[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant metabolites are important to world food security in terms of maintaining sustainable yield and providing food with enriched phytonutrients. Here we report comprehensive profiling of 840 metabolites and a further metabolic genome-wide association study based on ∼6.4 million SNPs obtained from 529 diverse accessions of Oryza sativa. We identified hundreds of common variants influencing numerous secondary metabolites with large effects at high resolution. We observed substantial heterogeneity in the natural variation of metabolites and their underlying genetic architectures among different subspecies of rice. Data mining identified 36 candidate genes modulating levels of metabolites that are of potential physiological and nutritional importance. As a proof of concept, we functionally identified or annotated five candidate genes influencing metabolic traits. Our study provides insights into the genetic and biochemical bases of rice metabolome variation and can be used as a powerful complementary tool to classical phenotypic trait mapping for rice improvement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NCII design (North Carolina mating design II) has been widely applied in studies of combining ability and heterosis. The objective of our research was to estimate how different base populations, sample sizes, testcross numbers and heritability influence QTL analyses of combining ability and heterosis. A series of Monte Carlo simulation experiments with QTL mapping were then conducted for the base population performance, testcross population phenotypic values and the general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and Hmp (midparental heterosis) datasets. The results indicated that: (i) increasing the number of testers did not necessarily enhance the QTL detection power for GCA, but it was significantly related to the QTL effect. (ii) The QTLs identified in the base population may be different from those from GCA dataset. Similar phenomena can be seen from QTL detected in SCA and Hmp datasets. (iii) The QTL detection power for GCA ranked in the order of DH(RIL) based > F2 based > BC based NCII design, when the heritability was low. The recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (or DHs) allows more recombination and offers higher mapping resolution than other populations. Further, their testcross progeny can be repeatedly generated and phenotyped. Thus, RIL based (or DH based) NCII design was highly recommend for combining ability QTL analysis. Our results expect to facilitate selecting elite parental lines with high combining ability and for geneticists to research the genetic basis of combining ability.
Journal of Genetics 12/2013; 92(3):529-43. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant metabolites are crucial for both plant life and human nutrition. Despite recent advance in metabolomics, the genetic control of plant metabolome remains largely unknown. Here, we performed a genetic analysis of the rice metabolome that provided over 2,800 highly resolved metabolic quantitative trait loci for 900 metabolites. Distinct and overlapping accumulation patterns of metabolites were observed and complex genetic regulation of metabolism was revealed in two different tissues. We associated 24 candidate genes to various metabolic quantitative trait loci by data mining, including ones regulating important morphological traits and biological processes. The corresponding pathways were reconstructed by updating in vivo functions of previously identified and newly assigned genes. This study demonstrated a powerful tool and provided a vast amount of high-quality data for understanding the plasticity of plant metabolome, which may help bridge the gap between the genome and phenome.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The size of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) grains has been altered by both domestication and artificial selection over the course of evolutionary history. Several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain size have been cloned in the past 10 yr. To explore the natural variation in these QTLs, resequencing of grain width and weight 2 (GW2), grain size 5 (GS5) and QTL for seed width 5 (qSW5) and genotyping of grain size 3 (GS3) were performed in the germplasms of 127 varieties of rice (O. sativa) and 10-15 samples of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon). Ten, 10 and 15 haplotypes were observed for GW2, GS5 and qSW5. qSW5 and GS3 had the strongest effects on grain size, which have been widely utilized in rice production, whereas GW2 and GS5 showed more modest effects. GS5 showed small sequence variations in O. sativa germplasm and that of its progenitor O. rufipogon. qSW5 exhibited the highest level of nucleotide diversity. GW2 showed signs of purifying selection. The four grain size genes experienced different selection intensities depending on their genetic effects. In the indica population, linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected among GS3, qSW5 and GS5. The substantial genetic variation in these four genes provides the flexibility needed to design various rice grain shapes. These findings provide insight into the evolutionary features of grain size genes in rice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LC-MS-based metabolomics has been facilitated by the construction of MS2 spectral tag (MS2T) library from the total scan ESI MS/MS data, and the development of widely targeted metabolomics method using MS/MS data gathered from authentic standards. In this report, a novel strategy called stepwise multiple ion monitoring-enhanced product ions (stepwise MIM-EPI) was developed to construct the MS2T library, in which stepwise MIM was used as survey scans to trigger the acquisition of EPI. A total number of 698 (almost) non-redundant metabolites with MS(2) spectra were obtained, of which 135 metabolites were identified/annotated. Integrating the data gathered from our MS2T library and other available multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) information, a widely targeted metabolomics method was developed to quantify 277 metabolites, including some phytohormones. Evaluation the dehydration responses and natural variations of these metabolites in rice leaf not only suggested the coordinated regulation of ABA with metabolites such as serotonin derivative(s), polyamine conjugates under drought stress, and also revealed some C-glycosylated flavones as the potential markers for the discrimination of indica and japonica rice subspecies. The new MS2T library construction and widely targeted metabolomics strategy could be used as a tool for rice functional genomics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seed shape in rice (Oryza sativa) is an important factor that determines grain appearance, cooking quality and grain yield. Here, we report a major quantitative trait locus qSS7 on the long arm of chromosome 7 for seed length, seed width and the ratio of seed length to width, identified using a segregating population derived from a cross between an indica variety Zhenshan97 and a chromosomal segment substitution line of a japonica variety Cypress within the genetic background of Zhenshan97. The Cypress allele at qSS7 contributes to an increase in seed length and the ratio of length to width, but a decrease in seed width, without significantly changing seed weight, plant height, heading date or number of spikelets per panicle. Using a large F(2) population generated from a substitution line that carries only a heterozygous single segment surrounding qSS7, we delimited the QTL to a 23-kb region containing two annotated genes. Progeny testing of the informative recombinants suggested that this qSS7 region is a composite QTL in which at least two genes contribute to seed length and width. Sequence comparison and expression analysis of two probable candidate genes revealed differences between the parental lines. These results will facilitate cloning of the gene(s) underlying qSS7 as well as marker-assisted transfer of desirable genes for seed shape in rice improvement.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 08/2012; · 3.66 Impact Factor