[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) can induce a reversible hypometabolic state, which could protect against hypoxia. In this study we investigated whether H2 S could protect livers from ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to partial hepatic IRI for 60 min. Animals received 0 (IRI) or 100 ppm H2 S (IRI + H2 S) from 30 min prior to ischemia until 5 min before reperfusion. Core body temperature was maintained at 37° C. Animals were sacrificed after 1, 6 or 24 h. Hepatic ischemia caused extensive hepatic necrosis in the IRI animals which coincided with an increase in ALT and AST serum levels. Animals treated with H2 S showed attenuated serum ALT and AST levels and reduced necrotic lesions after 24 h. IRI animals had increased Bcl-2 mRNA expression and increased active Caspase 3 protein, which were both significantly lower in H2 S treated animals. Increased TNFα and IL-6 mRNA in the IRI livers was significantly attenuated by H2 S treatment, as was hepatic influx of Ly-6G positive granulocytes. Hepatic superoxide production after ischemia was attenuated by H2 S treatment. In hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury, gaseous H2 S treatment is highly protective, substantially reducing necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation. Gaseous H2 S is therefore a very promising treatment for reducing IRI during hepatic transplantation.
Transplant International 06/2012; 25(8):897-908. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus have increased rates of macrovascular disease (MVD). Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs) are suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of MVD. The relationship between vasoregenerative EPCs or CACs and damaging SMPCs and the development of accelerated MVD in diabetes is still unknown. We tried to elucidate whether EPC, CAC and SMPC numbers and differentiation capacities in vitro differ in patients with and without diabetes or MVD.
Peripheral blood was obtained from individuals with and without diabetes and MVD (coronary or peripheral artery disease). EPC and SMPC numbers were determined with flow cytometry. Furthermore, CAC and SMPC numbers were quantified after in vitro culture. Their in vitro differentiation capacity was investigated with real-time RT-PCR and quantitative immunofluorescence.
In diabetic patients both EPC and CAC levels were reduced (1.3-fold [p < 0.05] and 1.5-fold [p < 0.05], respectively). CAC outgrowth from diabetic patients with MVD was reduced 1.5-fold compared with diabetic patients without MVD (p < 0.05). SMPC levels were similar between diabetic patients and healthy controls. The CAC/SMPC ratio of in vitro cultured progenitor cells was reduced 2.3-fold in samples from diabetic patients (p < 0.001). The differentiation capacity of CACs and SMPCs in vitro remained similar independently of diabetes or MVD.
The ratio between EPCs or CACs and SMPCs is disturbed in type 2 diabetes in favour of SMPCs. This may translate into reduced vascular repair capacity, thereby promoting MVD in type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CIAO Study is a multicenter observational study currently underway in 66 European medical institutions over the course of a six-month study period (January-June 2012).This preliminary report overviews the findings of the first half of the study, which includes all data from the first three months of the six-month study period.Patients with either community-acquired or healthcare-associated complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) were included in the study.912 patients with a mean age of 54.4 years (range 4-98) were enrolled in the study during the first three-month period. 47.7% of the patients were women and 52.3% were men. Among these patients, 83.3% were affected by community-acquired IAIs while the remaining 16.7% presented with healthcare-associated infections. Intraperitoneal specimens were collected from 64.2% of the enrolled patients, and from these samples, 825 microorganisms were collectively identified.The overall mortality rate was 6.4% (58/912). According to univariate statistical analysis of the data, critical clinical condition of the patient upon hospital admission (defined by severe sepsis and septic shock) as well as healthcare-associated infections, non-appendicular origin, generalized peritonitis, and serious comorbidities such as malignancy and severe cardiovascular disease were all significant risk factors for patient mortality.White Blood Cell counts (WBCs) greater than 12,000 or less than 4,000 and core body temperatures exceeding 38°C or less than 36°C by the third post-operative day were statistically significant indicators of patient mortality.
World Journal of Emergency Surgery 05/2012; 7(1):15.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This brief review focuses on the functional activities of plasma hemopexin recently recognized by several authors. In particular, the protease-like activity of hemopexin in vitro is linked with downregulation of the vascular angiotensin II receptor in vivo, leading to vascular expansion. Also a potential mechanism of inhibition of hemopexin activity by extracellular adenosine triphosphate is considered.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bilateral thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy (BTS) is a well-known technique to alleviate intractable pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis. BTS not only disrupts afferent fibers from the pancreas that mediate pain but also postganglionic sympathetic fibers, which originate in segments T5-T12 and which innervate the vasculature of the liver, pancreas, and the adrenal gland. The purpose of this study was to assess whether and how BTS affects sympathetic noradrenergic and adrenomedullary function in patients with chronic pancreatitis.
Sixteen patients with chronic pancreatitis for at least 1 year underwent autonomic function testing before and 6 weeks after BTS for intractable pain. Testing was performed during supine rest and during sympathetic stimulation when standing.
Supine and standing systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower post-BTS compared with pre-BTS (P = 0.001). One patient showed orthostatic hypotension after BTS. Baseline plasma norepinephrine levels and plasma norepinephrine responses to sympathetic activation during standing were not reduced by BTS. In contrast, supine plasma epinephrine levels and responses during standing were significantly reduced (P < 0.001). Parasympathetic activity was unaffected by BTS as shown by unaltered Valsalva ratio, I-E difference, and ΔHRmax.
BTS for pain relief in patients with chronic pancreatitis reduced adrenomedullary function, due to disruption of the efferent sympathetic fibers to the adrenal gland. BTS did not affect noradrenergic sympathetic activity, although blood pressure was lower after the sympathectomy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia, a human pregnancy specific disorder is characterized by an anti-angiogenic state. As hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has pro-angiogenic and anti-oxidative characteristics, we hypothesized that H(2)S levels could play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and studied the placental expression of the H(2)S-producing enzymes cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS). CBS and CSE protein are expressed in the fetal-placental endothelium and CBS only in Hofbauer cells. CBS mRNA expression is decreased (p = 0.002) in early-onset preeclampsia, while CSE mRNA is unchanged. Thus, down regulation of CBS during early-onset preeclampsia may result in less H(2)S-production and may aid in the anti-angiogenic state.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erytropoietin (EPO) has cytoprotective and angiogenic properties and has a beneficial effect in ischaemic conditions. Since the development of renal interstitial abnormalities are often associated with ischaemia, we studied the effects of the long-acting EPO analogue darbepoetin alpha (DA) on kidney damage in TGR(mRen2)27 (Ren2) rats.
Ren2 rats were randomised to DA or vehicle (VEH) or to DA + angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or VEH + ACEi. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats served as controls. Blood pressure was measured weekly and 24-h urine was collected to measure proteinuria. Blood samples were collected for creatinine and haematocrit. Kidneys were studied for inflammation and pre-fibrosis. Renal mRNA expression was studied for EPO, EPO-receptor, collagen-3α1 and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1).
DA had no effect on SBP, serum creatinine and proteinuria. Interstitial and glomerular α-SMA expression was significantly increased in Ren2. ACEi but not DA improved the increased renal inflammatory and pro-fibrotic profile in Ren2 rats. DA on top of ACEi further reduced glomerular α-SMA and KIM-1 expression.
Long-term DA treatment has no beneficial effects on renal structural and functional changes in TGR(mRen2)27 rats in the time frame studied and the dose provided.
Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 01/2012; 13(2):232-8. · 2.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Duodenal cancer is a major cause of mortality in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). The clinical challenge is to perform duodenectomy before cancer develops; however, procedures are associated with complications. Our aim was to gain insight into the pros and cons of prophylactic duodenectomy.
Patients with FAP from the nationwide Dutch polyposis registry who underwent prophylactic duodenectomy or were diagnosed with duodenal cancer were identified and classified as having benign disease or cancer at preoperative endoscopy. Surveillance, clinical presentation, surgical management, outcome, survival, and recurrence were compared.
Of 1,066 patients with FAP in the registry, 52 (5%; 25 males) were included: 36 with benign adenomatosis (median: 48 years old; including two (6%) cancer cases diagnosed after operation), and 16 with cancer (median: 53 years old). Cancer cases had been diagnosed with colorectal cancer more often (6% vs 44%; P < .01). Forty-three patients underwent duodenectomy (35 benign/eight cancer): 30-day mortality was 4.7% (n = 2), and in-hospital morbidity occurred in 21 patients (49%), without differences between patients with benign adenomatosis and cancer. Adenomas recurred in reconstructed proximal small bowel in 14 of 28 patients (50%, median time to recurrence: 75 months), and one patient developed cancer. Median survival of all 18 cancer cases in the registry (1.7%; 12 ampullary/six duodenal) was 11 months.
Prognosis of duodenal cancer in patients with FAP is poor, which justifies an aggressive approach to advanced benign adenomatosis. Strict adherence to recommended surveillance intervals is essential for a well-timed intervention. Given the substantial morbidity and mortality of duodenectomy, patients' individual characteristics are to be critically evaluated preoperatively. As adenomas recur, postoperative endoscopic surveillance is mandatory.
Surgery 01/2012; 151(5):681-90. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, has an important role in wound healing by binding several growth factors and cytokines. As these processes are also crucial in damage and repair after renal transplantation, we examined syndecan-1 expression in human control kidney tissue, renal allograft protocol biopsies, renal allograft biopsies taken at indication, and non-transplant interstitial fibrosis. Syndecan-1 expression was increased in tubular epithelial cells in renal allograft biopsies compared with control. Increased epithelial syndecan-1 in allografts correlated with low proteinuria and serum creatinine, less interstitial inflammation, less tubular atrophy, and prolonged allograft survival. Knockdown of syndecan-1 in human tubular epithelial cells in vitro reduced cell proliferation. Selective binding of growth factors suggests that syndecan-1 may promote epithelial restoration. Bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion in syndecan-1-deficient mice resulted in increased initial renal failure and tubular injury compared with wild-type mice. Macrophage and myofibroblast numbers, tubular damage, and plasma urea levels were increased, and tubular proliferation reduced in the kidneys of syndecan-1 deficient compared with wild-type mice 14 days following injury. Hence syndecan-1 promotes tubular survival and repair in murine ischemia/reperfusion injury and correlates with functional improvement in human renal allograft transplantation.
Kidney International 01/2012; 81(7):651-61. · 7.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many proteinuric renal conditions are accompanied by renal inflammation. Nicotine is known to have anti-inflammatory properties and is used in oral form to help subjects quit smoking. A potential anti-inflammatory role of nicotine in proteinuric renal diseases has not been investigated to date. We therefore evaluated the effects of oral nicotine in a rat model of proteinuria-induced renal inflammation. We used a well-established model of adult (24 wk of age) male Munich-Wistar-Frömter rats. Animals were given three different physiological doses of nicotine in drinking water for 28 wk until 52 wk of age (long term). A group without nicotine served as a parallel control. At 52 wk of age, the control group had a 2.1 times reduction in creatinine clearance, 3.2 times increase in urinary protein excretion, an increased focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) score, increased glomerular desmin deposition, decreased glomerular podocin, and a higher accumulation of macrophages and myofibroblasts compared with 24-wk-old animals. Oral treatment with nicotine dose dependently preserved renal function and halted proteinuria progression, which were independent of blood pressure reduction. It also reduced FGS, desmin deposition, podocin loss, and density of renal macrophages and myofibroblasts. Nicotine also reduced the level of gene expression of the renal inflammatory markers monocyte chemoattractant protein and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. In conclusion, long-term oral nicotine preserved kidney function, reduced proteinuria, reduced renal inflammation, and protected progression of renal structural damage in a rat model of proteinuria. We further suggest evaluating nicotine as a potential additional therapeutic option for treating proteinuric kidney diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex disorder. As genome-wide association studies identified cubilin gene CUBN as a locus for albuminuria, and urinary protein loss is a risk factor for progressive CKD, we tested the hypothesis that common genetic variants in CUBN are associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and proteinuria. First, a total of 1142 patients with ESRD, admitted for renal transplantation, and 1186 donors were genotyped for SNPs rs7918972 and rs1801239 (case-control study). The rs7918972 minor allele frequency (MAF) was higher in ESRD patients comparing to kidney donors, implicating an increased risk for ESRD (OR 1.39, p = 0.0004) in native kidneys. Second, after transplantation recipients were followed for 5.8 [3.8-9.2] years (longitudinal study) documenting ESRD in transplanted kidneys--graft failure (GF). During post-transplant follow-up 92 (9.6%) cases of death-censored GF occurred. Donor rs7918972 MAF, representing genotype of the transplanted kidney, was 16.3% in GF vs 10.7% in cases with functioning graft. Consistently, a multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that donor rs7918972 is a predictor of GF, although statistical significance was not reached (HR 1.53, p = 0.055). There was no association of recipient rs7918972 with GF. Rs1801239 was not associated with ESRD or GF. In line with an association with the outcome, donor rs7918972 was associated with elevated proteinuria levels cross-sectionally at 1 year after transplantation. Thus, we identified CUBN rs7918972 as a novel risk variant for renal function loss in two independent settings: ESRD in native kidneys and GF in transplanted kidneys.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e36512. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both nonclassical and intermediate monocytes have been implicated in different inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized that these monocytes would increase during pregnancy, a condition associated with generalized activation of inflammatory responses and that they would increase even more during preeclampsia, in which inflammatory responses are further stimulated. In the present study we investigated changes in monocyte subsets during healthy pregnancy and preeclampsia in humans and rats.
Blood monocyte subsets of nonpregnant, preeclamptic and healthy pregnant women were identified with CD14 and CD16. In nonpregnant and pregnant rats, blood monocytes were identified with CD172a and CD43, as well as in rats infused with adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a pro-inflammatory stimulus known to induce preeclampsia-like symptoms. Total and CD206-positive macrophages were quantified in placentas of these animals.
Lower percentages of classical monocytes were found in pregnant women (91%-[83-98%]) compared to nonpregnant women (94%-[90-98%]) and even less in preeclamptic patients (90%-[61-92%]). In contrast, the percentage of combined nonclassical/intermediate monocytes was higher in pregnant women (8.5%-[2.3-16.6%] vs. 5.6%-[1.9-9.5%]) and even higher in preeclamptic patients (9.9%-[7.8-38.7%]), which was caused by a selective increase of intermediate monocytes. In rats, we also found lower percentages of classical monocytes and higher percentages of nonclassical monocytes in pregnant versus nonpregnant rats. ATP infusion increased the percentage of nonclassical monocytes in pregnant rats even further but not in nonpregnant rats. These nonclassical monocytes showed a more activated phenotype in pregnant ATP-infused rats only. Mesometrial triangles of ATP-infused rats had less CD206-positive macrophages as compared to those of saline-infused rats.
The higher percentage of nonclassical/intermediate monocytes found in pregnancy and preeclampsia confirms their association with inflammatory responses. The observation that ATP stimulated numbers/activation of nonclassical monocytes in pregnant rats only, suggests that nonclassical monocytes are specifically altered in pregnancy and may play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e45229. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimal diagnostic and treatment modalities in chronic pancreatitis are controversial due to lack of evidence.
To evaluate current clinical practice, we conducted a survey with the primary objective to evaluate decisions regarding the diagnosis, management and screening in chronic pancreatitis.
We developed a vignette survey.
We surveyed Dutch gastroenterologists, internists, gastrointestinal surgeons and an international expert panel.
A total of 110 questionnaires (31% gastroenterologists, 39% internists and 20% gastrointestinal surgeons) were returned out of the 1,324 sent (response 8.3%). There was a wide variation in strategies regarding diagnosis, treatment and screening in chronic pancreatitis. As a diagnostic test, serum amylase is used frequently by internists, while gastroenterologists and experts often use fecal elastase. Most respondents preferred CT-scanning for diagnosis, while experts preferred transabdominal ultrasonography as an initial test. Respondents frequently use pancreatic enzymes for treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis. The majority advised to perform an intervention (endoscopic or surgical) in case of morphological changes of the pancreatic duct.
The results of our survey identify important differences between physicians in diagnosis and management of chronic pancreatitis. This is often due to lack of evidence and consensus in literature. Certain wide-spread practices are in contrast with available evidence, and should be addressed by improved education and adherence to guidelines.
JOP: Journal of the pancreas 01/2012; 13(4):394-401.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopy and surgery are the treatment modalities of choice in patients with obstructive chronic pancreatitis. Physicians face the decision between endoscopy and surgery for this group of patients, without clear consensus.
To assess and compare the effectiveness and complications of surgical and endoscopic interventions in the management of pain for obstructive chronic pancreatitis.
We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index; and performed a cross-reference search. Two review authors performed the selection of trials independently.
All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating endoscopic or surgical interventions for obstructive chronic pancreatitis. All trials were included irrespective of blinding, number of patients randomised and language of the article.
Two authors independently extracted data from the articles. The methodological quality of included trials was evaluated. Authors were requested additional information in the case of missing data.
We screened 2082 publications and identified three eligible trials. Two trials compared endoscopic intervention to surgical intervention. These included a total of 111 patients, 55 in the endoscopic group and 56 in the surgical group. A higher proportion of patients with pain relief was found in the surgical group compared to the endoscopic group (partial or complete pain relief: RR 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11 to 2.37; complete pain relief: RR 2.45, 95% CI 1.18 to 5.09). Surgical intervention resulted in improved quality of life and improved preservation of exocrine pancreatic function in one trial. The number of patients did not allow for a reliable evaluation of morbidity and mortality between the two treatment modalities. One trial compared surgical intervention to conservative treatment. It included 32 patients: 17 in the surgical group and 15 in the conservative group. The trial showed that surgical intervention resulted in a higher percentage of patients with pain relief and better preservation of pancreatic function. The trial had methodological limitations and the number of patients was relatively small.
For patients with obstructive chronic pancreatitis and dilated pancreatic duct, this review showed that surgery is superior to endoscopy in terms of pain control. Morbidity and mortality seemed not to differ between the two intervention modalities, but the small trials identified do not provide sufficient power to detect the small differences expected in this outcome.Regarding the comparison of surgical intervention versus conservative treatment, this review has shown that surgical intervention in an early stage of chronic pancreatitis seems to be a promising approach in terms of pain control and pancreatic function. Confirmation of these results is needed in other trials due to the methodological limitations and limited number of patients of the present evidence.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women who undergo breast cancer surgery have a high risk of developing persistent pain. We investigated brain processing of painful stimuli using electroencephalograms (EEG) to identify event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with persistent pain after breast cancer treatment.
Nineteen patients (eight women with persistent pain, eleven without persistent pain), who were surgically treated more than 1 year previously for breast cancer (mastectomy, lumpectomy, and axillary lymph node dissection) and/or had chemoradiotherapy, were recruited and compared with eleven healthy female volunteers. A block of 20 painful electrical stimuli was applied to the calf, somatopically remote from the initially injured or painful area. Simultaneously an EEG was recorded, and a visual analog scale (VAS) pain rating obtained.
In comparison with healthy volunteers, breast cancer treatment without persistent pain is associated with accelerated stimulus processing (reduced P260 latency) and shows a tendency to be less intense (lower P260 amplitude). In comparison to patients without persistent pain, persistent pain after breast cancer treatment is associated with stimulus processing that is both delayed (ie, increased latency of the ERP positivity between 250-310 ms [P260]), and enhanced (ie, enhanced P260 amplitude).
These results show that treatment and persistent pain have opposite effects on cortical responsiveness.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intense abdominal pain is the dominant feature of chronic pancreatitis. During the disease changes in central pain processing, e.g. central sensitization manifest as spreading hyperalgesia, can result from ongoing nociceptive input. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of pregabalin on pain processing in chronic pancreatitis as assessed by quantitative sensory testing (QST).
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated effects of pregabalin on pain processing. QST was used to quantify pain processing by measuring thresholds to painful electrical and pressure stimulation in six body dermatomes. Descending endogenous pain modulation was quantified using the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm to elicit a DNIC (diffuse noxious inhibitory controls) response. The main effect parameter was the change in the sum of all body pain threshold values after three weeks of study treatment versus baseline values between both treatment groups.
64 patients were analyzed. No differences in change in sum of pain thresholds were present for pregabalin vs. placebo after three weeks of treatment. For individual dermatomes, change vs. baseline pain thresholds was significantly greater in pregabalin vs. placebo patients for electric pain detection threshold in C5 (P = 0.005), electric pain tolerance threshold in C5 (P = 0.04) and L1 (P = 0.05), and pressure pain tolerance threshold in T4 (P = 0.004). No differences were observed between pregabalin and placebo regarding conditioned pain modulation.
Our study provides first evidence that pregabalin has moderate inhibitory effects on central sensitization manifest as spreading hyperalgesia in chronic pancreatitis patients. These findings suggest that QST can be of clinical use for monitoring pain treatments in the context of chronic pain.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42096. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteinuria is an important cause of progressive tubulo-interstitial damage. Whether proteinuria could trigger a renal lymphangiogenic response has not been established. Moreover, the temporal relationship between development of fibrosis, inflammation and lymphangiogenesis in chronic progressive kidney disease is not clear yet. Therefore, we evaluated the time course of lymph vessel (LV) formation in relation to proteinuria and interstitial damage in a rat model of chronic unilateral adriamycin nephrosis. Proteinuria and kidneys were evaluated up to 30 weeks after induction of nephrosis. LVs were identified by podoplanin/VEGFR3 double staining. After 6 weeks proteinuria was well-established, without influx of interstitial macrophages and myofibroblasts, collagen deposition, osteopontin expression (tubular activation) or LV formation. At 12 weeks, a ∼3-fold increase in cortical LV density was found (p<0.001), gradually increasing over time. This corresponded with a significant increase in tubular osteopontin expression (p<0.01) and interstitial myofibroblast numbers (p<0.05), whereas collagen deposition and macrophage numbers were not yet increased. VEGF-C was mostly expressed by tubular cells rather than interstitial cells. Cultured tubular cells stimulated with FCS showed a dose-dependent increase in mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-C which was not observed by human albumin stimulation. We conclude that chronic proteinuria provoked lymphangiogenesis in temporal conjunction with tubular osteopontin expression and influx of myofibroblasts, that preceded interstitial fibrosis.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e50209. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Local renal complement activation by the donor kidney plays an important role in the pathogenesis of renal injury inherent to kidney transplantation. Contradictory results were reported about the protective effects of the donor C3F allotype on renal allograft outcome. We investigated the influence of the donor C3F allotype on renal transplant outcome, taking all different donor types into account. C3 allotypes of 1265 donor-recipient pairs were determined and divided into four genotypic groups according to the C3F allotype of the donor and the recipient. The four genotypic groups were analyzed for association with primary nonfunction (PNF), delayed graft function, acute rejection, death-censored graft survival and patient survival. Considering all donor types, multivariable analysis found no association of the donor C3F allotype with renal allograft outcome. Also, for living and deceased brain-dead donors, no association with allograft outcome was found. Post hoc subgroup analysis within deceased cardiac dead (DCD) donors revealed an independent protective association of donor C3F allotype with PNF. This study shows that the donor C3F allotype is not associated with renal allograft outcome after kidney transplantation. Subgroup analysis within DCD donors revealed an independent protective association of the donor C3F allotype with PNF, which is preliminary and warrants further validation.
American Journal of Transplantation 12/2011; 12(3):660-8. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In kidney transplantation, complement activation was found to be induced by donor brain death, renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and allograft rejection. There are three known pathways of complement activation: the classical, lectin and the alternative pathway. The lectin complement pathway can be activated upon pattern recognition by mannan binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins (FCN). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding the lectin pathway proteins determine their functional activity and serum levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the lectin gene profile of the donor and recipient on post-transplant outcome. A total of 12 functional SNPs in the MBL2, FCN2 and MBL-associated serine proteases 2 (MASP2) genes of 1271 donor-recipient pairs were determined. Lectin genotypic variants were analyzed for association with primary non-function (PNF), delayed graft function (DGF), biopsy proven acute rejection, death-censored graft survival and patient survival. Multivariate analyses found no association of donor and recipient MBL2 and MASP2 genotype with allograft outcome. Analysis of separate functional SNPs and haplotypes in the FCN2 gene of the donor and recipient did not reveal an association with transplant outcome. Also, the joint effect of the MBL2 and FCN2 genotype was not associated with allograft outcome.This study shows that the genetic profile of the lectin pathway of complement activation of the donor and recipient is not associated with allograft outcome after kidney transplantation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complicated intra-abdominal infections are frequently associated with poor prognoses and high morbidity and mortality rates.Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high.In order to describe the clinical, microbiological, and management-related profiles of both community-acquired and healthcare-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES), in collaboration with the Surgical Infections Society of Europe (SIS-E) and other prominent European surgical societies, has designed the CIAO study.The CIAO study is a multicenter, observational study and will be carried out in various surgical departments throughout Europe. The study will include patients undergoing surgery or interventional drainage for complicated IAI.
World Journal of Emergency Surgery 12/2011; 6(1):40.