Korea, and partial discharge of pond water in March is suggested.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 02/2004; 39(5):1329-43. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A field experiment was performed to evaluate water and nutrient balances in paddy rice culture operations during 2001-2002. The water balance analysis indicated that about half (50-60%) of the total outflow was lost by surface drainage, with the remainder occurring by evapotranspiration (490-530 mm). The surface drainage from paddy fields was mainly caused by rainfall and forced-drainage, and in particular, the runoff during early rice culture periods depends more on the forced-drainage due to fertilization practices. Most of the total phosphorus (T-P) inflow was supplied by fertilization at transplanting, while the total nitrogen (T-N) inflow was supplied by the three fertilizations, precipitation. and from the upper paddy field, which comprised 13-33% of the total inflow. Although most of the nutrient outflow was attributed to plant uptake. nutrient loss by surface drainage was substantial, comprising 20% for T-N and 10% for T-P. Water and nutrient balances indicate that reduction of surface drainage from paddy rice fields is imperative for nonpoint source pollution control. The simplified computer model, PADDIMOD, was developed to simulate water and nutrient (T-N and T-P) behavior in the paddy rice field. The model predicts daily ponded water depth, surface drainage, and nutrient concentrations. It was formulated with a few equations and simplified assumptions, but its application and a model fitness test indicated that the simulation results reasonably matched the observed data. It is a simple and convenient planning model that could be used to evaluate BMPs of paddy rice fields alone or in combination with other complex watershed models. Application of the PADDIMOD to other paddy rice fields with different agricultural environments might require further calibration and validation.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B 02/2004; 39(5-6):845-60. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A pilot study of the natural and ecological wastewater treatment system (NEWS) was performed to treat sewage in decentralized small rural communities in Korea. The absorbent-biofilter system (ABS) provided secondary level pretreatment and demonstrated high removal efficiency especially for SS and BOD5 showing 88.5 and 82.9%, respectively. The influent and effluent concentrations of TN were 42.1 and 26.2mgL−1, respectively, with the removal efficiency of 37.8%. In case of TP, the removal efficiency was 45.1% with the influent and effluent concentrations of 3.1 and 1.7mgL−1. The ABS effluent could not meet the effluent standards, and the further treatment was required. The subsequent up- and down-flow constructed wetland (UDCW) provided further polishing of the ABS effluent and demonstrated effective removal of nutrients as well as SS and BOD5 with over 70% removal rates. Overall performance of the NEWS, which was composed of ABS and UDCW, demonstrated remarkably high removal rates for BOD5 (>95.7%), SS (>97.5%), TN (>91.8%) and TP (>90.1%) and met all the effluent standards stably independent of temperature and influent loading in the experimental range. The UDCW used light and porous granular substrate (∅ 5–10mm, specific gravity of 1.2) with large surface area, and clogging problem was not observed during the study period. The system was cost effective and required minimal maintenance and negligible amount of electricity, and problems associated with noise, odor, files, and sludge were not observed. Considering characteristics of decentralized wastewater treatment systems, the NEWS system was found to be a practical alternative and its application is recommended up to 300m3day−1. The NEWS system has an economic problem above 300m3day−1, because of complicated equipment, higher operation costs, and maintenance specialists. The NEWS system was coast effective and required minimal maintenance and negligible amount of electricity, and problems associated with noise, odor, files, and sludge were not observed.
    Paddy and Water Environment 6(2):221-227. · 1.03 Impact Factor