[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipids are integral constituents of the milk fat globule membranes and they play a central role in infants' immune and inflammatory responses. A methodology employing liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector has been optimized and validated to quantify the major phospholipids classes in human milk. Phospholipids were extracted using chloroform and methanol and separated on C18 column. Repeatability, intermediate reproducibility, and recovery values were calculated and a large sample set of human milk analyzed. In human milk, phospholipid classes were quantified at concentrations of 0.6 mg/100 g for phosphatidylinositol; 4.2 mg/100 g for phosphatidylethanolamine, 0.4 mg/100 g for phosphatidylserine, 2.8 mg/100 g for phosphatidylcholine, and 4.6 mg/100 g for sphingomyelin. Their relative standard deviation of repeatability and intermediate reproducibility values ranging between 0.8 and 13.4 % and between 2.4 and 25.7 %, respectively. The recovery values ranged between 67 and 112 %. Finally, the validated method was used to quantify phospholipid classes in human milk collected from 50 volunteers 4 weeks postpartum providing absolute content of these lipids in a relatively large cohort. The average content of total phospholipids was 23.8 mg/100 g that corresponds to an estimated mean intake of 140 mg phospholipids/day in a 4-week old infant when exclusively breast-fed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological data suggests that regular consumption polyphenol rich foods and beverages is associated with a reduced risk of certain pathological conditions. While the in vivo "per se" antioxidant benefit of polyphenols still has not been clearly demonstrated, it has been suggested that phenolic acids can be incorporated into low-density lipoproteins (LDL). In the present study, we hypothesized that esterification of phenolic acids - such as ferulic acid - with lipophilic substances such as cholesterol can occur in vivo. To prove this hypothesis, we have synthesized pure cholesteryl-ferulate standard and used gas- and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to confirm the presence of endogenous form in human plasma. The detection and identification of cholesteryl ferulate was based on: (1) matching gas- and liquid chromatographic retention time with the reference standard; (2) accurate mass of the molecular ion; (3) matching electron ionization mass spectrum and (4) matching electrospray product ion spectrum. The identified cholesteryl ferulate demonstrated an in vitro antioxidant capacity in various assays. The present study confirmed that phenolic acid can be found in human plasma as lipophilic conjugates which exert antioxidant capacity. These molecules can potentially be involved in the protection of lipoproteins against oxidative damages.
Journal of chromatography. A 06/2013; · 4.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human milk provides the key nutrients necessary for the infants' growth and development. The fatty acid composition of human milk has been extensively studied over the last 20 years and the results obtained by analyzing the fatty acid profile followed by lipid extraction and expressing data as g per 100g of fatty acids. The main drawback is that normalizing data set does not give any information on the amount of fatty acid mother's milk and therefore the level of intake by the infant. The objective of the present study was to develop and validate a direct method to analyze the fatty acid content in liquid human milk samples. Hydrochloric acid in a solution of methanol was selected as the catalyst and methyl undecanoate (11:0) as the internal standard together with tritridecanoin (13:0 TAG) to monitor transesterification performance. The separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was performed using a 100m highly polar capillary column and a certified calibration mixture used to calculate experimental response factors. The method is suitable to quantify fatty acids in human milk from a 250μL sample and allow expression of the data in mg of fatty acids per deciliter of human milk as well as weight % of fatty acids. The method has been validated and show a good repeatability [CV(r)<15% and CV(r)<20% for the concentrations close to the LOQ] and a good intermediate reproducibility [CV(iR)<15% and CV(iR)<20% for the concentrations close to the LOQ]. The method was applied to analyze human milk samples obtained from 50 mothers 4 weeks post partum and the data are provided in absolute and relative quantity. These results show that the inter-individual variability of the fatty acid content in human milk is of prime importance and such information cannot be captured with normalized data sets.
Journal of chromatography. A 01/2013; · 4.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bioavailability is a key step in ensuring bioefficacy of bioactive food compounds or oral drugs. Bioavailability is a complex process involving several different stages: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination phases (LADME). Bioactive food compounds, whether derived from various plant or animal sources, need to be bioavailable in order to exert any beneficial effects. Through a better understanding of the digestive fate of bioactive food compounds we can impact the promotion of health and improvement of performance. Many varying factors affect bioavailability, such as bioaccessibility, food matrix effect, transporters, molecular structures, and metabolizing enzymes. Bioefficacy may be improved through enhanced bioavailability. Therefore, several technologies have been developed to improve the bioavailability of xenobiotics, including structural modifications, nanotechnology, and colloidal systems. Due to the complex nature of food bioactive compounds and also to the different mechanisms of absorption of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds, unraveling the bioavailability of food constituents is challenging. Among the food sources discussed during this review, coffee, tea, citrus fruit, and fish oil were included as sources of food bioactive compounds (e.g. (poly)phenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) since they are examples of important ingredients for the food industry. Although there are many studies reporting on bioavailability and bioefficacy of these bioactive food components, understanding their interactions, metabolism, and mechanism of action still requires extensive work. This review focuses on some of the major factors affecting the bioavailability of the aforementioned bioactive food compounds.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 08/2012; · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we used a preclinical model of induced lipolytic enzyme insufficiency, and hypothesized that the use of monoacylglycerols (MAG) will enhance their bioavailability and delivery to the tissues. Experimental diets containing 20% lipids were fed to rats for 21 days with or without Orlistat. The control diet of fish oil (FO), a source of EPA and DHA, was tested against: structured (A) vanillin acetal of sn-2 MAG (Vanil + O) and (B) diacetyl derivative of sn-2 MAG (Acetyl + O) and (C) free MAG (MAG + O). FA profiles with an emphasis on EPA and DHA levels were determined in plasma, red blood cells (RBC), liver, spleen, brain and retina. We observed significant reduction of lipid absorption when rats co-consumed Orlistat. As expected, the FO groups with and without Orlistat showed the biggest difference. The Vanil + O, Acetyl + O and MAG + O groups, demonstrated higher levels of EPA (5.5 ± 1.9, 4.6 ± 1.6 and 5.6 ± 0.6, respectively) in RBC compared with FO + O diets (3.3 ± 0.2, 2.6 ± 0.2). Levels of EPA incorporation, in plasma, were similar to those obtained for RBC, and similar trends were observed for the collected tissues and even with DHA levels. These observations with two MAG derivatives providing the fatty acid esterified in the sn-2 position, show that these molecules are efficient vehicles of EPA in malabsorption conditions which is in line with our hypothesis. Free MAG, characterized as having exclusively sn-1(3) isomers of EPA, demonstrated better absorption efficiencies and accretion to tissues when compared to structured MAG. The study demonstrated that structured and free MAG can be used efficiently as an enteral vehicle to supply bioactive fatty acids such as EPA and DHA in lipid malabsorption where diminished lipolytic activity is the underlying cause.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipids found in human sebum contain specific fatty acids such as sapienic (cis-6 16:1), cis-8 18:1 and sebaleic (cis-5, cis-8 18:2) acids. These fatty acids belong to the n-10 series and the initial step involved in their synthesis is the desaturation of palmitic acid by the Δ6-desaturase to form sapienic acid. The occurrence in human hair and nail of sapienic (cis-6 16:1), cis-8 18:1 and sebaleic (cis-5, cis-8 18:2) acids has not been reported to our knowledge nor has the formation of Δ6-monounsaturated fatty acids from other saturated fatty acids such as stearic acid. The pre-requisite for such identification is the ability to separate cis-6 from cis-8 monounsaturated fatty acid derivative (i.e. cis-6 18:1 from cis-8 18:1 methyl esters) by gas-chromatography (GC) and such separation is not achievable using cyanoalkyl based highly polar capillary columns. In the present study, we used the 100 m SLB-IL 111 ionic liquid based capillary column recently commercialized by Supelco (Bellefonte, PA). The identification was performed by gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) with electronic impact (EI) ionization using 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) derivatives. Baseline separation between critical cis-6 18:1 and cis-8 18:1 isomers was obtained allowing unambiguous identification based on MS fragmentation and pure standards. In sebum, hair and nail samples, sapienic, cis-8 18:1 and sebaleic acids were found and more importantly, petroselinic acid was identified in these human tissues for the first time. In addition, we identified in hair and nail lipids cis-6 14:1, cis-6 15:1, iso-cis-6 16:1, aiso-cis-6 17:1 and cis-6 17:1 as their DMOX derivatives based on molecular ion as well as diagnostic ion fragments at m/z 167, 180 and 194. Possible biosynthesis scenario is postulated to explain the occurrence of these Δ6-monounsaturated fatty acids in human sebum, hair and nail lipids.
Journal of chromatography. A 11/2011; 1218(52):9384-9. · 4.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last 10 years, complaints were increasingly reported from consumers that experienced dysgeusia following the consumption of pine nuts. In the present study, pine nuts samples (N = 16) from consumers that reported dysgeusia have been analyzed to identify the botanical origin of critical pine nuts samples. The fatty acid composition of the samples was performed, and diagnostic index values were used to identify the botanical origin of the samples. Pinus armandii nuts were identified in all the samples pure or in mixture with P. koraiensis nuts. P. armandii is not reported as edible pine nuts by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). This study confirmed that consumption of P. armandii nuts may lead to dysgeusia. Based on the present study and previous work, we advise import companies to trade pine nuts from traditionally recognized species such as P. pinea, P. sibirica, P. koraiensis, or P. gerardiana.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monoacylglycerols (MAGs) are lipids found in trace amounts in plants and animal tissues. While they are widely used in various industrial applications, accurate determination of the regio-specific distribution is hindered by the lack of stable, commercially available standards. Indeed, unsaturated beta-MAG (or Sn-2 MAG) readily undergoes isomerization into alpha-MAG (acyl chain is attached to the Sn-1 or the Sn-3 position). In the present study, we describe structural elucidation of alpha- and beta-regio-isomers of monopalmitoyl-glycerol (MAG C16:0) as model compounds in their silylated forms using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with electronic impact (EI) ionization. MS fragmentation of alpha-MAG C16:0 is characterized by the loss of methylene(trimethylsilyl)oxonium (103 amu) and the consecutive loss of acyl chain yielding a fragment ion at m/z 205. The fragmentation pattern of beta-MAG C16:0 shows a series of diagnostic fragments at m/z 218, 203, 191 and 103 that are not formed from the alpha-isomer and hereby enable reliable distinction of these regio-isomers. Possible fragmentation scenarios are postulated to explain the formation of these marker ions, which were also applied to characterize the regio-isomer composition of a complex mixture of MAG sample containing n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Journal of chromatography. A 02/2010; 1217(9):1543-8. · 4.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pine nuts are traditionally used in various part of the world for the preparation of desserts or sauces or in salads. Local production is not sufficient to cope with the high demand of pine nuts around the world, and countries such as China or Pakistan are exporting much of their production to Western countries. Almost all the nuts that are traditionally consumed belong to the Pinus genus, but over the past years, the number of consumer complaints following consumption of commercial pine nuts increased. Some consumers experienced taste disturbance lasting for up to two weeks after consumption. Food safety agencies raised some concerns regarding pine nuts imported from Asia and their association with taste disturbance. However, even though a formal association has not been found to date, the Pinus genus comprises species that are not classified as edible and could be eventually used to adulterate edible species. Pinus spp. seed lipids are known to contain very specific polyunsaturated fatty acids know as Delta5-olefinic acids. Seed fatty acid profile of conifers had been used in the past as a taxonomic marker, and in the present study to identify the botanical origin of pine nut in nine commercial products. Fast gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) was used to resolve the complete fatty acid profile of Pinus spp. samples in less than 5 min. A diagnostic index based on the relative levels of the main fatty acids including distinctive Delta5-olefinic acids was used to identify botanical origins. Results revealed the occurrence of the following Pinus spp. in commercial products: P. pinea, P. koraiensis, P. gerardiana, P. armandii and P. massoniana. The later two species, known as Chinese white pine and Chinese red pine, are only cultivated in China and are not listed as common source of edible pine nuts by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The present study shows that the botanical origin of pine nuts can be identified in products based on the fatty acid profile.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2010; 58(4):2082-7. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orlistat is a gastric and pancreatic lipases inhibitor that is often prescribed to obese subjects. Orlistat has been shown to decrease the absorption of biologically important lipophilic micronutrients such as liposoluble vitamins. We hypothesized that long-term administration of orlistat may lower the incorporation of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in blood lipids and tissues. This hypothesis was tested in rats fed a diet supplemented with fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFA. Male Wistar rats (n = 18) were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental high-fat diets containing fish oil (control diet) or fish oil plus orlistat (200 and 400 mg/kg of diet) over the course of 3 weeks. Fat absorption and the level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, among other fatty acids, in red blood cells, plasma, liver, and spleen, were measured at the end of the experimental period. The results show that at 200 mg and 400 mg/kg of diet orlistat lowers fat absorption by 9% (P = .008) and 54% (P = .008). Orlistat given at the higher level induced a reduction of the incorporation of EPA in red blood cell (-45%; P = .006) and in plasma (-34%; P = .026) compared to the control group. Our results confirmed that administration of orlistat reduces incorporation of n-3 LC-PUFA in blood lipids and tissues in a rat model.
Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) 02/2010; 30(2):134-40. · 1.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in the neonates.
Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids) or alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%). At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA) profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics.
In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P < 0.0001) and brain glial cell PE (+18%, P = 0.0001) and PS (+15%, P = 0.0009) were significantly increased compared to the ALA group. The filtered correlation analysis (P < 0.05) underlined that levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), DHA and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were negatively correlated with arachidonic acid (ARA) and n-6 DPA in PE of brain glial cells. No significant correlation between n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA were found in the PS dataset. DMA level in PE was negatively correlated with n-6 DPA. DMA were found to occur in brain glial cell PS fraction; in this class DMA level was correlated negatively with DHA and positively with ARA.
The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested whether feeding hamsters diets varying in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content and low in linoleic acid (LA) could increase the tissue levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to the same extent as a fish oil-supplemented diet.
For 5 weeks, 60 hamsters were fed 1 of the following 5 diets containing 2% of total dietary energy (TE) as LA and either 0.5% (diet A), 1% (diets B and E), 2% (diet C), or 4% (diet D) ALA of TE, so that the ratio of LA/ALA was 4:1, 2:1, 1:1, or 1:2. Diet E was supplemented with fish oil at the level of 0.2% of total energy intake. At the end of the study, overnight-fasted hamsters were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were collected.
Tissue levels of ALA, EPA, DPA, and DHA rose in proportion to the increase in the dietary ALA level (p < 0.01); however, the levels of DHA reached a plateau at ALA intakes above 1% (p < 0.01). These changes were accompanied by decreases in arachidonic acid with or without increases in LA levels (p < 0.01). Hamsters fed diet D had similar or higher EPA, DPA, and DHA tissue levels to those fed diet E (p < 0.01).
In hamsters, diets containing 4% energy as ALA and 2% energy as LA can increase the tissue levels of EPA, DPA, and DHA to the same extent as feeding 0.2% energy as fish oil.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 01/2010; 57(1):50-8. · 1.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gas-chromatography (GC) is a powerful separation technique for resolving and quantifying a wide range of compounds, such as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) derivatives. Separation of common FAME is typically achieved on highly polar or polyethylene glycol stationary phases that can separate fatty acids according to chain length, number and geometry of ethylenic double bonds. GC is one of the most commonly available methods for fatty acid analysis with constant improvements for different applications. One such improvement is faster GC analysis, which has long been the focus of investigators researching the application and benefits of this technique. A greater speed of analysis offers many key benefits, such as increased sample throughput, reduced analytical expenses, and increased laboratory productivity. Fast GC analysis can be accomplished by using a short column with reduced column film thickness, high carrier gas velocity, and fast program temperatures. A summary of options for fast GC analysis with emphasis on FAME analysis is discussed in the present review.
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies - J LIQ CHROMATOGR RELAT TECHNO. 01/2009; 32:1672-1688.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present review is focused on the metabolism and the emerging roles of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) with emphasis on its effects on food intake control and lipid metabolism. The biological mechanism of action, including a non-genomic effect mediated through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor, is discussed. The research related to fatty acid ethanolamides has been focused until recently on anandamide and its interaction with cannabinoid receptor subtype 1. The roles of other N-acyl ethanolamine fatty acid derivatives have been neglected until it was demonstrated that OEA can modulate food intake control through interaction with PPAR-alpha. Further investigations demonstrated that OEA modulates lipid and glucose metabolism, and recent study confirmed that OEA is an antagonist of TRVP1. It has been demonstrated that OEA has beneficial effects on health by inducing food intake control, lipid beta-oxidation, body weight loss and analgesic effects. The investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that OEA activates PPAR-alpha and stimulates the vagal nerve through the capsaicin receptor TRPV1. Pre-clinical studies showed that OEA remains active when administered orally.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is known to potentially have beneficial biological effects on weight management by controlling food intake and activating lipid catabolism. In biological fluids, OEA and other endogenously biosynthesized fatty acid ethanolamides are usually analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The present study provides analytical method to routinely assess the quality of OEA prepared for biological studies by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The preparation of OEA for biomedical studies can be performed by N-acylation of oleic acid/esters or using oleoyl chloride. In the present study, OEA was prepared by transamidation of triolein. The analysis of the synthesized OEA has been performed by gas-liquid chromatography of its trimethylsilyl ether (TMS) derivatives. Free OEA cannot be analyzed as such because dehydration of the ethanolamide moiety promptly happens in the GLC injection. This thermal degradation reaction gives rise to the formation of an oxazoline derivative. The TMS moiety prevents the reaction, and the structure of the formed derivative was assessed by mass spectrometry. We show here that OEA prepared for biological studies can be routinely analyzed by GLC after TMS derivative preparation.
Journal of Chromatography 08/2008; 1202(2):216-9. · 4.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Production of dairy products with increased amounts of nutraceutic FA such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) represents a recent approach for dairy producers and processors to increase the value of their products. The effect of CLA and other FA on the expression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) and DGAT-2, and DGAT activity were investigated in bovine mammary gland epithelial (MAC-T) cells. DGAT gene expression analyses were also conducted using bovine mammary gland tissue from dairy cows. In the studies with MAC-T cells, there were no significant effects of CLA isomers or other FA on DGAT1 expression, whereas all FA tested showed enhanced DGAT2 expression (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), with alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-18:3) having the greatest effect. Additionally, DGAT2 expression was co-ordinated with expression of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), an observation that was also apparent in mammary gland from lactating dairy cows. In contrast, treatment of MAC-T cells with trans-10, cis-12 18:2 or alpha-18:3 resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in overall DGAT enzyme activity, although the mechanisms resulting in these effects are unclear. Competition assays using microsomes from bovine mammary gland tissue and 1-[(14)C]oleoyl-CoA suggested that DGAT activity was more selective for oleoyl (cis-9 18:1)-CoA than cis-9, trans-11 18:2-, trans-10, cis-12 18:2- or cis-9, cis-12 18:2-CoA. Collectively, the results suggest the relationship between trans-10, cis-12 18:2 and reduced TAG production in bovine milk is not linked to the production of DGAT1 or DGAT2 transcripts, but probably involves effects of this CLA isomer at events beyond transcription, such as post-translational and/or enzyme activity effects.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Milk fat is a complex mixture of geometric and positional isomers of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, including short-, long- and branch-chain fatty acids (FAs). There has been partial success to resolve this mixture of FAs using different GC temperature programs, or a combination of GC isothermal and temperature programs. To overcome the problem associated with overlapping isomers prior silver-ion separation was recommended. However, this procedure is time consuming and not practical for routine analysis. In addition, previous methods focused mainly on the trans and cis isomers of 18:1. The present method takes advantage of differences in the relative elution times between different types of FAs. The method involved analyzing each milk fat using the same highly polar 100-m capillary column and GC instrument, and conducting two separations using temperature programs that plateau at 175 and 150 degrees C. The relative shift among the geometric and positional isomers at these two temperature settings was enough to permit identification of most of the trans and cis 16:1, 18:1 and 20:1, the c/t-18:2 and the c/c/t-18:3 isomers found in milk fat. The identity of these FAs was confirmed by prior separation of the total fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of milk fat using Ag(+)-SPE columns, and comparing the fractions to the total milk fat. The Ag(+)-SPE technique was modified to obtain pure saturated, trans- and cis-monounsaturated and diunsaturated FAMEs. By combining the results from these two separate GC analyses, knowing the elution order, it was possible to determine most of the geometric and positional isomers of 16:1, 18:1, 20:1, 18:2 and 18:3 without a prior silver-ion separation. Only few minor FAs could not be resolved, notable the conjugated linoleic acid isomers that still required the complimentary Ag(+)-HPLC separation. The two GC temperature programs have been successfully used to routinely analyze most FA isomers in total milk and beef fats in about 200 min without the use of prior silver-ion separations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study tested the hypothesis that protein source is a factor determining the impact of the diet on lipid metabolism in hamsters. Twenty-eight hamsters of similar body weight were assigned for a period of 8 weeks to one of the following four diets (seven per group) containing either 20 % (w/w) casein (CAS), beef protein (BF), wheat gluten (WG) or soya protein (SOY). The fat composition of the diet was the same (15.5 % w/w) in all groups and provided SFA, MUFA and PUFA representative of the average Canadian diet. After an overnight fast, blood and liver were collected for the measurement of serum lipids, fatty acid composition of liver phospholipids and mRNA levels of selected genes involved in lipid metabolism. WG resulted in lower total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol but, along with SOY, in higher mRNA levels of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase and LDL receptor. Furthermore, both WG and SOY resulted in lower 18 : 3n-3, 20 : 4n-6, total n-6 PUFA, 18 : 1n-9 and total MUFA, but higher 22 : 6n-3, total n-3 PUFA, 22 : 6n-3/18 : 3n-3 and 22 : 5n-3/18 : 3n-3 ratios in liver phospholipids, and higher hepatic Delta6-desaturase mRNA levels. These results show that the impact of dietary protein on lipid metabolism is source-dependent and associated with changes in mRNA abundances of key hepatic enzymes and receptors.
The British journal of nutrition 02/2008; 100(3):503-11. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Separation of fatty acids as methyl ester (FAME) derivatives has been carried out using short and highly polar capillary column developed for fast gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) applications. The GLC parameters have been optimized in order to achieve separation of FAME ranging from 4:0 (butyric acid) to 24:1 in less than 5 min. Milk fat that has by far the most complex fatty acid composition among edible fats and oils has been used to optimize the method. The volume of the oven has been reduced in order to allow for a heating rate of 120 degrees C/min and to rapidly cool-down to the initial temperature (50 degrees C) of the GLC program. The GLC conditions developed are not suitable to achieve separation of positional and geometrical isomers of octadecenoic acid but are useful to perform separation of major fatty acids in milk fat. The conditions developed could be used to analyze edible fats and oils or biological samples such as plasma or red blood cell lipids. The results confirmed that short and highly polar fast columns operating under optimal conditions could be used to separate the fatty acids in various matrices.
Journal of Chromatography 11/2007; 1169(1-2):175-8. · 4.61 Impact Factor