[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is a transcriptional regulator that is receiving increasing attention in autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we investigated the role of HMGB1 in the peripheral blood compartment from MS patients.
HMGB1 mRNA expression levels were determined by PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 29 healthy controls and 57 untreated MS patients (26 with relapsing-remitting MS - RRMS, 13 with secondary progressive MS - SPMS, and 18 with primary progressive MS - PPMS). HMGB1 protein levels were measured by ELISA in serum samples from 18 HC and 37 untreated MS patients (13 with RRMS, 14 with SPMS, and 10 with PPMS).
HMGB1 expression levels were increased in PBMC from the whole MS group compared with controls (P = 0.03). Further stratification of the MS group revealed higher expression levels in PBMC from patients with relapse-onset MS, and differences were statistically significant for RRMS patients compared with PPMS patients and controls (P = 4 × 10(-5) and P = 0.005, respectively) and also for SPMS patients compared with PPMS patients (P = 0.001). HMGB1 serum levels were increased in the whole MS group compared with controls (P = 2 × 10(-4)). In MS clinical forms, the highest HMGB1 serum levels were observed in RRMS patients, and differences were statistically significant compared to PPMS patients (P = 5 × 10(-5)), SPMS patients (P = 0.001), and controls (P = 0.001).
These results point to a role of HMGB1 mRNA and protein levels as disease activity biomarkers to discriminate the more inflammatory relapse-onset MS forms, particularly RRMS, from the less inflammatory PPMS form of the disease.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 12/2015; 12(1):269. DOI:10.1186/s12974-015-0269-9 · 5.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
We aimed to investigate the association between polymorphisms located in type I interferon (IFN)-induced genes, genes belonging to the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, and genes encoding neurotransmitter receptors and the response to IFN-β treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
In a first or screening phase of the study, 384 polymorphisms were genotyped in 830 patients with MS classified into IFN-β responders (n = 416) and nonresponders (n = 414) according to clinical criteria. In a second or validation phase, the most significant polymorphisms associated with IFN-β response were genotyped in an independent validation cohort of 555 patients with MS (281 IFN-β responders and 274 nonresponders).
Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from the screening phase for further validation: rs832032 (GABRR3; p = 0.0006), rs6597 (STUB1; p = 0.019), rs3747517 (IFIH1; p = 0.010), rs2277302 (PELI3; p = 0.017), rs10958713 (IKBKB; p = 0.003), rs2834202 (IFNAR1; p = 0.030), and rs4422395 (CXCL1; p = 0.017). None of these SNPs were significantly associated with IFN-β response when genotyped in an independent cohort of patients. Combined analysis of these SNPs in all patients with MS (N = 1,385) revealed 2 polymorphisms associated with IFN-β response: rs2277302 (PELI3; p = 0.008) and rs832032 (GABRR3; p = 0.006).
These findings do not support an association between polymorphisms located in genes related to the type I IFN or TLR pathways or genes encoding neurotransmitter receptors and the clinical response to IFN-β. Nevertheless, additional genetic and functional studies of PELI3 and GABRR3 are warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) and in experimental models point to a critical role of semaphorin (sema)3A and sema7A in MS pathogenesis.
The objective of this paper is to characterise the expression of sema3A, sema7A, and their receptors in MS lesions.
We included 44 demyelinating lesions from MS patients, 12 lesions with acute cerebral infarct, 11 lesions with progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy and 10 non-neurological control patients. MS lesions were classified according to inflammatory activity and all samples were immunostained for sema3A, sema7A, neuropilin 1 (Np-1), α1-integrin, and β1-integrin.
In MS-damaged white matter sema3A and Np-1 were both detected in microglia/macrophages, whereas reactive astrocytes expressed only sema3A. Otherwise, sema7A, α1-integrin and β1-integrin were observed in reactive astrocytes, and microglia/macrophages only expressed β1-integrin. The expression of sema3A, sema7A and their receptors is more relevant in MS than in other demyelinating diseases. Sema3A and sema7A expression correlated with the inflammatory activity of the MS lesions, suggesting their involvement in the immunological process that takes place in MS.
The expression pattern of sema3A, sema7A and their receptors in MS lesions suggests that both molecules contribute to create a negative environment for tissue regeneration, influencing the ability to regenerate the damaged tissue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The objectives of this paper are to compare in a multicenter setting patterns of regional cortical thickness in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and cognitive impairment (CI) and those cognitively preserved (CP), and explore the relationship between cortical thinning and cognitive performance.
T1-weighted isotropic brain scans were collected at 3T from seven European centers in 60 RRMS patients and 65 healthy controls (HCs). Patients underwent clinical and neuropsychological examinations. Cortical thickness (CTh) measures were calculated using FreeSurfer (failing in four) and both lobar and vertex-based general linear model (GLM) analyses were compared between study groups.
Twenty (36%) MS patients were classified as CI. Mean global CTh was smaller in RRMS patients compared to HCs (left 2.43 vs. 2.53 mm, right 2.44 vs. 2.54 mm, p < 0.001). Multivariate GLM regional analysis showed significantly more temporal thinning in CI compared to CP patients. Verbal memory scores correlated to regional cortical thinning in the insula whereas visual memory scores correlated to parietal thinning.
This multicenter study showed mild global cortical thinning in RRMS. The extent of thinning is less pronounced than previously reported. Only subtle regional differences between CI and CP patients were observed, some of which related to specific cognitive domains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Natalizumab treatment is associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) development. Treatment duration, prior immunosuppressant use, and JCV serostatus are currently used for risk stratification, but PML incidence stays high. Anti-JCV antibody index and L-selectin (CD62L) have been proposed as additional risk stratification parameters.OBJECTIVE:This study aimed at verifying and integrating both parameters into one algorithm for risk stratification.METHODS:Multicentric, international cohorts of natalizumab-treated MS patients were assessed for JCV index (1921 control patients and nine pre-PML patients) and CD62L (1410 control patients and 17 pre-PML patients).RESULTS:CD62L values correlate with JCV serostatus, as well as JCV index values. Low CD62L in natalizumab-treated patients was confirmed and validated as a biomarker for PML risk with the risk factor "CD62L low" increasing a patient's relative risk 55-fold (p < 0.0001). Validation efforts established 86% sensitivity/91% specificity for CD62L and 100% sensitivity/59% specificity for JCV index as predictors of PML. Using both parameters identified 1.9% of natalizumab-treated patients in the reference center as the risk group.CONCLUSIONS:Both JCV index and CD62L have merit for risk stratification and share a potential biological relationship with implications for general PML etiology. A risk algorithm incorporating both biomarkers could strongly reduce PML incidence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The aim of this study was to test the safety of diazoxide and to search for signs of efficacy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).
In this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (treatment allocation was concealed), 102 patients with RRMS were randomized to receive a daily oral dose of diazoxide (0.3 and 4 mg/d) or placebo for 24 weeks (NCT01428726). The primary endpoint was the cumulative number of new T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesions per patient, recorded every 4 weeks from week 4 to week 24. Secondary endpoints included brain MRI variables such as the number of new/enlarging T2 lesions and the percentage brain volume change (PBVC); clinical variables such as the percentage of relapse-free patients, relapse rate, and change in the Expanded Disability Status Scale score; and safety and tolerability.
Diazoxide was well-tolerated and it produced no serious adverse events other than 1 case of Hashimoto disease. At the 2 doses tested, diazoxide did not improve the primary endpoint or the MRI and clinical variables related to the presence of new lesions or relapses. Patients treated with diazoxide showed reduced PBVC compared with the placebo group, although such changes could be confounded by the higher disease activity of the treated group and the vascular effects of diazoxide.
At the doses tested, oral diazoxide did not decrease the appearance of new lesions evident by MRI. The effects in slowing the progression of brain atrophy require further validation.
Classification of evidence:
This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with RRMS, diazoxide (0.3 and 4 mg/d) does not significantly change the number of new MRI T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of MRI in the assessment of multiple sclerosis (MS) goes far beyond the diagnostic process. MRI techniques can be used as regular monitoring to help stage patients with MS and measure disease progression. MRI can also be used to measure lesion burden, thus providing useful information for the prediction of long-term disability. With the introduction of a new generation of immunomodulatory and/or immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of MS, MRI also makes an important contribution to the monitoring of treatment, and can be used to determine baseline tissue damage and detect subsequent repair. This use of MRI can help predict treatment response and assess the efficacy and safety of new therapies. In the second part of the MAGNIMS (Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS) network's guidelines on the use of MRI in MS, we focus on the implementation of this technique in prognostic and monitoring tasks. We present recommendations on how and when to use MRI for disease monitoring, and discuss some promising MRI approaches that may be introduced into clinical practice in the near future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fingolimod safety and efficacy data in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are available up to 5 years, from an extension of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 study, at a dose higher (5.0/1.25 mg) than the approved dose of 0.5 mg. The objective of the study is to present the end-of-study data (>7 years) from the open-label extension of the phase 2 study. In the core phase (6 months), patients (N = 281) were randomized to placebo or fingolimod 1.25/5 mg. In the extension, placebo patients were randomized to fingolimod 1.25/5 mg. All patients received open-label 1.25 mg fingolimod after month 24 and 0.5 mg after month 60. Clinical visits were performed every 3 months, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) every 6 months and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) annually. 122 (48.8 %) patients completed the extension study; overall fingolimod exposure was 1230.7 patient-years. The most common (>10 %) reasons for study discontinuation were adverse events (19.6 %) and consent withdrawal (16.4 %). Fingolimod treatment for >7 years was associated with sustained low clinical and MRI disease activity. Over 60 % of patients remained relapse free and about 80 % were free from any MRI activity. Overall annualized relapse rate was 0.18. Long-term fingolimod treatment was not associated with new safety concerns. Long-term fingolimod was well tolerated and associated with a sustained low level of disease activity.
Journal of Neurology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00415-015-7834-0 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the seventh year in a row the Post-ECTRIMS Meeting has been held in Madrid (Spain). Renowned specialists in multiple sclerosis and national leaders in this area have gathered once again to discuss the novelties presented at the 2014 ECTRIM-ACTRIMS World Congress. That meeting gave rise to this review, which will be published in two parts. One of the main conclusions in this first part is the deeper understanding of the genetic component of multiple sclerosis that we are acquiring, although it is still insufficient unless we bear in mind its interaction with the environmental risk factors of the disease or the impact of comorbidity and healthy habits on the patients' susceptibility and prognosis. In this respect, the authors insist on the fact that, in clinical practice, the cognitive and psychiatric disorders remain under-diagnosed and are rarely taken into account in clinical research. Yet, although scarce, the evidence we have points to the possible benefits of disease-modifying drugs and alternatives to treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Addressing the sub-populations in multiple sclerosis and variants of the disease enhances the importance of an early accurate diagnosis in order to offer patients a safer and more personalised prognosis and treatment. Paediatric multiple sclerosis is ideal for studying the risk factors of the disease but, given its low prevalence, the use of prospective studies raises a number of doubts and there is a preference for conducting collaborative studies.
Revista de neurologia 08/2015; 61(5):215-24. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over hundred polymorphisms with modest individual effects in MS susceptibility and they have confirmed the main individual effect of the Major Histocompatibility Complex. Additional risk loci with immunologically relevant genes were found significantly overrepresented. Nonetheless, it is accepted that most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined. Candidate association studies of the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor LILRA3 gene in MS have been repeatedly reported with inconsistent results.
In an attempt to shed some light on these controversial findings, a combined analysis was performed including the previously published datasets and three newly genotyped cohorts. Both wild-type and deleted LILRA3 alleles were discriminated in a single-tube PCR amplification and the resulting products were visualized by their different electrophoretic mobilities.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:
Overall, this meta-analysis involved 3200 MS patients and 3069 matched healthy controls and it did not evidence significant association of the LILRA3 deletion [carriers of LILRA3 deletion: p = 0.25, OR (95% CI) = 1.07 (0.95-1.19)], even after stratification by gender and the HLA-DRB1*15:01 risk allele.
PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(8):e0134414. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0134414. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical use of MRI in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has advanced markedly over the past few years. Technical improvements and continuously emerging data from clinical trials and observational studies have contributed to the enhanced performance of this tool for achieving a prompt diagnosis in patients with MS. The aim of this article is to provide guidelines for the implementation of MRI of the brain and spinal cord in the diagnosis of patients who are suspected of having MS. These guidelines are based on an extensive review of the recent literature, as well as on the personal experience of the members of the MAGNIMS (Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS) network. We address the indications, timing, coverage, reporting and interpretation of MRI studies in patients with suspected MS. Our recommendations are intended to help radiologists and neurologists standardize and optimize the use of MRI in clinical practice for the diagnosis of MS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between brain volume loss during the first year of interferon treatment and clinical outcome at 4 years.
Patients with multiple sclerosis initiating interferon β were clinically evaluated every 6 months for the presence of relapses and assessment of global disability using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). MRI scans were performed at baseline and after 12 months, and the percentage of brain volume change (PBVC), brain parenchymal volume change (BPVc%), gray matter volume change (GMVc%), and white matter volume change (WMVc%) were estimated. Patients were divided based on the cutoff values for predicting confirmed EDSS worsening obtained by receiver operating characteristic analysis for all atrophy measurements. Survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression to predict disability worsening at last observation were applied, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and radiologic variables.
Larger PBVC and WMVc% decreases were observed in patients with disability worsening at 4 years of follow-up, whereas no differences were found in BPVc% or GMVc%. Cutoff points were obtained for PBVC (-0.86%; sensitivity 65.5%, specificity 71.4%) and WMVc% (-2.49%; sensitivity 85.3%, specificity 43.8%). Patients with decreases of PBVC and WMVc% below cutoff values were more prone to develop disability worsening (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.875, p = 0.005; HR 4.246, p = 0.004, respectively). PBVC (HR 4.751, p = 0.008) and the interaction of new T2 lesions with WMVc% (HR 1.086, p = 0.005) were found to be independent predictors of disability worsening in the multivariate analysis.
At the patient level, whole-brain and white matter volume changes in the first year of interferon β therapy are predictive of subsequent clinical evolution under treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 12-month (M), phase 3, double-blind, randomised TRANSFORMS study demonstrated significant benefits of fingolimod 0.5 or 1.25 mg over interferon β-1a (IFNβ-1a) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We report the results of long-term (up to 4.5 years) extension of TRANSFORMS.
Patients randomised to fingolimod (0.5/1.25 mg) in the core phase continued the same dose (continuous-fingolimod) in the extension, whereas those on IFNβ-1a were re-randomised (1:1) to fingolimod (IFN-switch; IFN: 0.5/1.25 mg). Outcomes included annualised relapse rate (ARR), confirmed disability progression and MRI measures. Results are presented here for the continuous-fingolimod 0.5 mg and pooled IFN-switch groups.
Of the 1027 patients who entered the extension, 772 (75.2%) completed the study. From baseline to the end of the study (EOS), ARR in patients on continuous-fingolimod 0.5 mg was significantly lower than in the IFN-switch group (M0-EOS: 0.17 vs 0.27). After switching to fingolimod (M0-12 vs M13-EOS), patients initially treated with IFN had a 50% reduction in ARR (0.40 vs 0.20), reduced MRI activity and a lower rate of brain volume loss. In a post hoc analysis, the proportion of IFN-switch patients with no evidence of disease activity increased by approximately 50% in the first year after switching to fingolimod treatment (44.3% to 66.0%). The safety profile was consistent with that observed in the core phase.
These results support a continued effect of long-term fingolimod therapy in maintaining a low rate of disease activity and sustained improved efficacy after switching from IFNβ-1a to fingolimod.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 06/2015; DOI:10.1136/jnnp-2015-310597 · 6.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system with a complex and heterogeneous pathology that may ultimately lead to neurodegeneration and brain atrophy. Brain volume loss in MS is known to occur early in the disease course and to be clinically relevant, as it has been related to disability progression. Nowadays, brain volume loss is relatively easy to measure with different automated, reproducible and accurate software tools. Therefore, most of (if not all) the newest clinical trials have incorporated brain volume outcomes as a measure of treatment effect. With this review, we aimed to update and summarize all existing data regarding brain volume and RRMS treatment in clinical trials as well as in open-label observational studies of drugs with positive results in its primary outcome in at least one phase III trial as of March 2014.
Journal of Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00415-015-7798-0 · 3.38 Impact Factor