[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membrane nanotubes (MNTs) are newly discovered cellular extensions that are either blind-ended or can connect widely separated cells. They have predominantly been investigated in cultured isolated cells, however, previously we were the first group to demonstrate the existence of these structures in vivo in intact mammalian tissues. We previously demonstrated the frequency of both cell-cell or bridging MNTs and blind-ended MNTs was greatest between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II(+) cells during corneal injury or TLR ligand-mediated inflammation. The present study aimed to further explore the dynamics of MNT formation and their size, presence in another tissue, the dura mater, and response to stress factors and an active local viral infection of the murine cornea. Confocal live cell imaging of myeloid-derived cells in inflamed corneal explants from Cx(3)cr1(GFP) and CD11c(eYFP) transgenic mice revealed that MNTs form de novo at a rate of 15.5 μm/min. This observation contrasts with previous studies that demonstrated that in vitro these structures originate from cell-cell contacts. Conditions that promote formation of MNTs include inflammation in vivo and cell stress due to serum starvation ex vivo. Herpes simplex virus-1 infection did not cause a significant increase in MNT numbers in myeloid cells in the cornea above that observed in injury controls, confirming that corneal epithelium injury alone elicits MNT formation in vivo. These novel observations extend the currently limited understanding of MNTs in live mammalian tissues.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 13 November 2012; doi:10.1038/icb.2012.52.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim
Thrombosis stimulates inflammation, leading to organ injury in a broad range of human
diseases, however, the mechanisms regulating this phenomenon remains ill-defined. We
therefore sought to define the mechanism by which microvascular thrombi guide leukocytes
to sites of vascular injury.
We developed an ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury model in the mesenteric circulation of
mice to investigate leukocyte recruitment by microvascular thrombi. These studies revealed
widespread platelet and fibrin-rich thrombi in the mesenteric microcirculation following I/R
injury, with recruitment of leukocytes. Real-time intravital microscopy revealed that
microvascular thrombi were highly effective at recruiting leukocytes, inducing leukocyte
shape change, and promoting directed migration through the body of the thrombus. To
investigate the mechanisms regulating leukocyte migration through platelet thrombi, we
developed a localized model of endothelial perturbation induced by microinjector needle
injury, which led to highly reproducible, localised platelet thrombus formation and the rapid
and efficient recruitment of leukocytes to sites of endothelial injury. Leukocyte recruitment in
this model was entirely dependent on an α-thrombin and its platelet cellular receptor PAR-4.
To identify the platelet-derived proinflammatory molecules inducing leukocyte migration the
releasate from platelets was fractionated using ion-exchange and affinity chromatography
methods. These studies identified CTAPIII/NAP-2 as the dominant platelet chemokine
inducing neutrophil shape change and polarisation. Moreover, in vivo immunofluorescence
analysis with an anti-NAP-2 antibody demonstrated the presence of a NAP-2 chemokine
gradient within the body of the thrombus and inhibition of the neutrophil NAP-2 chemokine
receptor CXCR-2, reduced neutrophil migration through thrombi to the site of vascular injury
These studies define a key role for thrombin and its platelet receptor PAR-4 in inducing
release of the chemokine NAP-2 at sites of vascular injury leading to the development of a
chemotactic gradient within the body of the platelet thrombi, guiding leukocytes to the
damaged vessel wall.
Keywords inflammation, platelets, leukocytes
Conflict of interest No
the Annual Scientific Meeting of the HAA (Haematology Society of Australia and New Zealand - HSANZ, the Australian & New Zealand Society of Blood Transfusion - ANZSBT, and the Australasian Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis - ASTH); 10/2012
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microscopic polyangiitis is an autoimmune small-vessel vasculitis that often manifests as focal and necrotizing glomerulonephritis and renal failure. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic Abs (ANCAs) specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO) play a role in this disease, but the role of autoreactive MPO-specific CD4(+) T cells is uncertain. By screening overlapping peptides of 20 amino acids spanning the MPO molecule, we identified an immunodominant MPO CD4(+) T-cell epitope (MPO(409-428)). Immunizing C57BL/6 mice with MPO(409-428) induced focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis similar to that seen after whole MPO immunization, when MPO was deposited in glomeruli. Transfer of an MPO(409-428)-specific CD4(+) T-cell clone to Rag1(-/-) mice induced focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis when glomerular MPO deposition was induced either by passive transfer of MPO-ANCA and LPS or by planting MPO(409-428) conjugated to a murine antiglomerular basement membrane mAb. MPO(409-428) also induced biologically active anti-MPO Abs in mice. The MPO(409-428) epitope has a minimum immunogenic core region of 11 amino acids, MPO(415-426), with several critical residues. ANCA-activated neutrophils not only induce injury but lodged the autoantigen MPO in glomeruli, allowing autoreactive anti-MPO CD4(+) cells to induce delayed type hypersensitivity-like necrotizing glomerular lesions. These studies identify an immunodominant MPO T-cell epitope and redefine how effector responses can induce injury in MPO-ANCA-associated microscopic polyangiitis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2012; 109(39):E2615-24. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1210147109 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this issue of Blood, Wang et al reveal that ligation of Ly6G on murine neutrophils inhibits neutrophil recruitment, providing the first evidence of a function for this molecule.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) must express appropriate skin-homing adhesion molecules to exert suppressive effects on dermal inflammation. However, the mechanisms whereby they control local inflammation remain unclear. In this study we used confocal intravital microscopy in wild-type and Foxp3-GFP mice to examine adhesion of effector T cells and Tregs in dermal venules. These experiments examined a two-challenge model of contact sensitivity (CS) in which Treg abundance in the skin progressively increases during the course of the response. Adhesion of CD4(+) T cells increased during CS, peaking 8-24 h after an initial hapten challenge, and within 4 h of a second challenge. At these time points, 40% of adherent CD4(+) T cells were Foxp3(+) Tregs. CD4(+) T cell adhesion was highly dependent on ICAM-1, and consistent with this finding, anti-ICAM-1 prevented Treg adhesion. Skin TGF-β levels were elevated in skin during both challenges, in parallel with Treg adhesion. In the two-challenge CS model, inhibition of ICAM-1 eliminated Treg adhesion, an effect associated with a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion. Similarly, total CD4(+) T cell depletion caused an increase in adhesion of CD8(+) T cells. Because Treg adhesion was restricted by both of these treatments, these experiments suggest that adherent Tregs can control adhesion of proinflammatory leukocytes in vivo. Moreover, the critical role of ICAM-1 in Treg adhesion provides a potential explanation for the exacerbation of inflammation reported in some studies of ICAM-1-deficient mice.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2012; 188(5):2179-88. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1102752 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying leukocyte recruitment in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are unclear. Leukocytes from SLE patients display increased integrin expression, but whether this results in an increased capacity to undergo adhesive interactions has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify alterations in the capacity of leukocytes from SLE patients to undergo interactions with various substrates under flow conditions. Blood from SLE patients was examined in a flow chamber assay, and rolling, adhesion and post-adhesion spreading assessed on platelet monolayers or VCAM-1. P-selectin-dependent neutrophil rolling on platelet monolayers did not differ between SLE patients and healthy controls. Similarly, lymphocyte adhesion on VCAM-1 did not differ between patients and controls. However, post-adhesion spreading on VCAM-1 was significantly increased in lymphocytes from SLE patients. These parameters were unaffected by overall disease activity, presence of organ damage or prednisolone usage. However, leukocyte spreading on VCAM-1 was elevated in patients with evidence of active renal disease. These findings indicate that lymphocytes from SLE patients have an increased propensity to undergo post-adhesion spreading, a key preliminary step in leukocyte transmigration. This behavior may contribute to lymphocyte infiltration in SLE patients and may represent a novel biomarker of lupus nephritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation is critical for the development of acute allergic responses. Rapid P-selectin up-regulation by endothelial cells is a key promoter of leukocyte infiltration in response to mediators such as histamine. However, the mechanisms underpinning this process are still incompletely understood. We examined the role of the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (SK/S1P) pathway and showed that in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, histamine rapidly activates SK in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2-dependent manner, concurrent with the induction of P-selectin expression. Histamine activated both SK-1 and SK-2 isoforms; inhibition of SK-1, but not SK-2, attenuated histamine-induced P-selectin up-regulation and neutrophil rolling in vitro. S1P receptor antagonists failed to prevent histamine-induced P-selectin expression, and exogenous S1P did not increase P-selectin expression, suggesting that S1P cell surface receptors are not involved in this process. Finally, the role of both SK-1 and SK-2 in histamine-induced leukocyte rolling in vivo was assessed using pharmacological and genetic methods. Consistent with the in vitro findings, mice pretreated with either sphingosine kinase inhibitor or fingolimod (FTY720) significantly attenuated histamine-induced leukocyte rolling in the cremaster muscle. Similarly, Sphk1(-/-) but not Sphk2(-/-) mice exhibited reduced histamine-induced leukocyte rolling. These findings demonstrate a key role for SK-1 in histamine-induced rapid P-selectin up-regulation and associated leukocyte rolling, and suggest that endothelial SK-1 is an important contributor to allergic inflammation.
American Journal Of Pathology 02/2012; 180(4):1740-50. DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.12.024 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is a well-characterized murine model of renal inflammation leading to fibrosis. Renal dendritic cells (DCs) constitute a significant portion of kidney leukocytes and may participate in local inflammation and have critical roles in antigen presentation. The heterogeneity in renal DC populations and surface marker overlap with monocytes/macrophages has made studying renal DCs difficult. These studies used CD11c-promoter driven reporter/depletion mice to study DCs in vivo. Studying early local inflammatory events (day 3 of UUO), in vivo multiphoton imaging of the intact kidney of CD11c reporter mice revealed more dendrite extensions and increased activity of renal DCs in real time. Phenotypic analysis suggested resident DC maturation in obstructed kidneys with increased CD11b and less F4/80 expressed. CD11b(hi) Gr-1(+) inflammatory DCs were also present in obstructed kidneys. T-cell receptor transgenic mice revealed enhanced antigen-presenting capacity of renal DCs after UUO, with increased antigen-specific T-cell proliferation in vivo and ex vivo. However, conditional DC ablation at days 0, 2, or 4 did not attenuate fibrosis or apoptosis 7 days after UUO, and depletion at 7 days did not alter outcomes at day 14. Therefore, after UUO, renal DCs exhibit inflammatory morphological and functional characteristics and are more effective antigen-presenting cells, but they do not directly contribute to tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis.
American Journal Of Pathology 11/2011; 180(1):91-103. DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.09.039 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal human disease caused by the intracellular protozoan parasites Leishmania donovani and L. infantum (chagasi). Parasites infect macrophages throughout the viscera, though the spleen and liver are the major sites of disease. VL is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the developing world, particularly in India, Sudan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Brazil. Because of the intrusive techniques required to analyse tissue in VL patients, our current understanding of the host immune response during VL largely derives from studies performed in genetically susceptible mice. We have discovered that mice which are unable to produce a cytokine called LIGHT have poor control of L. donovani infection in the liver, compared with wild-type control animals. In addition, we demonstrated that LIGHT has distinct roles during VL, depending on which of its two major cell-bound receptors it engages. Finally, we identified an antibody that stimulates the lymphotoxin β receptor (one of the LIGHT receptors), that can stimulate anti-parasitic activity during an established infection, thereby identifying this receptor as a therapeutic target during disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypothermia is used in various clinical settings to inhibit ischemia-related organ damage. However, prothrombotic effects have been described as potential side effects. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of hypothermia-induced platelet activation and subsequent prothrombotic events and to develop preventative pharmacological strategies applicable during clinically used hypothermia.
Platelet function was investigated ex vivo and in vivo at clinically used hypothermia (28°C/18°C). Hypothermic mice demonstrated increased expression of platelet activation marker P-selectin, platelet-leukocyte aggregate formation, and thrombocytopenia. Intravital microscopy of FeCl(3)-injured murine mesenteric arteries revealed increased platelet thrombus formation with hypothermia. Ex vivo flow chamber experiments indicated increased platelet-fibrinogen adhesion under hypothermia. We show that hypothermia results in reduced ADP hydrolysis via reduction of CD39 (E-NTPDase1) activity, resulting in increased levels of ADP and subsequent augmented primary and secondary platelet activation. In vivo administration of ADP receptor P(2)Y(12) antagonists and recombinant soluble CD39 prevented hypothermia-induced thrombus formation and thrombocytopenia, respectively.
The platelet agonist ADP plays a key role in hypothermia-induced platelet activation. Inhibition of receptor binding or hydrolysis of ADP has the potential to protect platelets against hypothermia-induced activation. Our findings provide a rational basis for further evaluation of novel antithrombotic strategies in clinically applied hypothermia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) facilitates multiple aspects of inflammatory arthritis, the pathogenesis of which has been significantly linked to the activity of neutrophils. The effects of MIF on neutrophil recruitment are unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the contribution of MIF to the regulation of neutrophil chemotactic responses.
K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis was induced in wild-type (WT), MIF(-/-) , and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1; CCL2)-deficient mice as well as in WT mice treated with monoclonal antibodies to cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (anti-KC). Leukocyte trafficking in vivo was examined using intravital microscopy, and neutrophil function in vitro was examined using migration chambers and assessment of MAP kinase activation.
K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis was markedly attenuated in MIF(-/-) mice, with reductions in the clinical and histologic severity of arthritis and the synovial expression of KC and interleukin-1. Arthritis was also reduced by anti-KC antibody treatment, but not in MCP-1-deficient mice. In vivo, neutrophil recruitment responses to KC were reduced in MIF(-/-) mice. Similarly, MIF(-/-) mouse neutrophils exhibited reduced chemotactic responses to KC in vitro, despite displaying unaltered chemokine receptor expression. Reduced chemotactic responses of MIF(-/-) mouse neutrophils were associated with reduced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAP kinases.
These findings suggest that MIF promotes neutrophil trafficking in inflammatory arthritis via facilitation of chemokine-induced migratory responses and MAP kinase activation. Therapeutic MIF inhibition could limit synovial neutrophil recruitment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promotes leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. However, whether this stems from a direct effect on leukocyte migration is unknown. Furthermore, the role of the MIF-binding protein CD74 in this response has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the contributions of MIF and CD74 to chemokine-induced macrophage recruitment. Intravital microscopy studies demonstrated that CCL2-induced leukocyte adhesion and transmigration were reduced in MIF(-/-) and CD74(-/-) mice. MIF(-/-) and CD74(-/-) macrophages also exhibited reduced chemotaxis in vitro, although CD74(-/-) macrophages showed increased chemokinesis. Reduced CCL2-induced migration was associated with attenuated MAPK phosphorylation, RhoA GTPase activity, and actin polymerization in MIF(-/-) and CD74(-/-) macrophages. Furthermore, in MIF(-/-) macrophages, MAPK phosphatase-1 was expressed at elevated levels, providing a potential mechanism for the reduction in MAPK phosphorylation in MIF-deficient cells. No increase in MAPK phosphatase-1 expression was observed in CD74(-/-) macrophages. In in vivo experiments assessing the link between MIF and CD74, combined administration of MIF and CCL2 increased leukocyte adhesion in both MIF(-/-) and CD74(-/-) mice, showing that CD74 was not required for this MIF-induced response. Additionally, although leukocyte recruitment induced by administration of MIF alone was reduced in CD74(-/-) mice, consistent with a role for CD74 in leukocyte recruitment induced by MIF, MIF-treated CD74(-/-) mice displayed residual leukocyte recruitment. These data demonstrate that MIF and CD74 play previously unappreciated roles in CCL2-induced macrophage adhesion and migration, and they indicate that MIF and CD74 mediate this effect via both common and independent mechanisms.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2011; 186(8):4915-24. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1003713 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this issue of Blood, Klinke et al demonstrate the ability of myeloperoxidase (MPO) to attract neutrophils to the vascular wall, a process that might contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other inflammatory vascular disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foxp3(+) T-regulatory cells (Tregs) may suppress pathogenic inflammation; however, although transferred Tregs lessen glomerulonephritis in mice, the role of endogenous foxp3(+) cells is not known. To study this, we characterized endogenous foxp3(+) cells in accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis by using foxp3(GFP) reporter mice to track their responses in early and established disease. Further, diphtheria toxin was used to ablate foxp3(+) Tregs in foxp3(DTR) mice after establishing an immune response. In this model, mice were immunized with sheep globulin in adjuvant, and sheep anti-mouse GBM globulin was injected after 4 days to initiate progressive histological and functional injury. Intrarenal leukocytic infiltrates were increased by day 3 but intrarenal foxp3(+) Tregs, present in interstitial and periglomerular areas, were only increased at day 7. Ablation of foxp3(+) Tregs after injection of anti-GBM globulin increased renal injury and systemic T-cell responses, including increased interferon-γ and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) production, but no change in antibody titers. Compared with foxp3(+) Tregs isolated from naive mice, those from immunized mice produced more IL-10 and more effectively regulated CD4(+)foxp3(-) responder T cells. Thus, endogenous foxp3(+) Tregs infiltrate the kidney in glomerulonephritis, and deleting foxp3(+) cells after the induction of immune responses upregulated T-cell reactions and enhanced disease. Hence, endogenous foxp3(+) cells have increased suppressive capacity after immune stimuli.
Kidney International 01/2011; 79(9):977-86. DOI:10.1038/ki.2010.541 · 8.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the ability of Gpx1 to regulate leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in the cerebral microcirculation under inflammatory conditions associated with oxidative stress.
To induce cerebral inflammation, wild-type and Gpx1(-/-) mice underwent systemic treatment with TNF or transient focal cerebral ischemia via MCAO. Leukocyte rolling and adhesion in cerebral postcapillary venules were assessed by intravital microscopy.
Absence of Gpx1(-/-) resulted in increased cerebral oxidant production in response to TNF. Under these conditions, leukocyte rolling in cerebral venules was significantly elevated in Gpx1(-/-) mice, whereas leukocyte adhesion was lower than that in wild-type mice. Despite this, expression of key adhesion molecules did not differ between the strains. Following MCAO, Gpx1(-/-) mice displayed significant reductions in rolling and adhesion associated with severe blood flow restriction. In contrast, following treatment with the anti-oxidant ebselen to equalize postischemic cerebral blood flow in wild-type and Gpx1(-/-) mice, absence of Gpx1 was associated with significant elevations in leukocyte interactions.
These data show that under some inflammatory conditions, Gpx1 regulates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in the cerebral microvasculature, but that this is affected by the nature of the inflammatory insult.
Microcirculation (New York, N.Y.: 1994) 01/2011; 18(1):12-23. DOI:10.1111/j.1549-8719.2010.00063.x · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recruitment of leukocytes to glomeruli is fundamental to the pathogenesis of many forms of glomerulonephritis. In a model of glomerulonephritis induced by in situ immune complex deposition, we previously observed that, in addition to leukocytes, platelets accumulate in glomerular capillaries, where they contribute to leukocyte recruitment. However, the mechanisms of platelet recruitment and the role of platelet-expressed P-selectin in leukocyte recruitment require further investigation. We used intravital microscopy to examine the mechanisms of platelet and leukocyte recruitment to glomeruli of mice following administration of an antibody against the glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM antibody). Platelet recruitment was initiated within five minutes of administration of anti-GBM antibody. This was unaltered by inhibition of platelet GPIbalpha but was prevented by the absence of platelet GPVI. Fibrinogen was deposited in glomerular capillaries via a partially intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)-dependent mechanism, and inhibition of alpha(IIb)beta(3), fibrinogen and ICAM-1 inhibited platelet recruitment. Notably, neutrophil depletion also reduced platelet accumulation, indicating a cooperative interaction underlying recruitment of platelets and neutrophils. Finally, using bone marrow chimeras to restrict expression of P-selectin to platelets or endothelial cells, platelet but not endothelial P-selectin was required for glomerular leukocyte recruitment. Together these data indicate that platelet recruitment in this model is dependent on the combined actions of GPVI and the alpha(IIb)beta(3)/fibrinogen/ICAM-1 pathway and that platelet P-selectin is crucial for subsequent leukocyte recruitment.
American Journal Of Pathology 09/2010; 177(3):1131-42. DOI:10.2353/ajpath.2010.091143 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been shown to promote leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, although whether this occurs via an effect on endothelial cell function remains unclear. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine the ability of MIF expressed by endothelial cells to promote leukocyte adhesion and to investigate the effect of exogenous MIF on leukocyte-endothelial interactions. Using small interfering RNA to inhibit HUVEC MIF production, we found that MIF deficiency reduced the ability of TNF-stimulated HUVECs to support leukocyte rolling and adhesion under flow conditions. These reductions were associated with decreased expression of E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-8, and MCP-1. Inhibition of p38 MAPK had a similar effect on adhesion molecule expression, and p38 MAPK activation was reduced in MIF-deficient HUVECs, suggesting that MIF mediated these effects via promotion of p38 MAPK activation. In experiments examining the effect of exogenous MIF, application of MIF to resting HUVECs failed to induce leukocyte rolling and adhesion, whereas addition of MIF to TNF-treated HUVECs increased these interactions. This increase was independent of alterations in TNF-induced expression of E-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1. However, combined treatment with MIF and TNF induced de novo expression of P-selectin, which contributed to leukocyte rolling. In summary, these experiments reveal that endothelial cell-expressed MIF and exogenous MIF promote endothelial adhesive function via different pathways. Endogenous MIF promotes leukocyte recruitment via effects on endothelial expression of several adhesion molecules and chemokines, whereas exogenous MIF facilitates leukocyte recruitment induced by TNF by promoting endothelial P-selectin expression.
The Journal of Immunology 07/2010; 185(2):1238-47. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.0904104 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promotes leukocyte recruitment and antagonizes the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids (GC). The aim of this study was to examine whether interaction between MIF and GC underlies the ability of MIF to promote leukocyte-endothelial cell (EC) interactions.
Intravital microscopy was used to assess leukocyte-EC interactions in wild-type and MIF(-/-) mice following treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the GC dexamethasone, and inhibition of endogenous GC, using the GC-receptor antagonist, RU486.
Dexamethasone reduced LPS-induced leukocyte interactions in wild-type mice to levels similar to those observed in MIF(-/-) mice not treated with dexamethasone, whereas in MIF(-/-) mice, leukocyte interactions were not further inhibited by dexamethasone. RU486 increased LPS-induced leukocyte adhesion and emigration to a similar extent in both wild-type and MIF(-/-) mice, indicating that endogenous GC exert a similar inhibitory effect on leukocyte trafficking in wild-type and MIF(-/-) mice. Both MIF deficiency and RU486 treatment reduced VCAM-1 expression, while neither treatment modulated expression of ICAM-1 or chemokines CCL2, KC, and MIP-2.
These results suggest that endogenous MIF and GC regulate leukocyte-EC interactions in vivo reciprocally but through predominantly independent mechanisms, and that the anti-inflammatory effect of MIF deficiency is comparable to that of exogenous GC.
Microcirculation (New York, N.Y.: 1994) 11/2009; 16(8):735-48. DOI:10.3109/10739680903210421 · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune complex-induced responses involve multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms. However, how these pathways interact in the initiation of immune complex-induced response is poorly understood. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the immediate response of the microvasculature to immune complex formation.
The reverse passive Arthus (RPA) model was applied to the mouse cremaster muscle. Intravital microscopy was used to examine alterations in florescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran leakage from microvessels, and endothelial interactions of leukocytes and platelets in postcapillary venules.
Immune complex deposition induced rapid increases in microvascular permeability and leukocyte adhesion and emigration. Inhibition of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and leukotrienes inhibited the increase in permeability. Depletion of C3 reduced immune complex-mediated leukocyte recruitment and permeability, and a similar effect on permeability was observed following inhibition of leukocyte adhesion. Mast cell stabilization reduced increases in leukocyte adhesion and emigration but accelerated the increase in microvascular permeability. Platelet-endothelial interactions also increased during the RPA response, and platelet depletion delayed the changes in permeability and inhibited leukocyte recruitment.
This study demonstrates that immune complexes induce a rapid induction of complement-dependent leukocyte recruitment, and neutrophil-dependent microvascular dysfunction. Furthermore, this study identifies a role for platelets in promoting immune complex-induced leukocyte recruitment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immune system provides an essential defence against invading pathogens. However, bacteria have evolved numerous strategies to overcome this defence, many of which facilitate systemic dissemination of the pathogen. Nevertheless, the host has evolved many mechanisms to detect and protect against pathogens in the vasculature. Recent studies using new imaging approaches and new mouse models are revealing previously unappreciated functions of this intravascular aspect of the immune system. In this Review, we summarize recent work in this field, highlighting in vivo imaging studies that examine the behaviour of both the immune system and bacteria in the highly dynamic microvasculature.