[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of molecular detection techniques (nested PCR) against mycobacterial culture to detect Mycobacterium bovis DNA in a set of 687 experimentally inoculated environmental substrates (hay, soil, corn, water) exposed to natural weather conditions in Michigan. Four replicates of each substrate were used: half were autoclaved for sterilization; all were inoculated with 50,000 CFU of M. bovis isolated from Michigan livestock; and all placed in outdoor enclosures, with half under shade and the other half exposed to direct sunlight. Samples were tested for the presence of M. bovis during one 12-month period with monthly sample testing, and during three 12-week periods (winter, spring, summer) with weekly sample testing. Samples were subjected to mycobacterial culture for isolation of M. bovis, and nested PCR using two primer sets targeting the IS 6110 for detecting M. bovis DNA.Of 128 samples tested from the 12-month period, M. bovis was not detectable by culture after two months, but M. bovis DNA was detectable by PCR for at least seven months. Of the 559 samples tested during the 12-week periods, PCR detected M. bovis DNA up to 88 days for all sample types. There were no significant differences in detection of M. bovis between shade/sun samples or sterile/unsterilized samples, regardless of detection method (PCR or culture). For use in epidemiologic investigations, the PCR assay was more rapid, was not hindered by contaminating organisms, and detected M. bovis DNA in environment samples much longer after initial contamination than mycobacterial culture.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 08/2013; · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report an outbreak of severe respiratory disease associated with a novel Mycoplasma species in ferrets. During 2009-2012, a respiratory disease characterized by nonproductive coughing affected ≈8,000 ferrets, 6-8 weeks of age, which had been imported from a breeding facility in Canada. Almost 95% became ill, but almost none died. Treatments temporarily decreased all clinical signs except cough. Postmortem examinations of euthanized ferrets revealed bronchointerstitial pneumonia with prominent hyperplasia of bronchiole-associated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis with polyclonal antibody against Mycoplasma bovis demonstrated intense staining along the bronchiolar brush border. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 12 affected ferrets yielded fast-growing, glucose-fermenting mycoplasmas. Nucleic acid sequence analysis of PCR-derived amplicons from portions of the 16S rDNA and RNA polymerase B genes failed to identify the mycoplasmas but showed that they were most similar to M. molare and M. lagogenitalium. These findings indicate a causal association between the novel Mycoplasma species and the newly recognized pulmonary disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical and diagnostic features of 155 cats with urinary tract infection (UTI) and 186 controls with negative urine culture/s were characterized retrospectively (signalment, clinical signs, urinalysis, urine culture, concurrent diseases, lower urinary tract diagnostic/therapeutic procedures). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with UTI. Cats of all ages were affected by UTI with no sex/breed predisposition. Lower urinary tract signs were absent in 35.5% of cats with UTI. Pyuria and bacteriuria had sensitivities of 52.9% and 72.9%, and specificities of 85.5% and 67.7% for detection of UTI, respectively. Risk factors significantly associated with increased odds of UTI were urinary incontinence [odds ratio (OR) = 10.78, P = 0.0331], transurethral procedures (OR = 8.37, P <0.0001), urogenital surgery (OR = 6.03, P = 0.0385), gastrointestinal disease (OR = 2.62, P = 0.0331), decreased body weight (OR = 0.81, P = 0.0259) and decreased urine specific gravity (OR = 0.78, P = 0.0055). Whilst not independently significant, renal disease and lower urinary tract anatomic abnormalities improved statistical model performance and contributed to UTI.
Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 06/2012; 14(10):729-40.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reisolation of Mycobacterium bovis from inoculated substrates was used to follow the persistence of viable M. bovis bacteria exposed to natural weather conditions over a 12-month period. Environmental factors were recorded continuously, and factors affecting M. bovis persistence (i.e., temperature, season, and substrate) were studied using survival analysis and Cox's proportional hazards regression. Persistence of M. bovis in the environment was significantly shorter in the spring/summer season, characterized by the highest average daily temperatures over the 12-month period. M. bovis persisted up to 88 days in soil, 58 days in water and hay, and 43 days on corn. These studies demonstrate that M. bovis bacteria persist long enough to represent a risk of exposure for cattle and/or wildlife and strengthen evidence that suggests cattle farm biosecurity and efforts to eliminate supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer will decrease the risk of bovine TB transmission among and between cattle and deer populations.
Veterinary medicine international. 01/2011; 2011:765430.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An intervention study was conducted to determine whether discontinuing the feeding of milk replacer medicated with oxytetracycline and neomycin to preweaned calves reduced antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Results demonstrated that the intervention did reduce multidrug resistance in these bacteria but that other factors also influenced multidrug resistance.
Journal of clinical microbiology 10/2009; 47(12):4109-12. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amikacin sulfate for equine clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and characterize the initial kill and duration of the postantibiotic effect (PAE) for selected strains.
Isolates of MRSA (n=35) had their amikacin MIC determined using the E-test agar diffusion method. Two isolates with MICs>256 microg/mL limit were further characterized using broth macrodilution. Six distinct isolates with amikacin MICs of 32, 48, 128 (2 isolates) and 500 (2 isolates) microg/mL had PAE determinations made over a range of amikacin concentrations from 31.25-1000 microg/mL using standard culture-based techniques.
Median MIC of the 35 isolates was 32 microg/mL (range 2 to >256 microg/mL). Mean PAE of selected MRSA strains had an overall mean (all amikacin doses) of 3.43 hours (range 0.10-9.57 hours). PAE for MRSA exposed to amikacin at 1000 microg/mL was 6.18 hours (range 3.30-9.57 hours), significantly longer than that for all other concentrations (P<.0001). There was no statistically significant effect of isolate MIC on PAE.
Isolates had a wide range of MIC; however, growth of all 6 selected strains were inhibited within the range of concentrations tested, including 2 strains with MICs of 500 microg/mL. PAE duration was not influenced by the MIC of amikacin but was significantly longer with treatment at 1000 microg/mL than at lower concentrations.
Clinical isolates of MRSA are susceptible to amikacin at concentrations achieved by regional perfusion: however, the modest duration of PAE observed suggest that further laboratory and in vivo evaluation be conducted before recommending the technique for clinical use.
Veterinary Surgery 08/2009; 38(5):664-9. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether equine serum administered via a simulated subpalpebral lavage system (SPL) supports proliferation of Streptococcus zooepidemicus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the tubing.
A sterile i.v. catheter with injection cap was inserted into sterilized silicone tubing (Mila). To mimic an SPL within the dorsal conjunctival fornix, the tubing was secured to an elevated platform. The tip of the tubing extended from the platform into a vial containing culture medium just inoculated with approximately 1.5 x 10(8) CFU/mL P. aeruginosa or S. zooepidemicus. To mimic administration of medication, the tubing was infused twice daily with equine serum, sterile saline (negative control), or culture medium (positive control) followed by air. Incubation was at 25 or 37 degrees C. At 24, 48, and 72 h postinoculation, samples were obtained for bacterial culture from one simulated SPL for each experimental variant. The following sections were cultured: (i) tubing tip previously submerged in the inoculated culture medium, (ii) tubing mid-section, and (iii) tip of the i.v. catheter. The experiment was performed in triplicate.
Streptococcus zooepidemicus or P. aeruginosa were isolated from 100% of the tubing tips. Streptococcus zooepidemicus was isolated from one mid-section flushed with culture medium incubated at 37 degrees C. All other samples were negative for growth of the inoculated agents.
Streptococcus zooepidemicus and P. aeruginosa did not proliferate within silicone tubing infused with equine serum. These data suggest that topical serum can be safely administered through a superiorly placed SPL in clinical cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A randomized intervention study was conducted to determine if discontinuing use of calf milk replacer medicated with oxytetracycline results in increased tetracycline susceptibility in Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli in dairy calves over a 12-month period. Dairy herds with enteric bacteria with known low tetracycline susceptibility were enrolled for the study. Fecal samples from preweaned calves and environmental samples were collected from eight dairy herds in Michigan and New York State. Samples were collected monthly for 3 months prior to and 12 months after four of the eight herds discontinued medicated milk replacer feeding. Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. and E. coli were isolated, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using automated broth microdilution. A total of 804 intervention and 1,026 control calf fecal samples and 122 intervention and 136 control environmental samples were collected for testing. No differences in owner-reported morbidity and mortality between treatment groups were seen. The intervention was significantly associated with increasing tetracycline susceptibility in E. coli and Salmonella. Tetracycline susceptibility increased in intervention herds for the first 3 months after switching to nonmedicated milk replacer but declined in subsequent months. Discontinuing the practice of feeding medicated milk replacers to calves increased tetracycline susceptibility in E. coli and Salmonella on dairy farms, without increasing cattle disease, but declines in effectiveness after 3 months suggest that other factors contribute to decreasing susceptibility on the farm.
Journal of clinical microbiology 07/2008; 46(6):1968-77. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium bovis has a wide host range that includes several wildlife species, and this can hamper attempts to eradicate bovine tuberculosis from livestock. The purpose of this study was to determine if common rodent species, namely meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), house mice (Mus musculus), and Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), that inhabit the bovine tuberculosis endemic area of Michigan, can be experimentally infected with M. bovis. The objectives of the study were: 1) to determine if these rodent species can be infected, and if so, to document attendant pathologic processes/pathogenesis; 2) to detect any fecal shedding of M. bovis; and 3) to evaluate the relative susceptibility of the three species to M. bovis infection. For each species (n=36) there were two treatment (n=12/group) and one or two control groups depending on species (n=6-12/group); the maximum study duration was 60 days. The meadow vole treatments consisted of high dose inocula that were given by oral or intranasal routes, whereas the house mice and Norway rats were given only oral inocula at either a high or low dose. Of the three species, meadow voles were most susceptible to M. bovis infection. Upon intranasal inoculation, all 12 voles were infected as determined by gross and microscopic lesions and culture of M. bovis from tissue and feces. Seven of the 12 meadow voles inoculated orally were infected. House mice also were susceptible; M. bovis was isolated from 14 of 24 animals. Only one Norway rat in the high dose treatment group was positive by culture and this was the only animal from which minimal attendant lesions were observed. Results of this study indicate that meadow voles and house mice can be infected with M. bovis and might serve as spillover hosts. Concerted efforts should, therefore, be made to reduce or eliminate these rodents on premises where M. bovis-infected livestock are present.
Journal of wildlife diseases 08/2007; 43(3):353-65. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of antibodies against 6 Leptospira serovars and determine risk factors associated with positive Leptospira titers in healthy client-owned dogs in Michigan.
1,241 healthy dogs at least 4 months of age.
Dogs were examined by veterinarians at private practices. Vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs were enrolled in the study, which occurred prior to the availability of a 4-serovar (Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona) Leptospira vaccine. Sera were tested by use of the microscopic agglutination test to determine antibody titers against Leptospira serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information about each dog to identify risk factors associated with seropositive status.
309 of 1,241 (24.9%) dogs had antibody titers against at least 1 of the 6 Leptospira serovars, which suggested exposure to Leptospira spp. Prevalence of antibodies was highest to serovar Grippotyphosa, followed by Bratislava, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. Age, travel outside Michigan, exercise outside fenced yards, and exposure to livestock and wildlife were significant risk factors for positive titers.
Among healthy dogs from the lower peninsula of Michigan, > 20% have antibodies against leptospiral serovars historically considered uncommon but more recently incriminated as causing clinical canine leptospirosis. Wildlife and livestock may be of increasing importance as reservoirs for canine leptospirosis as urbanization continues to occur. Expanded vaccination strategies may partially mitigate these trends.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 07/2007; 230(11):1657-64. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although avian species are known to be susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium spp. organisms, much remains unknown about the susceptibility of birds to infection with M. bovis. The objective of this current study was to determine if wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) can be infected with M. bovis when inoculated by the oral or intratracheal route. Six turkeys were orally inoculated and another six were inoculated via the trachea with a high dose of M. bovis, 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml. Six turkeys were sham-inoculated controls. Two turkeys from each treatment group were sacrificed on days 30, 60, and 90 postinoculation. There were no gross or microscopic lesions consistent with mycobacteriosis in the 23 inoculated turkeys over the 90-day duration of this study. Fecal cultures were also consistently negative for M. bovis when sampled before inoculation and on days 1, 30, and 60 postinoculation. Two intratracheally inoculated turkeys were positive for M. bovis in visceral tissues at 30 days postinoculation. However, this finding was only indicative of passive persistence of mycobacteria in the tissues and not of infection, as there were no attendant lesions or clinical compromise to support infection. Thus, it can be concluded that young wild turkeys are resistant to infection with M. bovis and, therefore, pose minimal threat as reservoir or spillover hosts for this organism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate gross, histopathologic, and serum biochemical findings caused by Leptospira interrogans serovars pomona and bratislava inoculated in dogs.
Twenty-seven 8-week-old female Beagles.
Dogs were randomly assigned to challenge or control groups. Challenge groups were conjunctivally inoculated on 3 successive days with 5 x 10(7) L interrogans serovar pomona (n = 12) or serovar bratislava (11). Clinical signs were recorded throughout the experiment, and clinical pathology assays, bacteriologic culture, and necropsies (6 or 7 dogs necropsied at each time point) were done on postinoculation day (PID) 7, 10, 14, and 20.
Infection could not be confirmed in any serovar bratislava-inoculated dog, and control dogs remained healthy throughout the experiment. Positive culture and fluorescent antibody test results were confirmed in 11 of 12 serovar pomona-inoculated dogs. Fever and lethargy starting at PID 7 were the most common clinical signs in serovar pomona-infected dogs. On day 10, gross lesions included multifocal renal and pulmonary hemorrhage and perirenal edema. Serovar pomona-inoculated dogs had histopathologic lesions including hepatitis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia at PID 7, 10, 14, and 20. Increases in BUN, anion gap, and bilirubin concentration occurred on PID 10, 14, and 20. Platelet counts in dogs with positive results of bacteriologic culture were decreased from baseline values on PID 10, 12, and 14.
Conjunctival inoculation with L interrogans serovar pomona resulted in a high rate of infection with concomitant hemorrhagic and inflammatory lesions of the kidneys, liver, and lungs.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 11/2005; 66(10):1816-22. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) are susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium bovis by either oral or intratracheal inoculation and to assess their potential role in the spread of bovine tuberculosis. Six ducks were orally inoculated with 1.0 x 10(5) colony-forming units of M. bovis, six ducks were intratracheally inoculated with the same dose, and six ducks served as sham-inoculated controls. The study length was 90 days postinoculation, with samples of two birds from each group necropsied at 30-day intervals. Both fecal and tissue samples were collected for mycobacterial culture. None of the inoculated ducks shed M. bovis in their feces at any culture point (days 1, 30, and 60) during the study. No evidence of illness or weight loss was present during the course of the study, and only one duck had M. bovis isolated from any tissue, although there were no associated microscopic lesions. Mallard ducks were highly resistant to infection with M. bovis following high-dose inoculation and did not shed the organism in their feces. This study was conducted using high-dose inoculation; therefore, it appears that ducks are unlikely to play any significant role in the transmission of M. bovis between infected and uninfected mammalian hosts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether cattle testing positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis as determined by microbial culture of feces or antibody ELISA were more likely to have false-positive responses on the caudal fold tuberculin (CFT) test or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) assay for Mycobacterium bovis than cattle testing negative for M paratuberculosis.
1043 cattle from 10 herds in Michigan.
Feces and blood samples for plasma were collected from cattle > or =24 months old on the day the CFT test was read. Fecal samples were submitted for microbial culture for M paratuberculosis. Plasma samples were tested for antibody against M paratuberculosis, and IFN-gamma after stimulation with purified protein derivative tuberculin from M bovis or M avium.
Of 1043 cattle, 180 (17.3%) had positive CFT test results (suspects) and 8 (0.8%) had positive IFN-gamma assay results after stimulation with purified protein derivative tuberculin from M bovis. Forty-five (4.3%) and 115 (11.0%) cattle tested positive for M paratuberculosis as determined by microbial culture of feces and antibody ELISA, respectively. Cattle with positive responses for M paratuberculosis appeared to have an increased likelihood of false-positive results on the CFT test, although this association was not significant.
No significant association was detected among cattle testing positive for M paratuberculosis as determined by microbial culture of feces and antibody ELISA and positive CFT test and IFN-gamma assay results for M bovis.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 02/2005; 226(3):429-35. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between cattle-level factors and environmental samples with the isolation of Salmonella from dairy farms in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and New York. The study farms included 129 conventional and organic farms enrolled without regard to previous history of Salmonella infection. Herds were sampled at two-month intervals over a one-year period. Cattle groups more likely to be associated with Salmonella shedding (compared to preweaned calves) were cows designated as sick by farm personnel (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.7, 3.7), cows within 14 days of calving (OR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.8), and cows due for culling within 14 days (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.4). State of origin was also associated with the presence of Salmonella in samples from cattle and the farm environment; Midwestern states were more likely to have Salmonella-positive samples compared to New York. Cattle treated with antimicrobials within 14 days of sampling were more likely to be Salmonella-negative compared with nontreated cattle (OR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.4). Farms with at least 100 cows were more likely to have Salmonella-positive cattle compared with smaller farms (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 4.6). Season was associated with Salmonella shedding in cattle, and compared to the winter period, summer had the highest odds for shedding (OR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.7), followed by fall (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.1) and spring (OR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.6). Environmental samples significantly more likely to be Salmonella-positive (compared to bulk tank milk) included, in descending order, samples from sick pens (OR=7.4, 95% CI: 3.4, 15.8), manure storage areas (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 3.5, 11.7), maternity pens (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2.2, 8.1), haircoats of cows due to be culled (OR=3.9, 95% CI: 2.2, 7.7), milk filters (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.8, 6.0), cow waterers (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.4, 5.7), calf pens (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.3, 5.3), and bird droppings from cow housing (OR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.4). Parity, stage of lactation, and calf age were not associated with Salmonella shedding.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 02/2005; 67(1):39-53. · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a method for inducing acute leptospirosis in dogs.
31 nine-week-old female Beagles.
Beagles were randomly assigned to 2 inoculation groups or a control group. Dogs were inoculated on 3 successive days by conjunctival instillation of 5 x 10(7) cells of Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa strain 82 (12 dogs) or strain RM 52 (14 dogs). Control dogs (n = 5) were similarly inoculated with sterile leptospiral culture media. Clinical signs, clinicopathologic variables, anti-leptospiral antibody titers, and evidence of leptospires in tissues and body fluids were evaluated. Dogs were euthanatized and necropsied on days 7, 14, 22, or 28 after inoculation or as required because of severe illness.
Clinical signs in infected dogs included conjunctivitis, lethargy, diarrhea, dehydration, vomiting, and icterus. Consistent clinicopathologic alterations included azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, increased anion gap, hyperbilirubinemia, and an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. Leptospires were cultured from the kidneys (11/12), urine (6/9), aqueous humor (9/12), blood (12/12), and liver (12/12) of dogs inoculated with strain 82. Only 3 of 14 dogs became infected after inoculation with strain RM 52. Histopathologic lesions in infected dogs included interstitial nephritis, renal tubular degeneration and necrosis, pulmonary hemorrhage, and hepatic edema and perivasculitis.
Conjunctival exposure to L kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa strain 82 resulted in acute leptospirosis in all inoculated dogs, but only 3 of 14 dogs inoculated with strain RM 52 became infected. This method of infection by serovar grippotyphosa can be used to study the pathogenesis and prevention of leptospirosis in dogs.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 09/2004; 65(8):1100-7. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serotype Newport isolates resistant to at least nine antimicrobials (including extended-spectrum cephalosporins), known as serotype Newport MDR-AmpC isolates, have been rapidly emerging as pathogens in both animals and humans throughout the United States. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is associated with clinical failures, including death, in patients with systemic infections. In this study, 87 Salmonella serotype Newport strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and examined for the presence of class 1 integrons and bla(CMY) genes. Thirty-five PFGE patterns were observed with XbaI, and three of these patterns were indistinguishable among isolates from humans and animals. Fifty-three (60%) Salmonella serotype Newport isolates were identified as serotype Newport MDR-AmpC, including 16 (53%) of 30 human isolates, 27 (93%) of 29 cattle isolates, 7 (70%) of 10 swine isolates, and 3 (30%) of 10 chicken isolates. However, 28 (32%) Salmonella serotype Newport isolates were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. The bla(CMY) gene was present in all serotype Newport MDR-AmpC isolates. Furthermore, the plasmid-mediated bla(CMY) gene was transferable via conjugation to an Escherichia coli strain. The transconjugant showed the MDR-AmpC resistance profile. Thirty-five (40%) of the isolates possessed class 1 integrons. Sequence analyses of the integrons showed that they contained aadA, which confers resistance to streptomycin, or aadA and dhfr, which confer resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. One integron from a swine isolate contained the sat-1 gene, which encodes resistance to streptothricin, an antimicrobial agent that has never been approved for use in the United States. In conclusion, Salmonella serotype Newport MDR-AmpC was commonly identified among Salmonella serotype Newport isolates recovered from humans and food animals. These findings support the possibility of transmission of this organism to humans through the food chain.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/2004; 41(12):5366-71. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Avian mycobacteriosis is an important disease in companion, captive, exotic, and wild birds worldwide. Mycobacterium avium is the most widely distributed and pathogenic organism causing tuberculous lesions in birds. Multiple factors including age, stress, immune status, and preexisting disease determine the pathogenicity of M. avium, and the disease can manifest itself in a variety of forms. Mycobacteriosis can cause severe losses in zoo aviaries, including the loss of rare and endangered bird species. We report a case of systemic avian mycobacteriosis in an adult, free-living male American bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) that presented to the Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health in November 2003.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptospira serovar Hardjo are bacterial pathogens of cattle that cause zoonotic infections of humans. Monovalent serovar Hardjo vaccines protect cattle from serovar Hardjo while pentavalent vaccines do not even though they contain serovar Hardjo organisms. Here, cattle vaccinated with either of two monovalent vaccines had lymphocytes that made interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IgG(1) and IgG(2) antibodies to Hardjo antigen while those from cattle vaccinated with a pentavalent Leptospira vaccine did not. IFN-gamma-producing cells were mainly CD4(+), but included CD8(+) and gamma delta TCR(+) cells. Despite their monovalent composition, those vaccines also induced IFN-gamma responses to serovar Grippotyphosa antigens. Thus, induction of a type 1 immune response is consistent with protective immunity to serovar Hardjo infections.