[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Humanized Rag2(-/-)gamma(c)(-/-) mice (Hu-DKO mice) become populated with functional human T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells following transplantation with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and represent an improved model for studying HIV infection in vivo. In the current study we demonstrated that intrasplenic inoculation of hu-DKO mice with HIV-1 initiated a higher level of HIV infection than intravenous or intraperitoneal inoculation, associated with a reciprocal decrease in peripheral CD4(+) T cells and increase in peripheral CD8(+) T cells. HIV infection by intrasplenic injection increased serum levels of human IgG and IgM including human IgM and IgG specific for HIV-1 gp120. There was a significant inverse correlation between the level of HIV-1 infection and the extent of CD4(+) T cell depletion. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiated 1 week after HIV-1 inoculation markedly suppressed HIV-1 infection and prevented CD4(+) T cell depletion. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that intrasplenic injection of hu-DKO mice with HIV is a more efficient route of HIV infection than intravenous or intraperitoneal injection and generates increased infection associated with an increased anti-HIV humoral response. This animal model can serve as a valuable in vivo model to study the efficacy of anti-HIV therapies.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 07/2010; 26(7):735-46. DOI:10.1089/aid.2009.0136 · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-encoded Tat provides transcriptional activation critical for efficient HIV-1 replication by interacting with cyclin T1 and recruiting P-TEFb to efficiently elongate the nascent HIV transcript. Tat-mediated transcriptional activation in mice is precluded by species-specific structural differences that prevent Tat interaction with mouse cyclin T1 and severely compromise HIV-1 replication in mouse cells. We investigated whether transgenic mice expressing human cyclin T1 under the control of a murine CD4 promoter/enhancer cassette that directs gene expression to CD4(+) T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages (hu-cycT1 mice) would display Tat responsiveness in their CD4-expressing mouse cells and selectively increase HIV-1 production in this cellular population, which is infected primarily in HIV-1-positive individuals. To this end, we crossed hu-cycT1 mice with JR-CSF transgenic mice carrying the full-length HIV-1(JR-CSF) provirus under the control of the endogenous HIV-1 long terminal repeat and demonstrated that human cyclin T1 expression is sufficient to support Tat-mediated transactivation in primary mouse CD4 T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages and increases in vitro and in vivo HIV-1 production by these stimulated cells. Increased HIV-1 production by CD4(+) T lymphocytes was paralleled with their specific depletion in the peripheral blood of the JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice, which increased over time. In addition, increased HIV-1 transgene expression due to human cyclin T1 expression was associated with increased lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 production by JR-CSF mouse monocytes/macrophages in vitro. Therefore, the JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice should provide an improved mouse system for investigating the pathogenesis of various aspects of HIV-1-mediated disease and the efficacies of therapeutic interventions.
Journal of Virology 03/2006; 80(4):1850-62. DOI:10.1128/JVI.80.4.1850-1862.2006 · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Encephalitis and dementia associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are characterized by leukocyte infiltration into the CNS, microglia activation, aberrant chemokine expression, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and eventual loss of neurons. Little is known about whether human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection of leukocytes affects their ability to transmigrate in response to chemokines and to alter BBB integrity. We now demonstrate that HIV infection of human leukocytes results in their increased transmigration across our tissue culture model of the human BBB in response to the chemokine CCL2, as well as in disruption of the BBB, as evidenced by enhanced permeability, reduction of tight junction proteins, and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. HIV-infected cells added to our model did not transmigrate in the absence of CCL2, nor did this condition alter BBB integrity. The chemokines CXCL10/interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa, CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, or CCL5/RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted) did not enhance HIV-infected leukocyte transmigration or BBB permeability. The increased capacity of HIV-infected leukocytes to transmigrate in response to CCL2 correlated with their increased expression of CCR2, the chemokine receptor for CCL2. These data suggest that CCL2, but not other chemokines, plays a key role in infiltration of HIV-infected leukocytes into the CNS and the subsequent pathology characteristic of NeuroAIDS.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 02/2006; 26(4):1098-106. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3863-05.2006 · 6.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1-infected monocyte/macrophages located in lymph nodes and tissues are highly productive sources of HIV-1 and may function as a persistent reservoir contributing to the rebound viremia observed after highly active antiretroviral therapy is stopped. Mechanisms activating latently infected, primary monocyte/macrophages to produce HIV-1 were investigated using monocytes isolated from a transgenic mouse line carrying a full-length proviral clone of a monocyte-tropic HIV-1 isolate, HIV-1(JR-CSF), regulated by the endogenous long terminal repeat (LTR) (JR-CSF mice). Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) combined with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced infectious HIV-1 production by JR-CSF mouse monocytes over 10-fold and 100-fold higher than that stimulated by GM-CSF or LPS alone, respectively. We examined mechanisms of GM-CSF synergy with LPS and demonstrated that GM-CSF up-regulated the LPS receptor, TLR-4, and also synergized with LPS to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase/ERK kinase and the Sp1 transcription factor. Inhibitors of either MAP kinase/ERK kinase or p38 kinase but not PI 3-kinase potently suppressed GM-CSF and LPS-induced HIV-1 production by JR-CSF mouse monocytes. Because Sp1 is activated by both the MAP kinase/ERK kinase and p38 kinase pathways, we postulate that synergistic activation of these pathways by GM-CSF and LPS induced sufficient levels of Sp1 to activate the HIV-1 LTR in a Tat-independent manner and induced HIV-1 production by JR-CSF mouse monocytes. Thus, our study delineated the pathway of HIV-1 LTR activation by GM-CSF and LPS and indicated that JR-CSF transgenic mice may provide a new in vitro and in vivo system for investigating the mechanism by which inflammatory and infectious stimuli activate HIV-1 production from latently infected monocytes.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 03/2005; 21(2):125-39. DOI:10.1089/aid.2005.21.125 · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large body of evidence has indicated that microglia are the predominant cellular location for HIV-1 in the brains of HIV-1-infected individuals and play a direct role in the development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). Therefore, investigation of the mechanism by which HIV-1-infected microglia contribute to the development of HIV-associated dementia should be facilitated by the creation of a mouse model wherein microglia carry replication-competent HIV-1. To circumvent the inability of HIV-1 to infect mouse cells, we developed a mouse line that is transgenic for a full-length proviral clone of a monocyte-tropic HIV-1 isolate, HIV-1(JR-CSF) (JR-CSF mice), whose T cells and monocytes produce infectious HIV-1. We detected expression of the long terminal repeat-regulated proviral transgene in the microglia of these transgenic mice and demonstrated that it was increased by in vitro and in vivo stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, microglia isolated from JR-CSF mouse brains produced HIV-1 that was infectious in vitro and in vivo. We examined the effect that carriage of the HIV-1 provirus had on chemokine gene regulation in the brains of these mice and demonstrated that MCP-1 gene expression by JR-CSF mouse microglia and brains was more responsive to in vitro and in vivo stimulation with lipopolysaccharide than were microglia and brains from control mice. Thus, this study indicates that the JR-CSF mice may represent a new mouse model to study the effect of HIV-1 replication on microglia function and its contribution to HIV-1-associated neurological disease.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 10/2003; 19(9):755-65. DOI:10.1089/088922203769232557 · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a system in which transgenic and knockout technologies are used to study the in vivo behavior of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reservoirs, 2 different mouse models were combined: transgenic mice carrying full-length provirus encoding the monocyte-tropic HIV-1(JR-CSF) isolate (JR-CSF mice) and severe combined immunodeficient mice implanted with human fetal thymus and liver tissues (thy/liv-SCID-hu mice). Extensive HIV-1 infection of human thymic implants occurred after injection of JR-CSF mouse leukocytes into thy/liv-SCID-hu mice, indicating that these cells provide an in vivo source of replication-competent HIV-1. In vivo persistence of transferred JR-CSF mouse leukocytes carrying replication-competent HIV-1 in thy/liv-SCID-hu mice was indicated by the emergence of HIV-1 infection in mice that had no detectable HIV-1 infection until after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Thus, thy/liv-SCID-hu mice populated with JR-CSF mouse leukocytes, a persistent cellular reservoir harboring replication-competent HIV-1, present a new in vivo system for characterizing reservoirs of HIV-1 and evaluating therapeutic strategies designed to eliminate them.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2002; 186(10):1412-21. DOI:10.1086/344737 · 5.78 Impact Factor