E Freireich

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States

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Publications (31)170.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. We conducted a Phase 1 study of the anti-CD33 immunotoxin HUM-195/rGel in patients with relapsed, refractory myeloid leukemias. Study design. Twenty-eight patients received the construct intravenously at four dose levels (12, 18, 28 and 40 mg/m2/course) in a 3+3 study design. Results. The dose limiting toxicity was infusion-related allergic reaction including hypoxia and hypotension. The 28 mg/m2 total dose was considered the maximally tolerated dose. Four patients demonstrated a reduction in peripheral blood blasts of at least 50%. Three patients treated at the 10, 12 and 28 mg/m2 showed a 38-50% reduction in bone marrow blasts. There was normalization of platelets in one patient treated at 40 mg/m2. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that the highest achieved blood levels were 200-300 ng/ml which cleared with a half-life of ~20 hrs. Antigenicity was low with one patient at the 12 mg/m2 dose and one patient at the 18 mg/m2 dose(2/23, <10 %) developing antibodies to the rGel component after 28 days. Conclusions. HUM-195/r-Gel can be safely administered in a multi-dose cycle to patients with advanced myeloid malignancies and warrants further investigation.
    Haematologica 08/2012; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Relapse after 5 years of complete remission (CR) is uncommon in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Among 2347 patients seen between 1980 and 2008, 1366 achieved CR; 942 relapsed. Eleven (1.16% of all relapses) relapsed after a CR of >5 years. The median age was 66 years (range, 37-79). Initial therapy was cytarabine plus anthracycline in six, amsacrine-based in three, and other in two. The median CR1 duration was 81 months (range, 60-137). At relapse, the karyotype was different from the initial finding in five of eight (63%) patients with available data. Treatment for relapse included cytarabine with anthracycline in eight, and other in three patients, with a second CR (CR2) achieved in four (36%). The median CR2 duration was 1 month (range, 0-37), and median survival after relapse was 6.4 months (range, 1-39). Late relapses in AML are infrequent, with poor response to therapy. Karyotype at relapse is frequently different, raising the question of second AML versus relapse with the original clone.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 03/2010; 51(5):778-82. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is an inorganic arsenic derivative that is highly effective against PML-RARalpha-positive leukemia but much less against other hematological malignancies. We synthesized an organic arsenic derivative (OAD), S-dimethylarsino-thiosuccinic acid (MER1), which offers a superior toxicity profile and comparable in vitro activity relative to ATO. In Swiss Webster mice, maximally-tolerated cumulative dose of MER1 when given i.v. for 5 days was 100 mg/kg/d. We demonstrated that MER1 induced apoptosis and dose- and time-dependent inhibition of survival and growth in a panel of myeloid leukemia cell lines. Unlike ATO, this activity was independent of PML-RARalpha status and was not associated with induction of myeloid maturation. In NB4 and HL60 cells, MER1 and ATO induced caspase activation and dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. At the same time, MER1 induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and proved to be more potent than ATO at inducing apoptosis. ROS generation and intracellular glutathione levels were key modulators of MER1-induced cytotoxicity as evidenced by abrogation of apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cell lines pretreated with the disulfide bond-reducing agent dithiothreitol or the radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Collectively, these data indicate that MER1 induces apoptosis in PML-RARalpha-positive and -negative myeloid leukemia cells by enhancing oxidative stress. This agent, therefore, combines low in vivo toxicity with formidable in vitro pro-apoptotic ROS-mediated activity, and may represent a novel OAD suitable for clinical development against a variety of hematological malignancies.
    Investigational New Drugs 06/2009; 28(4):402-12. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inorganic arsenic derivative arsenic trioxide (ATO) has proven to be highly efficacious in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and has been associated with complete cytogenetic response in most treated patients diagnosed with this disease. This is due to ATO's direct effect on PML-RARalpha oncoprotein patognomonic for APL. ATO has shown moderate activity against certain other hematologic and solid organ malignancies but is also associated with significant toxicities, especially when used at higher doses. The development of orally bioavailable organic arsenic derivatives (OAD) offering improved toxicity profiles and better efficacy may expand the use of arsenic derivatives in hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. The favorable in vivo carcinostatic activity of S-dimethylarsino-thioglucose, the first OAD synthesized in murine leukemia models by our group in 1975, set the stage for our efforts to develop OADs. Unfortunately, the program remained dormant for almost two decades. The success of ATO in APL in the late 1990s re-ignited the interest in the use of OADs in cancer chemotherapy. This review describes the chemical development of OADs and summarizes the clinical development of a promising lead compound, Darinaparsin (ZIO-101; SGLU; S-dimethylarsino-glutathione), for the treatment of a variety of cancers.
    Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry 01/2009; 8(8):904-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The inorganic arsenic derivative arsenic trioxide (ATO) has proven to be highly efficacious in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and has been associated with complete cytogenetic response in most treated patients diagnosed with this disease. This is due to ATO's direct effect on PML-RARα oncoprotein patognomonic for APL. ATO has shown moderate activity against certain other hematologic and solid organ malignancies but is also associated with significant toxicities, especially when used at higher doses. The development of orally bioavailable organic arsenic derivatives (OAD) offering improved toxicity profiles and better efficacy may expand the use of arsenic derivatives in hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. The favorable in vivo carcinostatic activity of S-dimethylarsino-thioglucose, the first OAD synthesized in murine leukemia models by our group in 1975, set the stage for our efforts to develop OADs. Unfortunately, the program remained dormant for almost two decades. The success of ATO in APL in the late 1990s re-ignited the interest in the use of OADs in cancer chemotherapy. This review describes the chemical development of OADs and summarizes the clinical development of a promising lead compound, Darinaparsin (ZIO-101; SGLU; S-dimethylarsino-glutathione), for the treatment of a variety of cancers.
    Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Cancer Agents) 11/2008; 8(8):904-909. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been underscored over the last decade due to its efficacy against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a disease in which this agent has been associated with complete hematologic and molecular remission rates of 87% and 83%, respectively. The different molecular mechanisms of action of As2O3 suggest its applicability in hematologic malignancies other than APL. However, responses obtained thus far have consisted of improvements in signs and symptoms without the elimination of a given disease. Toxicities derived from As2O3 are significant but manageable and reversible. However, the risk/benefit ratio of As2O3 in hematologic malignancies other than APL is still unclear. The development of new generations of orally bioavailable inorganic, as well as new organic, arsenic compounds with improved toxicity profiles may bolster the therapeutic application of arsenic derivatives in hematologic malignancies such as leukemia, multiple myeloma and myelodysplastic syndromes.
    Hematological Oncology 01/2007; 24(4):181-8. · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2006; 4(12):133-133.
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    ABSTRACT: Using loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and X-chromosome inactivation, we compared peripheral blood (PB) plasma with bone marrow (BM) cells in detecting genomic abnormalities in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We detected LOH in the PB plasma of all 45 patients who had cytogenetically documented chromosomal abnormalities (5q-, 7-, +8, 17-, or 20-). BM cells from the same patients showed LOH in 89% of patients with MDS and 70% of patients with AML. Posttherapy samples from 16 of these patients demonstrated complete concordance between LOH and cytogenetics in detecting residual disease in 15 samples. Of the 16 samples, 4 showed LOH in plasma with normal BM morphology. Using X-chromosome inactivation, clonality was detectable in 19 (73%) of 26 BM samples, whereas all PB plasma samples showed clonality. These data support the conclusion that PB plasma is enriched by tumor-specific DNA and can replace BM cells for studying genomic abnormalities.
    Blood 05/2004; 103(7):2799-801. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Before the discovery of imatinib mesylate, a Bcr-Abl selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, three agents, interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), cytarabine (ara-C), and homoharringtonine (HHT), had demonstrated activity against Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) as single agents and in couplet combinations. The goals of the current study were to evaluate the efficacy of the triple combination regimen with IFN-alpha, ara-C, and HHT in newly diagnosed Ph-positive CML and to assess the impact of the added sequential therapy with imatinib on overall prognosis. Ninety patients with Ph-positive CML in early chronic phase received the triple regimen. Therapy consisted of 5 million units (MU)/m(2) IFN-alpha subcutaneously (s.c. daily, ara-C 10 mg s.c. daily, and HHT 2.5 mg/m(2) by continuous infusion over 24 hours daily x 5 every month. After a median duration of 16.5 months of therapy, 78 patients had their therapy changed to 400 mg orally administered imatinib daily. With the triple regimen, 85 patients (94%) achieved complete hematologic response and 67 patients (74%) had a cytogenetic response (Ph suppression to < or = 90%) which was complete (Ph 0%) in 20 patients (22%) and major in 42 patients (46%). Myelosuppression was significant, resulting in considerable reductions in the dose schedules. After 12 months of therapy, the median IFN-alpha dose was 1.6 MU/m(2) daily, the median ara-C dose was 1.85 mg daily, and the median number of HHT days was 2 every month. Only three patients developed blastic phase while receiving the triple regimen. With the change to imatinib therapy, currently 57 patients (63%) are in complete cytogenetic response and 69 patients (76%) in major cytogenetic response. With a median follow-up time of 46 months for the total study group, the estimated 5-year survival rate was 88%, and only 8 patients (9%) to date have developed blastic phase. The sequence of IFN-alpha, ara-C, and HHT followed by imatinib (imposed by the discovery of the latter drug) resulted in an estimated 5-year survival rate of 88%. This finding suggests that imatinib combination regimens may improve the prognosis in CML.
    Cancer 09/2003; 98(5):888-93. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic options in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (Ph-positive CML) in chronic phase include allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and treatments other than allogeneic SCT. The choice of therapy often depends on the mortality risk of allogeneic SCT. Delaying SCT until the disease demonstrates resistance to other strategies (e.g., imatinib mesylate or interferon-alpha) entails the risk of the development of a sudden blastic phase, which may not permit enough time to perform a SCT. The current study was performed to define the incidence and patterns of sudden-onset blastic-phase CML in relation to the risk inherent in delaying allogeneic SCT. Of a study group of 1286 patients who were referred in early chronic-phase CML between 1981-2001 and who received therapies other than allogeneic SCT, 1093 patients had regular follow-up at the study institution. A sudden onset of blastic phase was defined as having its onset within 3 months from a previously documented complete hematologic response. Among the 1093 patients, 183 patients developed blastic-phase disease, which was of sudden onset in 46 patients (25%; 4% of the total). The incidence of sudden blastic phase was 0.4% in the first year, 1.8% in the second year, and 2.6% in the third year. Patients with sudden blastic-phase disease were found to have more often low-risk features at the time of presentation, including low incidences of blasts and thrombocytosis. Sudden blastic-phase CML was found to be associated with a higher incidence of lymphoid blastic morphology (67% vs. 22%; P < 0.0001), which resulted in a higher response rate to blastic-phase therapy (70% vs. 29%; P < 0.0001) and significantly longer survival from the onset of blastic-phase disease (median of 12 months vs. 6 months; P < 0.01). Twenty-four of the 42 patients with sudden blastic-phase disease who were treated at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center were able to undergo allogeneic SCT in second chronic phrase (n = 13) or transformed phase (n = 11); at the time of last follow-up, 6 patients were alive without evidence of disease at a median of 18 months. The low rates of sudden blastic transformation in the first 3 years of the course of disease for CML and the salvage rate of these patients with allogeneic SCT should be considered in relation to the transplantation mortality in patients with early chronic-phase disease and the early promising results with imatinib mesylate therapy.
    Cancer 07/2003; 98(1):81-5. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T) is a subgroup of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in which the bone marrow blast count ranges from 20% to 30%. The recently proposed World Health Organization Classification of Hematologic Malignancies eliminated this category from MDS by lowering the blast count cutoff for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from 30% to 20%. However, MDS is distinguished from AML by a significant increase in apoptosis. To investigate the difference in apoptosis between RAEB-T, AML, and other categories of MDS, we prospectively analyzed fresh bone marrow samples using the Annexin V and mitochondrial potential assays. There was a significantly higher level of apoptosis in RAEB-T than in AML according to both assays, while no significant differences between RAEB-T and other categories of MDS were noted. The data suggest that RAEB-T is more likely to be an advanced stage of MDS and biologically different from AML.
    Leukemia 12/2002; 16(11):2249-52. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We measured the concentration of CD33 antigen on the surface of cells in 315 bone marrow (BM) samples and 114 corresponding peripheral blood (PB) samples from patients with various leukemias (acute myeloid leukemia [AML], chronic myelogenous leukemia [CML], myeloproliferative disorder [MPD] other than CML, myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS]) and from control subjects. Overall CD33 intensity in total CD33+ cells was significantly higher in BM than in PB. CD33 intensity in total BM CD33+ cells differed significantly with the type of disease. The median number of CD33 molecules per cell was highest in AML, followed by MDS, CML, and control subjects and lowest in MPD. When only CD34+/CD33+ cells were examined, CD33 molecules per cell were highest in CD34+ cells in AML and lowest in MPD (P = .027). Patients with AML or MDS younger than 60 years had significantly higher intensity of CD33 expression on CD34+ cells than patients 60 years or older. Levels of CD33 intensity did not correlate with cytogenetics in patients with AML or MDS. There was no correlation between CD33 intensity and response to therapy or overall survival in 35 patients treated with protocols including Mylotarg. These data demonstrate variation in CD33 intensity between various leukemias.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 11/2002; 118(4):560-6. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent angiogenic factor. The aim of our study was to evaluate plasma HGF levels and their prognostic significance in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique was used to quantify HGF in stored samples obtained before treatment from patients with AML (59 patients) and MDS (42 patients) treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. HGF levels were significantly higher in patients with AML or MDS than in healthy individuals (P < 0.0001). Higher HGF levels in both AML and MDS correlated significantly with white blood cell (P = 0.000001 for both groups) and monocyte counts (P = 0.0004 and 0.003, respectively), and with poor performance status (P = 0.03 and 0.001, respectively). Using Cox proportional hazard model and HGF levels as a continuous variable, plasma levels of HGF correlated with shorter survival of AML (P = 0.001), but not MDS (P = 0.34) patients. No significant correlation was observed between HGF levels and complete remission rate or duration. In the multivariate analysis HGF retained its significance as prognostic factor in AML (P = 0.02), along with age (P = 0.0005).
    Leukemia 09/2001; 15(8):1165-70. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human angiogenin is a potent inducer of angiogenesis. The association between angiogenin and cancer progression and poor outcome in solid tumours has been documented, but its significance in leukaemias has not been evaluated. We evaluated plasma angiogenin levels in 101 previously untreated patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (59 patients) and advanced myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (42 patients). Angiogenin levels were significantly higher in AML and advanced MDS patients than in healthy individuals (P < 0.00001). Angiogenin levels were also significantly higher in advanced MDS than in AML (P = 0.001). Higher levels of angiogenin correlated with prolonged survival periods in both AML and advanced MDS patients (P = 0.02 and 0.01 respectively). We found no correlation between angiogenin plasma level and various patient characteristics, including age, performance status, antecedent haematological disorder, haemoglobin, white blood cell and platelet counts, and poor prognosis cytogenetics. There was no significant correlation between angiogenin level and complete remission rate and duration in AML or advanced MDS patients. In multivariate analysis, angiogenin concentration retained its significance as a prognostic factor in AML (P = 0.03), together with age (P = 0.00007) and haemoglobin (P = 0.03).
    British Journal of Haematology 08/2001; 114(2):290-5. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human angiogenin is a potent inducer of angiogenesis. The association between angiogenin and cancer progression and poor outcome in solid tumours has been documented, but its significance in leukaemias has not been evaluated. We evaluated plasma angiogenin levels in 101 previously untreated patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (59 patients) and advanced myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (42 patients). Angiogenin levels were significantly higher in AML and advanced MDS patients than in healthy individuals (P < 0·00001). Angiogenin levels were also significantly higher in advanced MDS than in AML (P = 0·001). Higher levels of angiogenin correlated with prolonged survival periods in both AML and advanced MDS patients (P = 0·02 and 0·01 respectively). We found no correlation between angiogenin plasma level and various patient characteristics, including age, performance status, antecedent haematological disorder, haemoglobin, white blood cell and platelet counts, and poor prognosis cytogenetics. There was no significant correlation between angiogenin level and complete remission rate and duration in AML or advanced MDS patients. In multivariate analysis, angiogenin concentration retained its significance as a prognostic factor in AML (P = 0·03), together with age (P = 0·00007) and haemoglobin (P = 0·03).
    British Journal of Haematology 07/2001; 114(2):290 - 295. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To document the characteristics of patients with major breakpoint cluster region (M-bcr) rearrangement-negative chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The hematopathologist, who was blinded to patients' molecular status, reviewed the referral bone marrows and peripheral-blood smears from 26 patients with Philadelphia (Ph) translocation-negative CML who lacked Bcr rearrangement (and other evidence of a Bcr-Abl anomaly) and 14 patients (controls) with chronic-phase Ph-positive CML. Clinical data was ascertained by chart review. Among the 26 M-bcr rearrangement-negative CML patients, three pathologic subtypes emerged: (1) patients indistinguishable from classic CML (n = 9), (2) patients with atypical CML (n = 8), and (3) patients with chronic neutrophilic leukemia (n = 9). Among the 14 patients with Ph-positive CML who were included in the blinded review, 13 were classified as classic CML, and one was classified as atypical CML. The only statistically significant difference between M-bcr rearrangement-negative subgroups was in the proportion of patients having karyotypic abnormalities, an observation common only in patients with atypical CML (P = 0.008). However, the small number of patients in each subgroup limited our ability to differentiate between them. Interferon alfa induced complete hematologic remission in five of 14 patients; four of these remissions lasted more than 5 years. Only one of 26 patients developed blast crisis. The median survival of the 26 patients was 37 months. Patients with M-bcr rearrangement-negative CML fall into three morphologic subgroups. Disease evolution does not generally involve blastic transformation. Instead, patients show progressive organomegaly, leukocytosis, anemia, and thrombocytosis. Some patients in each subgroup can respond to interferon alfa.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/2001; 19(11):2915-26. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been postulated that recurrence of disease in some patients with newly-diagnosed APL induced into CR, and subsequently maintained, with single agent oral ATRA results from the decline in ATRA levels that occurs with repeated dosing. Administration of liposomal ATRA (lipoATRA) circumvents, for perhaps several months, the decrease in ATRA levels and produces CRs in patients with relapsed APL. These findings led us to administer lipoATRA "monotherapy" to patients with newly-diagnosed APL. Patients received lipoATRA (90 mg/m2) for induction and continued to receive the drug, by itself, for 9 months unless 2 PCR tests done within 2-4 weeks of each other at a sensitivity level of 10(-4) were positive at 3 or 6 months from CR date, in which case idarubicin was added to lipoATRA. If the PCR test was negative 9 months from CR date, treatment stopped. 34 patients were enrolled, of whom 79% entered CR. The PCR test at time of CR was positive in 23/24 patients, but was negative in 24/26 (92%) 3 months later. Of most interest 11 of the 26 evaluable responding patients have remained PCR negative (tested Q 3 months) with a median follow-up of 18 months (range up to 34 months). It is generally believed that this type of result would be unlikely with oral ATRA monotherapy. Recurrence of morphologic APL has occurred in 4 patients, at 5, 6, 12, and 12 months, with a median follow-up time of 18 months in the patients remaining alive in CR. Comparison of this lipoATRA +/- idarubicin trial with oral ATRA + idarubicin induction and idarubicin + POMP maintenance, our previous trial, indicates similar survival, CR, and DFS in CR rates, with a suggestion that lipoATRA may produce lower CR rates and hence shorter survival in patients with high-risk disease (wbc count > 10,000/microliter. Nonetheless, the rates and duration of PCR negativity produced by lipoATRA monotherapy suggest that lipoATRA is a superior anti-APL agent than oral ATRA.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 07/2001; 42(3):309-16. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis has been associated with the growth, dissemination, and metastasis of solid tumors. The aims of this study were to evaluate the vascularity and the levels of angiogenic factors in patients with acute and chronic leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The numbers of blood vessels were measured in 145 bone marrow biopsies and the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), tumor necrosis growth factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), tumor growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were determined in 417 plasma samples. Except for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), vascularity was significantly higher in all leukemias and MDS compared with control bone marrows. The highest number of blood vessels and largest vascular area were found in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). VEGF, bFGF, and HGF plasma levels were significantly increased in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), CML, CLL, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), and MDS. HGF, TNF-alpha, and bFGF but not VEGF were significantly increased in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). TNF-alpha levels were significantly increased in all diseases except for AML and MDS. No significant increase was found in TGF-alpha in any leukemia or MDS. The highest plasma levels of VEGF were in CML, and the highest plasma levels of bFGF were in CLL. The levels of HGF were highest in CMML. These data suggest that vascularity and angiogenic factors are increased in leukemias and MDS and may play a role in the leukemogenic process.
    Blood 10/2000; 96(6):2240-5. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclin D1 (CyD1)/BCL1 (PRAD1) is expressed at high levels in almost all cases of mantle cell leukemia/lymphoma (MCL) and in rare cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The CyD1/BCL1 protein plays an important role in the progression of cells through the G1 phase of cell cycle. Most of the CyD1/BCL1 protein expression studies are performed using immunohistochemistry. We used a sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) to quantify CyD1 protein expression in 199 patients with CLL. Of these 137 patients were previously untreated with the rest having had standard chemotherapeutic regimens including alkylating agents and fludarabine before being referred to our center. Median white cell count in these patients was 49x10(3) /microl (range 3.0-438.5x10(3)/microl), hemoglobin level 13.1 g/dl (range 5.2-17.3 g/dl), platelet count 157x10(3) /microl (range 10-377x10(3) /microl), age 58 (range 26-89), and beta2-microglobulin 2.75 mg/dl (range 1.1-14.3). The median radioactivity (CPM) of mononuclear cells obtained from 56 normal individuals was assigned a value of 1. There was no significant variation in CyD1 levels among normal individuals (SD=0. 12). While most CyD1 levels in MCL varied from 6.5 to 15.6, the median CyD1/BCL1 in CLL was 1.4 with 75th percentile under 2.12. Rare CLL cases (3.5%) showed levels between 4 and 8.83. When divided into two groups at the median level, patients with higher CyD1/BCL1 expression had shorter survival (P = 0.03). This remained true when applied only to the previously untreated patients (P=0.05). Despite the relatively low expression, the CyD1/BCL1 levels in univariate analysis were as good or better predictors of survival than Binet (P = 0.03) or Rai (P = 0.05) staging. Furthermore, CyD1/BCL1 levels correlated with serum beta2-microglobulin (P = 0.001), white blood cell count (P = 0.004) and hemoglobin levels at the time of collection (P = 0.0003) but not with lymphocyte count, platelet count or age. The data demonstrate that CyD1/BCL1 is likely to play a significant role in the biology of CLL and can be used as a prognostic indicator. Further studies to clarify the role of CyD1 in the biology of CLL and its value as a prognostic indicator at the time of diagnosis are encouraged.
    Leukemia Research 07/2000; 24(6):469-74. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the ATM gene (mutated in ataxia telangiectasia [AT] patients) and ATM protein deficiency occur in 14% and 34%, respectively, of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). ATM protein deficiency also is associated with aggressive disease and worse patient survival. Considering the aberrations in the ATM gene in CLL and the high rate of incidence of lymphoid neoplasias in AT patients, the authors investigated its incidence rate and significance in patients with adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Samples from 36 adults with ALL were analyzed for LOH and homozygous deletion (HD) using a panel of three microsatellite markers located at the ATM gene (D11S2179), the MLL gene (D11S1356), and the BCL1 gene (D11S987) loci. These markers are located within the 11q13-q23 locus. Of the 36 informative cases, 10 (28%) showed deletions (7 LOH and 3 HDs) at the D11S2179 marker. In two patients, the deletions were extended to the MLL gene locus. These deletions were submicroscopic because only 3% (1 of 36) of patients showed abnormalities involving 11q23 using cytogenetic studies. The authors also estimated the levels of ATM protein in 15 ALL patients and 12 healthy volunteers by radioimmunoassay. The ATM protein levels in cases with LOH at the ATM gene were between 15-50% of those from normal bone marrow. In contrast to CLL patients, patients with LOH or HD at the ATM gene locus showed better survival compared with patients without ATM gene deletions (P = 0.003). LOH of the ATM gene and protein deficiency are common in adult ALL, are not demonstrated at the cytogenetic level, and are associated with a favorable prognosis. The authors speculate that ATM deficiency may increase the sensitivity of leukemic blasts to the chemotherapy used during induction and after disease remission in patients with adult ALL. The relatively high frequency of deletion of the D11S2179 marker compared with the D11S1356 marker suggests that ATM is the target gene of the deletion at the 11q23 locus, and that such deletions may play a role in the pathogenesis of ALL.
    Cancer 04/2000; 88(5):1057-62. · 5.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

970 Citations
170.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2004
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • • Department of Leukemia
      • • Department of Hematopathology
      • • Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Houston, TX, United States