Reza Jahan

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United States

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Publications (158)893.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Intracranial hemorrhage is the most dreaded complication of neurothrombectomy therapy for acute ischemic stroke. The determinants of intracranial hemorrhage and its impact on clinical course remain incompletely delineated. The purpose of this study is to further investigate the clinical and procedural factors leading to intracranial hemorrhage and to define the clinical impact of different hemorrhagic subtypes. We analyzed data prospectively collected in the Solitaire FR With Intention for Thrombectomy randomized clinical trial. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify independent clinical, imaging, and procedural predictors of any intracranial hemorrhage and of 7 intracranial hemorrhage subtypes. Univariate analysis was used to determine the impact of each of the intracranial hemorrhage subtypes on clinical outcome. Among the 144 enrolled patients, any radiologic intracranial hemorrhage (21.3% versus 38.2%, P = .035), symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (1.1% versus 10.9%, P = .012), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (2.2% versus 12.7%, P = .027) occurred less frequently in the Solitaire FR than in the Merci retriever arms. The most common independent determinant of hemorrhage occurrence was rescue therapy with intra-arterial rtPA, which was associated with any intracranial hemorrhage and 4 subtypes and tended to be used more frequently in the Merci group (10.9% versus 3.4%; P = .09). Among the hemorrhage subtypes, basal ganglionic hemorrhage had the strongest impact on good clinical outcome at 90 days (OR, 0.30; P = .025) and was associated with higher reperfusion, prolonged time to treatment, and rescue therapy with intra-arterial rtPA. Intracranial hemorrhage, especially subarachnoid and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, occurs less frequently with the Solitaire FR than the Merci retriever, in part due to less frequent use of rescue therapy with intra-arterial rtPA. Basal ganglionic hemorrhage strongly affects clinical outcome and is distinctively related to late reperfusion. © 2015 American Society of Neuroradiology.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 08/2015; DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A4482 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Imaging findings can predict outcomes in patients with acute stroke. Relationships between imaging findings and clinical and imaging outcomes in patients randomized to intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator-alone versus tissue-type plasminogen activator plus endovascular therapy (Solitaire device) in the Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke (SWIFT PRIME) study were assessed. We evaluated associations between imaging assessments (baseline mismatch profiles/ischemic core volumes and successful reperfusion) with imaging outcomes (27-hour infarct volume/growth) and clinical outcomes (modified Rankin Scale scores at 90 days). Imaging variables that predict favorable clinical outcomes were assessed in both univariate and multivariate models. One hundred and ninety-five patients were included. Successful reperfusion and infarct volume (assessed at 27 hours) were powerful independent predictors of favorable clinical outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 90 days). Patients with the target mismatch profile at baseline had a higher rate of reperfusion, lesser infarct growth, smaller infarct volumes, and better clinical outcomes in the Solitaire plus tissue-type plasminogen activator (intervention) group than those in the tissue-type plasminogen activator-alone (control) group. Patients with larger mismatch volumes at baseline had a trend toward better treatment response in the intervention group than patients who had smaller (<50 mL) mismatch volumes. Patients who achieved reperfusion had substantially more favorable clinical and imaging outcomes in both the intervention and the control groups. Infarct volume at 27 hours strongly correlated with clinical outcome at 90 days in both treatment groups. SWIFT PRIME patients with the target mismatch profile had a highly favorable response to endovascular therapy on both clinical and imaging outcomes. Both reperfusion and infarct volumes at 27 hours were powerful and independent predictors of 90-day clinical outcomes. URL: Unique identifier: NCT01657461. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Stroke 08/2015; DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.010710 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Faster time from onset to recanalization (OTR) in acute ischemic stroke using endovascular therapy (ET) has been associated with better outcome. However, prior studies were based on less effective first generation devices, and analyzed only dichotomized disability outcomes, which may underestimate the full effect of treatment. In the combined databases of the SWIFT and STAR trials, we identified patients treated with the Solitaire stent-retriever with achievement of substantial reperfusion (TICI 2b-3). Ordinal number needed to treat values were derived by populating joint outcome tables. Among 202 patients treated with ET with TICI 2b-3 reperfusion, mean age was 68 (+/- 13), 62% were female, and median NIHSS was 17 (IQR 14-20). Day 90 mRS outcomes for OTR time intervals ranging from 180 to 480 minutes showed substantial time-related reductions in disability across the entire outcome range. Shorter OTR was associated with improved mean 90-day mRS (1.4 vs. 2.4 vs. 3.3, for OTR groups of 124-240 vs. 241-360 vs. 361-660 minutes, p<0.001). The number of patients identified as benefitting from therapy with shorter OTR were 3-fold (range 1.5-4.7) higher on ordinal compared with dichotomized analysis. For every 15-minute acceleration of OTR, 34 per 1000 treated patients had improved disability outcome. Analysis of disability over the entire outcome range demonstrates a marked effect of shorter time to reperfusion upon improved clinical outcome, substantially higher than binary metrics. For every 5 minutes delay in endovascular reperfusion, 1 out of 100 patients has a worse disability outcome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 American Neurological Association.
    Annals of Neurology 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ana.24474 · 11.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on post-thrombolytic hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke remains controversial. To investigate the association of CMBs with HT and clinical outcomes among patients with large-vessel occlusion strokes treated with mechanical thrombectomy. We analyzed patients with acute stroke treated with Merci Retriever, Penumbra system or stent-retriever devices. CMBs were identified on pretreatment T2-weighted, gradient-recall echo MRI. We analyzed the association of the presence, burden, and distribution of CMBs with HT, procedural complications, in-hospital mortality, and clinical outcome. CMBs were detected in 37 (18.0%) of 206 patients. Seventy-three foci of microbleeds were identified. Fourteen patients (6.8%) had ≥2 CMBs, only 1 patient had ≥5 CMBs. Strictly lobar CMBs were found in 12 patients, strictly deep CMBs in 12 patients, strictly infratentorial CMBs in 2 patients, and mixed CMBs in 11 patients. There were no significant differences between patients with CMBs and those without CMBs in the rates of overall HT (37.8% vs 45.6%), parenchymal hematoma (16.2% vs 19.5%), procedure-related vessel perforation (5.4% vs 7.1%), in-hospital mortality (16.2% vs 18.3%), and modified Rankin Scale score 0-3 at discharge. CMBs were not independently associated with HT or in-hospital mortality in patients treated with either thrombectomy or intravenous thrombolysis followed by thrombectomy. Patients with CMBs are not at increased risk for HT and mortality following mechanical thrombectomy for acute stroke. Excluding such patients from mechanical thrombectomy is unwarranted. The risk of HT in patients with ≥5 CMBs requires further study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 05/2015; DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2015-011765 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing time from symptom onset to emergency department arrival may incur greater ischemic injury and decreased likelihood of good outcomes after acute stroke therapy. The impact of time may be assessed bythe extent of acute CT changes, status of collateral vessels, and clinical outcomes. The SOLITAIRE FR With the Intention For Thrombectomy (SWIFT) trial comparing two neurothrombectomy treatments was analyzed by time, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Scores (ASPECTS), angiographic collaterals, and 90-day modified Rankin Scale outcomes. We determined the interaction of time with ASPECTS, collateral grade, reperfusion, and clinical outcomes, with established determinants of angiographic and clinical outcomes as covariates. 137 patients (52% female) of mean age 67±12 years and median pretreatment NIH Stroke Scale score 18 (range 8-28) were enrolled. Median onset to door (OTD) time was 180 min (IQR 95-250). Presentation within 3 h of last known well was associated with absence of any prestroke disability and presence of atrial fibrillation but was unrelated to age, sex, other vascular risk factors, deficit severity, glucose level, or blood pressure. Worse collaterals were noted with longer OTD intervals: collateral grade 0-1 (n=32): mean 232±84 min; grade 2 (n=48): 164±99 min; grade 3 (n=35): 155±104 min; grade 4 (n=4): 54±16 min (p<0.001). Later presentation was associated with more extensive early infarct imaging changes (median ASPECTS 8 (IQR 7-9) >3 h vs 9 (IQR 8-10) <3 h, p=0.015). Multivariable analyses identified time >3 h as the only predictor of extensive infarct on imaging (ASPECTS ≤7), p=0.003. Earlier presentation was strongly associated with better 90-day modified Rankin Scale outcomes (p<0.001). Time was a critical factor in successful clinical outcomes for neurothrombectomy in the SWIFT trial. Shorter times to presentation were associated with better collaterals, smaller established infarcts, and better clinical outcome after revascularization. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 05/2015; DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2015-011758 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: NEJM
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    ABSTRACT: Background Among patients with acute ischemic stroke due to occlusions in the proximal anterior intracranial circulation, less than 40% regain functional independence when treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) alone. Thrombectomy with the use of a stent retriever, in addition to intravenous t-PA, increases reperfusion rates and may improve long-term functional outcome. Methods We randomly assigned eligible patients with stroke who were receiving or had received intravenous t-PA to continue with t-PA alone (control group) or to undergo endovascular thrombectomy with the use of a stent retriever within 6 hours after symptom onset (intervention group). Patients had confirmed occlusions in the proximal anterior intracranial circulation and an absence of large ischemic-core lesions. The primary outcome was the severity of global disability at 90 days, as assessed by means of the modified Rankin scale (with scores ranging from 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]). Results The study was stopped early because of efficacy. At 39 centers, 196 patients underwent randomization (98 patients in each group). In the intervention group, the median time from qualifying imaging to groin puncture was 57 minutes, and the rate of substantial reperfusion at the end of the procedure was 88%. Thrombectomy with the stent retriever plus intravenous t-PA reduced disability at 90 days over the entire range of scores on the modified Rankin scale (P<0.001). The rate of functional independence (modified Rankin scale score, 0 to 2) was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (60% vs. 35%, P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in 90-day mortality (9% vs. 12%, P=0.50) or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (0% vs. 3%, P=0.12). Conclusions In patients receiving intravenous t-PA for acute ischemic stroke due to occlusions in the proximal anterior intracranial circulation, thrombectomy with a stent retriever within 6 hours after onset improved functional outcomes at 90 days. (Funded by Covidien; SWIFT PRIME number, NCT01657461 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 04/2015; 372(24). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1415061 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early reperfusion in patients experiencing acute ischemic stroke is critical, especially for patients with large vessel occlusion who have poor prognosis without revascularization. Solitaire™ stent retriever devices have been shown to immediately restore vascular perfusion safely, rapidly, and effectively in acute ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusions. The aim of the study was to demonstrate that, among patients with large vessel, anterior circulation occlusion who have received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, treatment with Solitaire revascularization devices reduces degree of disability 3 months post stroke. The study is a global multicenter, two-arm, prospective, randomized, open, blinded end-point trial comparing functional outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients who are treated with either intravenous tissue plasminogen activator alone or intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in combination with the Solitaire device. Up to 833 patients will be enrolled. Patients who have received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator are randomized to either continue with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator alone or additionally proceed to neurothrombectomy using the Solitaire device within six-hours of symptom onset. The primary end-point is 90-day global disability, assessed with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Secondary outcomes include mortality at 90 days, functional independence (mRS ≤ 2) at 90 days, change in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at 27 h, reperfusion at 27 h, and thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2b/3 flow at the end of the procedure. Statistical analysis will be conducted using simultaneous success criteria on the overall distribution of modified Rankin Scale (Rankin shift) and proportions of subjects achieving functional independence (mRS 0-2). © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Stroke Organization.
    International Journal of Stroke 04/2015; 10(3):439-48. DOI:10.1111/ijs.12459 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selection bias may have affected enrollment in first generation endovascular stroke trials. We investigate, evaluate, and quantify such bias for these trials at our institution. Demographic, clinical, imaging, and angiographic data were prospectively collected on a consecutive cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke who were enrolled in formal trials of endovascular stroke therapy (EST) or received EST in clinical practice outside of a randomized trial for acute cerebral ischemia at a single tertiary referral center from September 2004 to December 2012. Among patients considered appropriate for EST in practice, 47% were eligible for trials, with rates for individual trials ranging from 17% to 70%. Compared with trial ineligible patients treated with EST, trial eligible patients were younger (67 vs 74 years; p<0.05), more often treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (53% vs 34%; p<0.01), and had shorter last known well to puncture times (328 vs 367 min; p<0.05). Focusing on the largest trial with a non-interventional control arm, compared with trial eligible patients treated with EST outside the trial, enrolled patients presented later (274 vs 163 min; p<0.001), had higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (20 vs 17; p<0.05), and larger strokes (diffusion weighted imaging volumes 49 vs 18; p<0.001). The majority of patients felt suitable for EST at our institution were excluded from recent trials. Formal entry criteria succeeded in selecting patients with better prognostic features, although many of these patients were treated outside of trials. Acknowledging and mitigating these biases will be crucial to ongoing investigations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 02/2015; DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2014-011628 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In light of recent positive trial data for endovascular therapy in acute ischemic stroke (AIS), stent retriever use by practitioners without prior experience with these devices may become more common. To assess the safety and efficacy of thrombectomy for AIS using Solitaire for patients treated in the roll-in period of the Solitaire With the Intention For Thrombectomy (SWIFT) trial, which represented the first clinical use of the device for these interventionalists. Prospectively collected demographic, clinical, and angiographic data on patients treated in the initial roll-in and subsequent randomized phases of the SWIFT study were collected and analyzed. Key statistical analyses were validated by an independent external statistician. Patients in the roll-in period achieved equivalently high rates of reperfusion (55%) compared with those treated with the device in the randomized phase (61%). Rates of adverse events were comparable (13% vs 9%). Rates of good neurological outcome were equivalent between the roll-in and randomized patients treated with Solitaire (63% vs 58%). Including the roll-in patients strengthened the conclusions of the study, that reperfusion rates without symptomatic hemorrhage with Solitaire were greater than with Merci (59% vs 24%, p<0.001). Thrombectomy in AIS using the Solitaire stent retriever device can be performed safely and effectively when used by experienced neurointerventionalists without previous experience with the device. The SWIFT study is registered with, number NCT 01054560. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 02/2015; DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2014-011627 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Endovascular reperfusion techniques are a promising intervention for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Prior studies have identified markers of initial injury (arrival NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) or infarct volume) as predictive of outcome after these procedures. We sought to define the role of collateral flow at the time of presentation in determining the extent of initial ischemic injury and its influence on final outcome. Methods Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data were prospectively collected on a consecutive cohort of patients who received endovascular therapy for acute cerebral ischemia at a single tertiary referral center from September 2004 to August 2010. Results Higher collateral grade as assessed by the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology (ASITN/SIR) grading scheme on angiography at the time of presentation was associated with improved reperfusion rates after endovascular intervention, decreased post-procedural hemorrhage, smaller infarcts on presentation and discharge, as well as improved neurological function on arrival to the hospital, discharge, and 90 days later. Patients matched by vessel occlusion, age, and time of onset demonstrated smaller strokes on presentation and better functional and radiographic outcome if found to have superior collateral flow. In multivariate analysis, lower collateral grade independently predicted higher NIHSS on arrival. Conclusions Improved collateral flow in patients with AIS undergoing endovascular therapy was associated with improved radiographic and clinical outcomes. Independent of age, vessel occlusion and time, in patients with comparable ischemic burdens, changes in collateral grade alone led to significant differences in initial stroke severity as well as ultimate clinical outcome.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 11/2014; DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2014-011438 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) results in significant morbidity due to ischemia. Subarachnoid hematoma evacuation during aneurysm clipping reduces the incidence of vasospasm. However, studies comparing endovascular coiling with open clipping have reported similar rates of spasm. We addressed the question of how coiling produces similar (if not less) vasospasm without the benefit of clot evacuation by evaluating vasospasm patterns among patients with aSAH. We hypothesize that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation plays a major role in clearing blood breakdown products, and that coiling may preserve CSF flow in the subarachnoid space.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 09/2014; DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2014-011374 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors report on the histologic and immunohistochemical analyses of a cerebral aneurysm embolized with platinum coils and with the longest observation period. A 58-year-old woman presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured basilar top aneurysm was treated with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDC) 22 years ago. She was the 15th case since the GDC was introduced. After she died of unrelated causes, an autopsy and thorough histologic examination were performed. Gross examination revealed no adhesion between the aneurysm wall and the surrounding brain tissue. Histologic and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that the cavity of the aneurysm was filled with homogeneous collagenous fibrous tissue, while the neck was completely covered by a dense collagenous neointima and a smooth muscle cell layer. The unique histologic results of this case may contribute to a better understanding of the long-term evolution of the healing process in intracranial aneurysms successfully treated with the GDC.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 07/2014; 2014(8). DOI:10.1136/bcr-2014-011260 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recanalization of occluded arteries is crucial for good functional outcome of acute stroke patients with large vessel occlusion. Endovascular treatment, particularly mechanical thrombectomy, plays an increasing role to achieve rapid recanalization. However, some patients with acute large vessel occlusion have additional extracranial cervical carotid artery occlusion or severe stenosis. Although these patients might undergo carotid stenting to achieve recanalization of intracranial occlusions, such stenting causes challenges in subsequent clinical management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular recanalization treatment with emergency carotid artery stenting for acute stroke patients.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 07/2014; 6 Suppl 1:A74. DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2014-011343.141 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the clinical and procedural predictors associated with interval growth manifested as new or worsened mass effect after Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) placement for treatment of intracranial aneurysms
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 07/2014; 6 Suppl 1:A27. DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2014-011343.49 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Differing biases may affect enrollment patterns and result in trial participants that are not representative of clinical practice nor ideal candidates for therapy. We sought to evaluate the stringency of inclusion/exclusion criteria for five recent endovascular stroke treatment (EST) trials and then measure any bias in the decision making process for EST trial enrollment at our institution.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 07/2014; 6 Suppl 1:A30-1. DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2014-011343.55 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The Totaled Health Risks in Vascular Events (THRIVE) score strongly predicts clinical outcome, mortality, and risk of thrombolytic haemorrhage in ischemic stroke patients, and performs similarly well in patients receiving intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, endovascular stroke treatment, or no acute treatment. It is not known if the THRIVE score predicts outcomes with the Solitaire endovascular stroke treatment device.AimsTo validate the relationship between the THRIVE score and outcomes after treatment with the Solitaire endovascular stroke treatment device.Methods The study conducted a retrospective analysis of the prospective SWIFT and STAR trials to examine the relationship between THRIVE and outcomes after treatment with the Solitaire device. We examined the relationship between THRIVE and clinical outcomes (good outcome or death at 90 days) among patients in SWIFT and STAR. Receiver–operator characteristics curve analysis was used to compare THRIVE score performance with other stroke prediction scores. Multivariable modeling was used to confirm the independence of the THRIVE score from procedure-specific predictors (successful recanalization or device used) and other predictors of functional outcome.ResultsThe THRIVE score strongly predicts good outcome and death among patients treated with the Solitaire device in SWIFT and STAR (Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test for trend P < 0·001 for good outcome, P = 0·01 for death). In receiver–operator characteristics (ROC) curve comparisons, totaled health risks in vascular events score is superior to Stroke Prognostication using Age and NIH Stroke Scale score-100 (P < 0·001) and performed similarly to Houston Intra-Arterial Therapy score (HIAT) (P = 0·98) and HIAT-2 (P = 0·54). In multivariable models, THRIVE's prediction of good outcome is not altered after controlling for recanalization or after controlling for device used. The THRIVE score remains a strong independent predictor after controlling for the above predictors together with time to procedure, rate of symptomatic haemorrhage, and use of general anesthesia. Of note, use of general anesthesia was not an independent predictor of outcome in SWIFT + STAR after controlling for totaled health risks in vascular events and other factors.Conclusions The THRIVE score strongly predicts clinical outcome and mortality in patients treated with the Solitaire device in the SWIFT and STAR trials. The lack of interaction between THRIVE and procedure-specific elements such as vessel recanalization or device choice makes the THRIVE score a reasonable candidate for use as a patient selection criterion in stroke clinical trials.
    International Journal of Stroke 06/2014; 9(6). DOI:10.1111/ijs.12292 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Collaterals at angiography before endovascular therapy were analyzed to ascertain the effect on a novel end point of successful revascularization without symptomatic hemorrhage in the Solitaire FR With the Intention for Thrombectomy (SWIFT) study.
    Stroke 05/2014; 45(7). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.004781 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ideal population of patients for endovascular therapy (ET) in acute ischemic stroke remains undefined. Recent ET trials have moved towards selecting patients with proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) or internal carotid artery occlusions, which will likely leave a gap in our understanding of the treatment outcomes of M2 occlusions. To examine the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of M2 compared with M1 MCA occlusions in patients undergoing ET by assessing comprehensive MRI, angiography, and clinical data. We found that M2 occlusions can lead to massive strokes defined by hypoperfused and infarcted volumes as well as death or moderate to severe disability in nearly 50% of patients at discharge. Compared with M1 occlusions, M2 occlusions achieved similar Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) 2b/3 recanalization rates, with significantly less hemorrhage. M2 occlusions presented with smaller infarct and hypoperfused volumes and had smaller final infarct volumes regardless of recanalization. TICI 2b/3 recanalization of M2 occlusions was associated with smaller infarct volumes compared with TICI 0-2a recanalization, as well as less infarct expansion, in patients who received IV tissue plasminogen activator as well as those that did not. Successful reperfusion of M2 occlusions was associated with improved discharge modified Rankin scale. If suitable as targets of ET, M2 occlusions should be given the same consideration as M1 occlusions.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 05/2014; 7(7). DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2014-011232 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) on baseline imaging is an established predictor of acute ischemic stroke outcomes. We analyzed change on serial ASPECTS at baseline and 24-hour imaging in the Solitaire Flow Restoration with the Intention for Thrombectomy (SWIFT) study to determine prognostic value and to identify subgroups with extensive injury after intervention. ASPECTS at baseline and 24 hours was independently scored in all anterior circulation SWIFT cases, blinded to all other trial data. ASPECTS at baseline, at 24 hours, and serial changes were analyzed with univariate and multivariate approaches. One hundred thirty-nine patients (mean age, 67 [SD, 12] years; 52% women; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, 18 [interquartile range, 8-28]) with complete data at both time points were studied. Multivariate analyses showed that higher 24-hour ASPECTS predicted good clinical outcome (day 90 modified Rankin Scale, 0-2; odds ratio, 1.67; P<0.001). Among patients with high baseline ASPECTS (8-10; n=109), dramatic infarct progression (decrease in ASPECTS ≥6 points at 24 hours) was noted in 31 of 109 (28%). Such serial ASPECTS change was predicted by higher baseline systolic blood pressure (P=0.019), higher baseline blood glucose (P=0.133), and failure to achieve Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score of 2b/3 reperfusion (P<0.001), culminating in worse day 90 modified Rankin Scale outcomes (mean modified Rankin Scale, 4.4 versus 2.7; P<0.001). Twenty-four-hour ASPECTS provides better prognostic information compared with baseline ASPECTS. Predictors of dramatic infarct progression on ASPECTS are hyperglycemia, hypertension, and nonreperfusion. Serial ASPECTS change from baseline to 24 hours predicts clinical outcome, providing an early surrogate end point for thrombectomy trials. Unique identifier: NCT01054560.
    Stroke 03/2014; 45(3):723-7. DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.003914 · 6.02 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
893.76 Total Impact Points


  • 1999–2015
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Center for Culture and Health
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
    • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
      • Cedars Sinai Medical Center
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2014
    • Froedtert Hospital
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2002–2014
    • Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Torrance, California, United States
    • University of Texas Medical School
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2012
    • Henan Provincial People’s Hospital
      Cheng, Henan Sheng, China
  • 2000–2010
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 2004
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Neurology
      San Francisco, CA, United States
    • Columbia University
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2003
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, MA, United States