[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies of mRNA for classical glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) demonstrated that hepatocytes of rats fed a selenium-deficient diet have less cytoplasmic GPx1 mRNA than hepatocytes of rats fed a selenium-adequate diet. This is because GPx1 mRNA is degraded by the surveillance pathway called nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) when the selenocysteine codon is recognized as nonsense. Here, we examine the mechanism by which the abundance of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) mRNA, another selenocysteine-encoding mRNA, fails to decrease in the hepatocytes and testicular cells of rats fed a selenium-deficient diet. We demonstrate with cultured NIH3T3 fibroblasts or H35 hepatocytes transiently transfected with PHGPx gene variants under selenium-supplemented or selenium-deficient conditions that PHGPx mRNA is, in fact, a substrate for NMD when the selenocysteine codon is recognized as nonsense. We also demonstrate that the endogenous PHGPx mRNA of untransfected H35 cells is subject to NMD. The failure of previous reports to detect the NMD of PHGPx mRNA in cultured cells is likely attributable to the expression of PHGPx cDNA rather than the PHGPx gene. We conclude that 1) the sequence of the PHGPx gene is adequate to support the NMD of product mRNA, and 2) there is a mechanism in liver and testis but not cultured fibroblasts and hepatocytes that precludes or masks the NMD of PHGPx mRNA.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 05/2001; 12(4):1009-17. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: mRNA for glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) is subject to cytoplasmic nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) when the UGA selenocysteine (Sec) codon is recognized as nonsense. Here, we demonstrate by moving the sole intron of the GPx1 gene that either the Sec codon or a TAA codon in its place elicits NMD when located >/=59 bp but not </=43 bp upstream of the intron. Therefore, the exon-exon junction of GPx1 mRNA positions the boundary between nonsense codons that do and do not elicit NMD, as has been shown for the 3'-most junctions of mRNAs subject to nucleus-associated NMD. We also demonstrate by using a regulatable promoter to drive GPx1 gene expression that cytoplasmic NMD is characteristic of steady-state mRNA, in contrast to nucleus-associated NMD. These findings clarify the mechanistic relationship between cytoplasmic and nucleus-associated NMD and offer the first demonstration that nuclear introns can influence cytoplasmic NMD. Finally, by analyzing hybrid GPx1 genes, we disprove the idea that the cellular site of NMD is determined by the efficiency of translation initiation.
The EMBO Journal 09/2000; 19(17):4734-44. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian mRNA for selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase 1 (Se-GPx1) contains a UGA codon that is recognized as a codon for the nonstandard amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). Inadequate concentrations of selenium (Se) result in a decrease in Se-GPx1 mRNA abundance by an uncharacterized mechanism that may be dependent on translation, independent of translation, or both. In this study, we have begun to elucidate this mechanism. We demonstrate using hepatocytes from rats fed either a Se-supplemented or Se-deficient diet for 9 to 13 weeks that Se deprivation results in an approximately 50-fold reduction in Se-GPx1 activity and an approximately 20-fold reduction in Se-GPx1 mRNA abundance. Reverse transcription-PCR analyses of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions revealed that Se deprivation has no effect on the levels of either nuclear pre-mRNA or nuclear mRNA but reduces the level of cytoplasmic mRNA. The regulation of Se-GPx1 gene expression by Se was recapitulated in transient transfections of NIH 3T3 cells, and experiments were extended to examine the consequences of converting the Sec codon (TGA) to either a termination codon (TAA) or a cysteine codon (TGC). Regardless of the type of codon, an alteration in the Se concentration was of no consequence to the ratio of nuclear Se-GPx1 mRNA to nuclear Se-GPx1 pre-mRNA. The ratio of cytoplasmic Se-GPx1 mRNA to nuclear Se-GPx1 mRNA from the wild-type (TGA-containing) allele was reduced twofold when cells were deprived of Se for 48 h after transfection, which has been shown to be the extent of the reduction for the endogenous Se-GPx1 mRNA of cultured cells incubated as long as 20 days in Se-deficient medium. In contrast to the TGA allele, Se had no effect on expression of either the TAA allele or the TGC allele. Under Se-deficient conditions, the TAA and TGC alleles generated, respectively, 1.7-fold-less and 3-fold-more cytoplasmic Se-GPx1 mRNA relative to the amount of nuclear Se-GPx1 mRNA than the TGA allele. These results indicate that (i) under conditions of Se deprivation, the Sec codon reduces the abundance of cytoplasmic Se-GPx1 mRNA by a translation-dependent mechanism and (ii) there is no additional mechanism by which Se regulates Se-GPx1 mRNA production. These data suggest that the inefficient incorporation of Sec at the UGA codon during mRNA translation augments the nonsense-codon-mediated decay of cytoplasmic Se-GPx1 mRNA.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 06/1998; 18(5):2932-9. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While there are reports that classical selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPX1) activity is decreased during iron deficiency, the relationship between tissue iron status and Se-GPX1 activity remains speculative. This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism for the decrease in Se-GPX1 activity during iron deficiency. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were given free access to either an iron-deficient or an iron-adequate diet for eight weeks, after which blood, livers, kidneys, hearts, brains and testes were surgically excised. During iron deficiency, Se-GPX1 mRNA levels in liver tissue were decreased by approximately 55%. Similarly, the concentration of immunoreactive Se-GPX1 protein and total selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPX) activity were decreased by 55% and 60%, respectively. In kidney, heart and brain total Se-GPX activities were depressed as much as 33%. Selenium concentration in liver was reduced by 42%, whereas the decrease in Se concentrations in kidney, heart, and brain ranged from 17 to 25%. Concentrations of plasma Se also were reduced by 18%, but testes showed little change in either Se-GPX activity or Se concentration during iron deficiency. Results suggest that the synthesis of Se-GPX1 protein is decreased during iron deficiency possibly due to pretranslational regulation.
Journal of Nutrition 03/1995; 125(2):293-301. · 4.20 Impact Factor