Brendan G Carr

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (81)267.84 Total impact

  • Academic Emergency Medicine 05/2014; 21(5). · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • Brendan G Carr, Zachary F Meisel
    Academic Emergency Medicine 01/2014; · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the impact of telemedicine on access to acute stroke care and expertise in the state of Texas. Texas hospitals were surveyed using a standard questionnaire and categorized as: (1) stand-alone Primary Stroke Centers not using telemedicine for acute stroke care, (2) Primary Stroke Centers using telemedicine for acute stroke care, (3) non-Primary Stroke Center hospitals using telemedicine for acute stroke care, or (4) non-Primary Stroke Center hospitals not using telemedicine for acute stroke care. Population data were obtained from the US Census Bureau and the Neilson Claritas Demographic Estimation Program. Access within 60 minutes to a designated facility was calculated at the block group level. Over 75% of Texans had 60-minute access to a stand-alone Primary Stroke Center. Including Primary Stroke Centers using telemedicine increased access by 6.5%. Adding non- Primary Stroke Centers that use telemedicine for acute stroke care provided 60-minute access for an additional 2% of Texans, leaving 16% of Texans without 60-minute access to acute stroke care. Approximately 62% of Texans had 60-minute access to more than one type of facility that provided acute stroke care. The use of telemedicine in the state of Texas brought 60-minute access to >2 million Texans who otherwise would not have had access to acute stroke expertise. Our findings demonstrate that using telemedicine for acute stroke has the ability to provide neurologically underserved areas access to acute stroke care.
    Annals of clinical and translational neurology. 01/2014; 1(1):27-33.
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    ABSTRACT: Optimal care of adults with severe acute respiratory failure requires specific resources and expertise. We sought to measure geographic access to these centers in the United States. Cross-sectional analysis of geographic access to high capability severe acute respiratory failure centers in the United States. We defined high capability centers using two criteria: (1) provision of adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), based on either 2008-2013 Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reporting or provision of ECMO to 2010 Medicare beneficiaries; or (2) high annual hospital mechanical ventilation volume, based 2010 Medicare claims. Nonfederal acute care hospitals in the United States. We defined geographic access as the percentage of the state, region and national population with either direct or hospital-transferred access within one or two hours by air or ground transport. Of 4,822 acute care hospitals, 148 hospitals met our ECMO criteria and 447 hospitals met our mechanical ventilation criteria. Geographic access varied substantially across states and regions in the United States, depending on center criteria. Without interhospital transfer, an estimated 58.5% of the national adult population had geographic access to hospitals performing ECMO and 79.0% had geographic access to hospitals performing a high annual volume of mechanical ventilation. With interhospital transfer and under ideal circumstances, an estimated 96.4% of the national adult population had geographic access to hospitals performing ECMO and 98.6% had geographic access to hospitals performing a high annual volume of mechanical ventilation. However, this degree of geographic access required substantial interhospital transfer of patients, including up to two hours by air. Geographic access to high capability severe acute respiratory failure centers varies widely across states and regions in the United States. Adequate referral center access in the case of disasters and pandemics will depend highly on local and regional care coordination across political boundaries.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94057. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two decades ago, Philadelphia began allowing police transport of patients with penetrating trauma. We conduct a large, multiyear, citywide analysis of this policy. We examine the association between mode of out-of-hospital transport (police department versus emergency medical services [EMS]) and mortality among patients with penetrating trauma in Philadelphia. This is a retrospective cohort study of trauma registry data. Patients who sustained any proximal penetrating trauma and presented to any Level I or II trauma center in Philadelphia between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, were included. Analyses were conducted with logistic regression models and were adjusted for injury severity with the Trauma and Injury Severity Score and for case mix with a modified Charlson index. Four thousand one hundred twenty-two subjects were identified. Overall mortality was 27.4%. In unadjusted analyses, patients transported by police were more likely to die than patients transported by ambulance (29.8% versus 26.5%; OR 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00 to 1.39). In adjusted models, no significant difference was observed in overall mortality between the police department and EMS groups (odds ratio [OR] 0.78; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.01). In subgroup analysis, patients with severe injury (Injury Severity Score >15) (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.90), patients with gunshot wounds (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.94), and patients with stab wounds (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.45) were more likely to survive if transported by police. We found no significant overall difference in adjusted mortality between patients transported by the police department compared with EMS but found increased adjusted survival among 3 key subgroups of patients transported by police. This practice may augment traditional care.
    Annals of emergency medicine 12/2013; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Collective knowledge and coordination of vital interventions for time-sensitive conditions (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI], stroke, cardiac arrest, and septic shock) could contribute to a comprehensive statewide emergency care system, but little is known about population access to the resources required. We seek to describe existing clinical management strategies for time-sensitive conditions in Pennsylvania hospitals. All Pennsylvania emergency departments (EDs) open in 2009 were surveyed about resource availability and practice patterns for time-sensitive conditions. The frequency with which EDs provided essential clinical bundles for each condition was assessed. Penalized maximum likelihood regressions were used to evaluate associations between ED characteristics and the presence of the 4 clinical bundles of care. We used geographic information science to calculate 60-minute ambulance access to the nearest facility with these clinical bundles. The percentage of EDs providing each of the 4 clinical bundles in 2009 ranged from 20% to 57% (stroke 20%, STEMI 32%, cardiac arrest 34%, sepsis 57%). For STEMI and stroke, presence of a board-certified/board-eligible emergency physician was significantly associated with presence of a clinical bundle. Only 8% of hospitals provided all 4 care bundles. However, 53% of the population was able to reach this minority of hospitals within 60 minutes. Reliably matching patient needs to ED resources in time-dependent illness is a critical component of a coordinated emergency care system. Population access to critical interventions for the time-dependent diseases discussed here is limited. A population-based planning approach and improved coordination of care could improve access to interventions for patients with time-sensitive conditions.
    Annals of emergency medicine 12/2013; · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • Ricardo Martinez, Brendan Carr
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    ABSTRACT: Emergency care is an essential component of the care delivery system in the United States, but it received little attention during the debates about health care reform. As a result, US emergency care remains outdated and fragmented. We provide an overview of efforts to regionalize emergency care in the United States, and we both identify challenges to change and recommend next steps in five domains: people, quality and processes, technology, finances, and jurisdictional politics. We offer a commonsense approach to increasing the value of emergency care delivery by developing regionalized integrated networks of emergency care that take advantage of emerging changes in the health system and are designed to meet time-sensitive patient needs.
    Health Affairs 12/2013; 32(12):2082-90. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To use the natural experiment of health insurance reform in Massachusetts to study the impact of increased insurance coverage on ICU utilization and mortality. Population-based cohort study. Massachusetts and four states (New York, Washington, Nebraska, and North Carolina) that did not enact reform. All nonpregnant nonelderly adults (age 18-64 yr) admitted to nonfederal acute care hospitals in one of the five states of interest were eligible, excluding patients who were not residents of a respective state at the time of admission. We used a difference-in-differences approach to compare trends in ICU admissions and outcomes of in-hospital mortality and discharge destination for ICU patients. Healthcare reform in Massachusetts was associated with a decrease in ICU patients without insurance from 9.3% to 5.1%. There were no significant changes in adjusted ICU admission rates, mortality, or discharge destination. In a sensitivity analysis excluding a state that enacted Medicaid reform prior to the study period, our difference-in-differences analysis demonstrated a significant increase in mortality of 0.38% per year (95% CI, 0.12-0.64%) in Massachusetts, attributable to a greater per-year decrease in mortality postreform in comparison states (-0.37%; 95% CI, -0.52% to -0.21%) compared with Massachusetts (0.01%; 95% CI, -0.20% to 0.11%). Massachusetts healthcare reform increased the number of ICU patients with insurance but was not associated with significant changes in ICU use or discharge destination among ICU patients. Reform was also not associated with changed in-hospital mortality for ICU patients; however, this association was dependent on the comparison states chosen in the analysis.
    Critical care medicine 11/2013; · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many hospitals in the United States are seeking to obtain and maintain trauma credentialing. Assessment of trauma center success has traditionally focused on mortality without directed measure of surgical subspecialization. However, survival alone may not be a sufficient marker of success with modern health care. The purpose of this study was to determine the number of trauma patients nationally who would benefit from subspecialized care by an orthopedic traumatologist. A list of musculoskeletal DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. codes representing injuries warranting care by subspecialized orthopedic traumatologists was generated by survey to each of two cohorts: one consisting of 10 subspecialized orthopedic traumatologists and one consisting of 10 nontraumatologists. The 2006 National Inpatient Sample data set was used to estimate the national volume of patients sustaining an orthopedic injury and the number requiring subspecialty orthopedic trauma care, as defined by the DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. lists generated by our survey. Survey response rate was 100%. In 2006, 2,068,349 patients sustained a traumatic injury; 46.7% of these had an orthopedic injury. Our cohort of subspecialized orthopedic traumatologists identified 25.7% of all trauma patients as requiring an orthopedic traumatologist. Our cohort of general orthopedists identified 13.5% of all trauma patients as requiring an orthopedic traumatologist. Rates of polytrauma, injury severity, and treatment at trauma centers were similar between the two groups. Between 13.5% and 25.7% of all injured patients should, if resources permit, receive subspecialty orthopedic trauma care. The magnitude of this figure highlights the importance, from a public health perspective, of policy interventions aimed at better coordinating the field of orthopedic traumatology. Detailed outcome measures beyond mortality and triage guidelines suggesting which patients should receive subspecialty orthopedic trauma care should be developed. In addition, resources, including fellowship training, should be allocated in a methodical manner that matches supply to the national demand for this type of care. Economic/decision analysis, level IV.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 10/2013; 75(4):687-92.
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    ABSTRACT: The Institute of Medicine (IOM)'s "Future of Emergency Care" report recommended the categorization and regionalization of emergency care, but no uniform system to categorize hospital emergency care capabilities has been developed. The absence of such a system limits the ability to benchmark outcomes, to develop regional systems of care, and of patients to make informed decisions when seeking emergency care. The authors sought to pilot the deployment of an emergency care categorization system in two states. A five-tiered emergency department (ED) categorization system was designed, and a survey of all Pennsylvania and Wisconsin EDs was conducted. This 46-item survey described hospital staffing, characteristics, resources, and practice patterns. Based on responses, EDs were categorized as limited, basic, advanced, comprehensive, and pediatric critical care capable. Prehospital transport times were then used to determine population access to each level of care. A total of 247 surveys were received from the two states (247 of 297, 83%). Of the facilities surveyed, roughly one-quarter of hospitals provided advanced care, 10.5% provided comprehensive care, and 1.6% provided pediatric critical care. Overall, 75.1% of the general population could reach an advanced or comprehensive ED within 60 minutes by ground transportation. Among the pediatric population (age 14 years and younger), 56.2% could reach a pediatric critical care or comprehensive ED, with another 19.5% being able to access an advanced ED within 60 minutes. Using this categorization system, fewer than half of all EDs provide advanced or comprehensive emergency care. While the majority of the population has access to advanced or comprehensive care within an hour, a significant portion (25%) does not. This article describes how an ED categorization scheme could be developed and deployed across the United States. There are implications for prehospital planning, patient decision-making, outcomes measurement, interfacility transfer coordination, and development of regional emergency care systems.
    Academic Emergency Medicine 09/2013; 20(9):894-903. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organ failure after injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, yet its true incidence is unknown. We sought to benchmark the incidence of organ failure following injury at trauma centers and nontrauma centers using a nationally representative sample of hospital discharges. We hypothesized that injured patients receiving care at trauma centers would have a lower incidence of organ failure than those at nontrauma centers. We used the 2006 Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify injured adults (age ≥ 15 years) with organ dysfunction using specific DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. codes by system. After adjusting for hospital size, geographic region, comorbidities, Injury Severity Score (ISS), age, and sex, a multivariate logistic regression model was created to compare rates of organ dysfunction between trauma centers and nontrauma centers. We identified 396,276 injured patients, representing the patient care experience of a total of 1,939,473 patients. Among these patients, 6.5% had concurrent organ failure. Injured patients who had acute organ failure were more likely to die than injured patients without organ failure (12.4% vs. 1.7%, p < 0.001). Mortality increased with the number of organ system failures. Patients treated at trauma centers had a higher incidence of respiratory and cardiac failure compared with nontrauma centers. We offer the first national benchmark of rates of acute organ failure among injured patients. Postinjury organ failure is uncommon, but incidence increases with injury severity and correlates with mortality. Patients at trauma centers had higher rates of respiratory and cardiac failure, possibly representing differences in referral patterns or resuscitation strategies. Prognostic and epidemiologic study, level III.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 09/2013; 75(3):426-431.
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    ABSTRACT: To apply systems optimization methods to simulate and compare the most effective locations for emergency care resources as measured by access to care. This study was an optimization analysis of the locations of trauma centers (TCs), helicopter depots (HDs), and severely injured patients in need of time-critical care in select US states. Access was defined as the percentage of injured patients who could reach a level I/II TC within 45 or 60 minutes. Optimal locations were determined by a search algorithm that considered all candidate sites within a set of existing hospitals and airports in finding the best solutions that maximized access. Across a dozen states, existing access to TCs within 60 minutes ranged from 31.1% to 95.6%, with a mean of 71.5%. Access increased from 0.8% to 35.0% after optimal addition of one or two TCs. Access increased from 1.0% to 15.3% after optimal addition of one or two HDs. Relocation of TCs and HDs (optimal removal followed by optimal addition) produced similar results. Optimal changes to TCs produced greater increases in access to care than optimal changes to HDs although these results varied across states. Systems optimization methods can be used to compare the impacts of different resource configurations and their possible effects on access to care. These methods to determine optimal resource allocation can be applied to many domains, including comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research.
    Journal of clinical epidemiology 08/2013; 66(8 Suppl):S57-64. · 5.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many US cities have experienced population reductions, often blamed on crime and interpersonal injury. Yet the overall injury risk in urban areas compared with suburban and rural areas has not been fully described. We begin to investigate this evidence gap by looking specifically at injury-related mortality risk, determining the risk of all injury death across the rural-urban continuum. A cross-sectional time-series analysis of US injury deaths from 1999 to 2006 in counties classified according to the rural-urban continuum was conducted. Negative binomial generalized estimating equations and tests for trend were completed. Total injury deaths were the primary comparator, whereas differences by mechanism and age were also explored. A total of 1,295,919 injury deaths in 3,141 US counties were analyzed. Injury mortality increased with increasing rurality. Urban counties demonstrated the lowest death rates, significantly less than rural counties (mean difference=24.0 per 100,000; 95% confidence interval 16.4 to 31.6 per 100,000). After adjustment, the risk of injury death was 1.22 times higher in the most rural counties compared with the most urban (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.39). Using total injury death rate as an overall safety metric, US urban counties were safer than their rural counterparts, and injury death risk increased steadily as counties became more rural. Greater emphasis on elevated injury-related mortality risk outside of large cities, attention to locality-specific injury prevention priorities, and an increased focus on matching emergency care needs to emergency care resources are in order.
    Annals of emergency medicine 07/2013; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evaluation at primary stroke centers (PSCs) has the potential to improve outcomes for patients with stroke. We looked for differences in evaluation at Joint Commission certified PSCs by race, education, income, and geography (urban versus nonurban; Southeastern Stroke Belt versus non-Stroke Belt). METHODS: Community-dwelling, black and white participants from the national Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) prospective population-based cohort were enrolled between January 2003 and October 2007. Participants were contacted at 6-month intervals for suspected stroke events. For suspected stroke events, it was determined whether the evaluating hospital was a certified PSC. RESULTS: Of 1000 suspected strokes, 204 (20.4%) strokes were evaluated at a PSC. A smaller proportion of women than men (17.8% versus 23.0%; P=0.04), those with a previous stroke (15.1% versus 21.6%; P=0.04), those living in the Stroke Belt (14.7% versus 27.3%; P<0.001), and those in a nonurban area (9.1% versus 23.1%; P<0.001) were evaluated at a PSC. There were no differences by race, education, or income. In multivariable analysis, subjects were less likely to be evaluated at a PSC if they lived in a nonurban area (odds ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.67) or lived in the Stroke Belt (odds ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.77) or had a previous stroke (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in evaluation by PSCs are predominately related to geographic factors but not to race, education, or low income. Despite an increased burden of cerebrovascular disease in the Stroke Belt, subjects there were less likely to be evaluated at certified hospitals.
    Stroke 05/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior studies have reported conflicting results regarding the utility of ultrasound in the diagnosis of traumatic pneumothorax (PTX) because they have used sonologists with extensive experience. This study evaluates the characteristics of ultrasound for PTX for a large cohort of trauma and emergency physicians. This was a prospective, observational study on a convenience sample of patients presenting to a trauma center who had a thoracic ultrasound (TUS) evaluation for PTX performed after the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma exam. Sonologists recorded their findings prior to any other diagnostic studies. The results of TUS were compared to one or more of the following: chest computed tomography, escape of air on chest tube insertion, or supine chest radiography followed by clinical observation. There were 549 patients enrolled. The median injury severity score of the patients was 5 (inter-quartile range [IQR] 1-14); 36 different sonologists performed TUS. Forty-seven of the 549 patients had traumatic PTX, for an incidence of 9%. TUS correctly identified 27/47 patients with PTX for a sensitivity of 57% (confidence interval [CI] 42-72%). There were 3 false positive cases of TUS for a specificity of 99% (CI 98%-100%). A "wet" chest radiograph reading done in the trauma bay showed a sensitivity of 40% (CI 23-59) and a specificity of 100% (99-100). In a large heterogenous group of clinicians who typically care for trauma patients, the sonographic evaluation for pneumothorax was as accurate as supine chest radiography. Thoracic ultrasound may be helpful in the initial evaluation of patients with truncal trauma.
    The western journal of emergency medicine 03/2013; 14(2):103-108.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: In 1992, the first consensus definition of severe sepsis was published. Subsequent epidemiologic estimates were collected using administrative data, but ongoing discrepancies in the definition of severe sepsis produced large differences in estimates. OBJECTIVES:: We seek to describe the variations in prevalence and mortality of severe sepsis in the United States using four methods of database abstraction. We hypothesized that different methodologies of capturing cases of severe sepsis would result in disparate estimates of prevalence and mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS:: Using a nationally representative sample, four previously published methods (Angus et al, Martin et al, Dombrovskiy et al, and Wang et al) were used to gather cases of severe sepsis over a 6-yr period (2004-2009). In addition, the use of new ICD-9 sepsis codes was compared with previous methods. MEASUREMENTS:: Annual national prevalence and in-hospital mortality of severe sepsis. RESULTS:: The average annual prevalence varied by as much as 3.5-fold depending on method used and ranged from 894,013 (300/100,000 population) to 3,110,630 (1,031/100,000) using the methods of Dombrovskiy et al and Wang et al, respectively. Average annual increase in the prevalence of severe sepsis was similar (13.0% to 13.3%) across all methods. In-hospital mortality ranged from 14.7% to 29.9% using abstraction methods of Wang et al and Dombrovskiy et al. Using all methods, there was a decrease in in-hospital mortality across the 6-yr period (35.2% to 25.6% [Dombrovskiy et al] and 17.8% to 12.1% [Wang et al]). Use of ICD-9 sepsis codes more than doubled over the 6-year period (158,722 - 489,632 [995.92 severe sepsis], 131,719 - 303,615 [785.52 septic shock]). CONCLUSION:: There is substantial variability in prevalence and mortality of severe sepsis depending on the method of database abstraction used. A uniform, consistent method is needed for use in national registries to facilitate accurate assessment of clinical interventions and outcome comparisons between hospitals and regions.
    Critical care medicine 02/2013; · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Previous studies have demonstrated lower mortality among patients transported to single urban trauma centers by private vehicle (PV) compared with Emergency Medical Services (EMS). We sought to describe the characteristics and outcomes of injured patients transported by PV in a state trauma system compared to patients transported by EMS.Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of state trauma registry data for patients admitted to all Pennsylvania trauma centers over 5 years (1/2003 to 12/2007). Our primary exposure of interest was prehospital mode of transport and our primary outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality. Unadjusted analyses were performed as were adjusted analyses controlling for injury severity. Data are presented as percents, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals.ResultsOf the 91 132 patients analyzed, 9.6% were transported to the emergency department by PV and 90.4% by EMS. Overall Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 13.3 ± 11.0 (ISS for EMS 13.7 ± 11.3, PV 9.2 ± 7.1, P < .001), and 6.6% of patients died (EMS 7.1%, PV 1.5%, P < .001). After adjusting for injury severity, patients transported by EMS were more likely to die than PV patients (OR 1.9 [95% CI 1.5-2.4]). This effect persisted in blunt, penetrating, advanced life support, and basic life support subgroups, but not in the severely injured (ISS > 15, ISS > 25) subgroups.Conclusions Nearly 10% of injured patients arrive at trauma centers by private vehicle. Transport of injured patients by EMS was associated with higher mortality than PV transport. This may reflect the effects of prehospital time, prehospital interventions, or other confounders.
    The American journal of emergency medicine 02/2013; 31(2):275–281. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current efforts to improve health care focus on hospital readmission rates as a marker of quality and on the effectiveness of transitions in care during the period after acute care is received. Emergency department (ED) visits are also a marker of hospital-based acute care following discharge but little is known about ED use during this period. To determine the degree to which ED visits and hospital readmissions contribute to overall use of acute care services within 30 days of discharge from acute care hospitals, to describe the reasons patients return for ED visits, and to describe these patterns among Medicare beneficiaries and those not covered by Medicare insurance. Prospective study of patients aged 18 years or older (mean age: 53.4 years) who were discharged between July 1, 2008, and September 31, 2009, from acute care hospitals in 3 large, geographically diverse states (California, Florida, and Nebraska) with data recorded in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project state inpatient and ED databases. The 3 primary outcomes during the 30-day period after hospital discharge were ED visits not resulting in admission (treat-and-release encounters), hospital readmissions from any source, and a combined measure of ED visits and hospital readmissions termed hospital-based acute care. The final cohort included 5,032,254 index hospitalizations among 4,028,555 unique patients. In the 30 days following discharge, 17.9% (95% CI, 17.9%-18.0%) of hospitalizations resulted in at least 1 acute care encounter. Of these 1,233,402 postdischarge acute care encounters, ED visits comprised 39.8% (95% CI, 39.7%-39.9%). For every 1000 discharges, there were 97.5 (95% CI, 97.2-97.8) ED treat-and-release visits and 147.6 (95% CI, 147.3-147.9) hospital readmissions in the 30 days following discharge. The number of ED treat-and-release visits ranged from a low of 22.4 (95% CI, 4.6-65.4) encounters per 1000 discharges for breast malignancy to a high of 282.5 (95% CI, 209.7-372.4) encounters per 1000 discharges for uncomplicated benign prostatic hypertrophy. Among the highest volume discharges, the most common reason patients returned to the ED was always related to their index hospitalization. After discharge from acute care hospitals in 3 states, ED visits within 30 days were common among adults and accounted for 39.8% of postdischarge hospital-based acute care visits. Improving care transitions should focus not only on decreasing readmissions but also on ED visits.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2013; 309(4):364-71. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Joint Commission began certifying primary stroke centers (PSCs) in December 2003 and provides a standardized definition of stroke center care. It is unknown if PSCs outperform noncertified hospitals. We hypothesized that PSCs would use more recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for ischemic stroke than would non-PSCs. Data were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2004 to 2009. The analysis was limited to states that publicly reported hospital identity. All patients ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke were included. Subjects were excluded if the treating hospital was not identified, if it was not possible to determine the temporal relationship between certification and admission, and/or if admitted as a transfer. Rt-PA was defined by ICD9 procedure code 99.10. All eligibility criteria were met by 323 228 discharges from 26 states. There were 63 145 (19.5%) at certified PSCs. Intravenous rt-PA was administered to 3.1% overall: 2.2% at non-PSCs and 6.7% at PSCs. Between 2004 and 2009, rt-PA administration increased from 1.4% to 3.3% at non-PSCs and from 6.0% to 7.6% at PSCs. In a multivariable model incorporating year, age, sex, race, insurance, income, comorbidities, DRG-based disease severity, and hospital characteristics, evaluation at a PSC was significantly associated with rt-PA utilization (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.16). Subjects evaluated at PSCs were more likely to receive rt-PA than those evaluated at non-PSCs. This association was significant after adjustment for patient and hospital-level variables. Systems of care are necessary to ensure stroke patients have rapid access to PSCs throughout the United States.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2013; 2(2):e000071.
  • Brendan G Carr, Robert D Welch
    Annals of emergency medicine 12/2012; · 4.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

654 Citations
267.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Emergency Medicine
      • • Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology
      • • Department of Emergency Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Cincinnati, OH, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2008
    • Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
    • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States