M Arlotta

Università degli Studi di Messina, Messina, Sicily, Italy

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Publications (17)66.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: 1Antioxidants can exert protective effects in endotoxic shock by either a reduction of the oxidant damage or attenuation of Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF-α) production.2Lazaroids are a family of compounds that inhibit lipid peroxidation. Besides, they can also reduce TNF-α. U-83836E is a new lazaroid lacking the glucocorticoid ring.3Aim of our study was to investigate the effect of U-83836E on TNF-α production either in vivo or in vitro. Endotoxic shock was produced in male rats by a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of 20 mg kg−1 of S. enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS administration reduced survival rate (0% survival, 72 h after endotoxin administration), decreased mean arterial blood pressure, increased serum and macrophage TNF-α and enhanced plasma malonylaldehyde (MAL) levels. Furthermore aortic rings from shocked rats showed a marked hyporeactivity to phenylephrine (PE 1 nm–10 μm).4Treatment with U-83836E (7.5, 15 and 30 mg kg−1, i.v.) 5 min after endotoxin challenge significantly protected against LPS induced lethality (90% survival rate and 80% survival rate 24 h and 72 h after LPS injection respectively, following the highest dose of the drug), reduced hypotension, blunted plasma MAL, decreased serum and macrophage TNF-α and restored the hyporeactivity of aortic rings to control values. In vitro LPS stimulation (50 μg ml−1 for 4 h) significantly increased cytokine production in macrophages (MΦ) harvested from untreated normal rats. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PT; 0.1, 1 and 10 ng ml−1 4 h before LPS) significantly increased TNF-α production. PT effects on these LPS responses were correlated with a PT mediated ADP ribosylation of a 41 kDa protein. U-83836E (50 μm) reduced, in a dose dependent manner, LPS induced TNF-α production and inhibited the PT effects on cytokine production and on ADP ribosylation of the protein.5Our data suggest that lazaroids may affect the early events associated with LPS receptor mediated activation of a G protein in LPS induced TNF-α production. These molecular events may explain, at least in part, the in vivo inhibition of cytokine production and reversal of endotoxic shock.British Journal of Pharmacology (1998) 124, 1293–1299; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0701944
    British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2009; 124(6):1293 - 1299. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of tyrophostin AG 556, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on the phenomenon of leukocyte accumulation during ischaemia and reperfusion of the myocardium. Male anaesthetized rats were subjected to total occlusion (45 min) of the left main coronary artery followed by 5 h reperfusion (MI/R). Sham myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion rats (Sham MI/R) were used as controls. Myocardial necrosis, myocardial myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), serum creatinine phosphokinase activity (CPK) serum Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-alpha) and Interleukin 6 (IL-6), cardiac intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and TNF-alpha expression and myocardial contractility (left ventricle dP/dt(max)) were evaluated. Myocardial ischaemia plus reperfusion in untreated rats produced marked myocardial necrosis, increased serum CPK activity (196.5 +/- 19 U/100 ml, at the end of reperfusion) and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO, a marker of leukocyte accumulation) both in the area-at-risk (4.5 +/- 0.5 U/g/tissue) and in necrotic area (8.2 +/- 1.2 U/g/tissue), reduced myocardial contractility (1,706 +/- 52 mmHg/s, at the end of reperfusion) and induced a marked increase in the serum levels of TNF-alpha (1,950 +/- 97 pg/ml, at 1 h of reperfusion) and IL-6 (998 +/- 16 U/ml, at the end of reperfusion). Finally, myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury also increased cardiac mRNA for TNF-alpha and ICAM-1 in the myocardium-at risk. Tyrphostin AG 556 (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg subcutaneously 5 min after the onset of reperfusion) lowered myocardial necrosis and myeloperoxidase activity in the area-at-risk (1.5 +/- 0.2 U/g/tissue, following the highest dose) and in necrotic area (2.9 +/- 0.3 U/g/tissue following the highest dose), decreased serum CPK activity (96 +/- 9 U/100 ml, at the end of reperfusion), lowered serum TNF-alpha and IL-6, increased myocardial contractility (2,096 +/- 88 mmHg s, at the end of reperfusion) and reduced cardiac mRNA levels for TNF-alpha and ICAM-1. The present data suggest that tyrosine kinase inhibitors protect against myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury by reducing leukocyte accumulation to the ischaemic myocardium.
    Life Sciences 11/2000; 67(21):2615-29. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a ubiquitous rapid response transcription factor involved in inflammatory reactions which exerts its effect by expressing cytokines, chemokines, and cell adhesion molecules. Oxidative stress causes NF-kappaB activation. IRFI 042 is a novel dual vitamin E-like antioxidant and we, therefore, investigated its ability to protect the heart from oxidative stress and to halt the inflammatory response in a model of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Anaesthetized rats were subjected to total occlusion (45 min) of the left main coronary artery followed by 5-h reperfusion (MI/R). Sham myocardial ischaemia rats (sham-operated rats) were used as controls. Myocardial necrosis, cardiac output, cardiac and plasma vitamin E levels, myocardial malondialdehyde (MAL), cardiac SOD activity and elastase content (an index of leukocyte infiltration), hydroxyl radical (OH&z.ccirf;) formation, cardiac amount of mRNA codifying for ICAM-1 (evaluated by the means of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) and ICAM-1 immunostaining in the at-risk myocardium were investigated. NF-kappaB activation and the inhibitory protein of NF-kappaB, I-kappaBalpha, were also studied in at-risk myocardium by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and Western blot analysis, respectively. The ischaemia-reperfusion model produced wide heart necrosis (area at risk-necrotic area=52+/-5%; necrotic area-left ventricle=28+/-3%), increased cardiac MAL, an index of lipid peroxidation (area at risk=62.5+/-3.9 nmol/g tissue; necrotic area=80.3+/-5.1 nmol/g tissue), induced tissue neutrophil infiltration, and caused a marked decrease in endogenous antioxidants. Furthermore, myocardial ischaemia plus reperfusion caused in the area at risk peak message for ICAM-1 at 3 h of reperfusion and increased cardiac ICAM-1 immunostaining at 5 h of reperfusion. NF-kappaB activation was also evident at 0.5 h of reperfusion and reached its maximum at 2 h of reperfusion. I-kappaBalpha was markedly decreased at 45 min of occlusion; peak reduction was observed at 1 h of reperfusion and thereafter it was gradually restored. Intraperitoneal administration of IRFI 042 (5, 10, 20 mg/kg, 5 min after reperfusion) reduced myocardial necrosis expressed as a percentage either of the area at risk (18+/-4%) or the total left ventricle (11+/-2%), and improved cardiac output. This treatment also limited membrane lipid peroxidation in the area at risk (MAL=14.3+/-2.5 nmol/g tissue) and in the necrotic area (MAL=26.5+/-3.7 nmol/g tissue), restored the endogenous antioxidants vitamin E and superoxide dismutase, and inhibited detrimental hydroxyl radical formation. Finally, IRFI 042 blocked the activation of NF-kappaB, reduced cardiac ICAM-1 expression, and blunted tissue elastase content, an index of leukocytes accumulation at the site of injury. Our data suggest that IRFI 042 is cardioprotective during myocardial infarction by limiting reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and by halting the inflammatory response.
    Cardiovascular Research 08/2000; 47(3):515-28. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant drug that inhibits nitric oxide (NO) synthase induction in vascular smooth muscle cells. Splanchnic artery occlusion (SAO) shock is a lethal type of shock characterized by a marked vascular dysfunction in which the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway plays an important role. We investigated whether CsA exerts protective effects in SAO shock by interfering with the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. Male anaesthetized rats (n=156) were subjected to clamping of the splanchnic arteries for 45 min. This surgical procedure resulted in an irreversible state of shock (SAO shock). Sham operated animals were used as controls. SAO shocked rats had a decreased survival (86+/-6 min, while sham shocked rats survived more than 240 min), marked hypotension, increased serum levels of TNF-alpha, enhanced plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations (75+/-7.1 microM; sham shocked rats=1.6+/-0.5 microM) and enhanced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein induction and activity in the aorta. Moreover aortic rings from shocked rats showed a marked hyporeactivity to phenylephrine (PE, 1 nM - 10 microM). CsA (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1), 5 min after reperfusion) increased survival rate (SAO+CsA=236+/-9 min following the highest dose), reverted the marked hypotension, reduced plasma nitrite/nitrate concentration (11+/-5.2 microM following the highest dose), restored to control values the hyporeactivity to PE, and blunted iNOS protein induction and activity in aortic rings. The present data indicate that in an experimental rat model CsA may have antishock properties related to inhibition of L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 06/2000; 130(2):339-44. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of either human and experimental myocardial ischaemia. Tacrolimus, formerly known as FK506, has been previously shown to display cardioprotective effects on experimental ischaemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial damage. This study investigated whether cardioprotection induced by tacrolimus in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury might be due to inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF- kappaB) that in turn causes reduced cardiac ICAM-1 expression and blunted polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation. Anaesthetized rats were subjected to total occlusion (45 min) of the left main coronary artery followed by 5 h reperfusion (MI/R). Sham myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion rats (Sham MI/R) were used as controls. Myocardial necrosis, myocardial myeloperoxidase activity, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, cardiac mRNA for ICAM-1 reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, the inhibitory protein of NF- kappaB I kappaB alpha (Western blot analysis) in the myocardium-at-risk, and left ventricle d P/d t(max)were evaluated. Myocardial ischaemia plus reperfusion in untreated rats produced marked myocardial necrosis, increased serum CK activity and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO, a marker of leukocyte accumulation) both in the area at risk and in the necrotic area, and reduced the left ventricle dP/d t(max). Furthermore, inhibitory protein I kappaB alpha levels decreased, and cardiac mRNA for ICAM-1 increased, after 0.5 and 5 h of reperfusion, respectively. Administration of tacrolimus (25, 50 and 100microg/kg as an i.v. infusion 5 min after reperfusion) lowered myocardial necrosis and myeloperoxidase activity in the area at risk and in necrotic area, decreased serum CK activity, increased left ventricle dP/d t(max), reduced the loss the of inhibitory protein I kappaB alpha and blunted the message for ICAM-1. The present data suggest that tacrolimus blocks the early activation of the transcription factor NF- kappaB, suppresses ICAM-1 gene activation, reduces leukocyte accumulation and protects against myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 04/2000; 32(3):429-40. · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Soybean phytoestrogens have no oestrogen agonist effects on the reproductive system and therefore it is reasonable to explore the potential of these naturally occurring plant oestrogens in the cardiovascular pathology. We therefore investigated the effects of genistein in a rat model of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. 2. Anaesthetized rats were subjected to total occlusion (45 min) of the left main coronary artery followed by 5 h reperfusion (MI/R). Sham operated rats were used as controls. Myocardial necrosis, myocardial myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), serum creatinine phosphokinase activity (CPK), serum and macrophage Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), cardiac intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) immunostaining, cardiac mRNA for ICAM-1 evaluated by the means of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT - PCR), ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial contractility (left ventricle dP/dt(max)) were evaluated. 3. Myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion in untreated rats produced marked myocardial necrosis, increased serum CPK activity and MPO activity both in the area-at-risk and in the necrotic area, reduced myocardial contractility, caused ventricular arrhythmias and induced a marked increase in serum and macrophage TNF-alpha. Furthermore myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury increased ICAM-1 expression in the myocardium. 4. Administration of genistein (1 mg kg(-1), i.v., 5 min after coronary artery occlusion) lowered myocardial necrosis and MPO activity in the area-at-risk and in the necrotic area, decreased serum CPK activity, increased myocardial contractility, decreased the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias, reduced serum and macrophages levels of TNF-alpha and blunted ICAM-1 expression in the injured myocardium. Finally genistein added in vitro to peritoneal macrophages collected from untreated rats subjected to myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury significantly reduced TNF-alpha production. 5. Our data suggest that genistein limits the inflammatory response and protects against myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2000; 128(8):1683-90. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) is involved in the pathogenesis of splanchnic artery occlusion (SAO) shock. On the other hand, inhibition of TNF-alpha is an important component of the mechanism of action of melanocortins in reversing haemorrhagic shock. We therefore investigated the effects of the melanocortin peptide ACTH-(1 - 24) (adrenocorticotropin fragment 1 - 24) on the vascular failure induced by SAO shock. 2. SAO-shocked rats had a decreased survival rate (0% at 4 h of reperfusion, while sham-shocked rats survived for more than 4 h), enhanced serum TNF-alpha concentrations (755+/-81 U ml-1), decreased mean arterial blood pressure, leukopenia, and increased ileal leukocyte accumulation, as revealed by means of myeloperoxidase activity (MPO=9.4+/-1 U g-1 tissue). Moreover, aortic rings from shocked rats showed a marked hyporeactivity to phenylephrine (PE, 1 nM - 10 microM) (Emax and ED50 in shocked rats=7.16 mN mg-1 tissue and 120 nM, respectively; Emax and ED50 in sham-shocked rats=16.31 mN mg-1 tissue and 100 nM, respectively), reduced responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh, 10 nM-10 microM) (Emax and ED50 in shocked rats=30% relaxation and 520 nM, respectively; Emax and ED50 in sham-shocked rats=82% relaxation and 510 nM, respectively) and increased staining for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). 3. ACTH-(1 - 24) [160 microg kg-1 intravenously (i.v.), 5 min after SAO] increased survival rate [SAO+ACTH-(1 - 24)=80% at 4 h of reperfusion], reversed hypotension, reduced serum TNF-alpha (55+/-13 U ml-1), ameliorated leukopenia, reduced ileal MPO (1.2+/-0.2 U g-1 tissue), restored the reactivity to PE, improved the responsiveness to ACh and blunted the enhanced immunostaining for ICAM-1 in the aorta. 4. Adrenalectomy only in part - but not significantly - reduced the ACTH-induced shock reversal, the survival rate of SAO+ACTH-(1 - 24) adrenalectomized rats being 60% at 4 h of reperfusion; and methylprednisolone (80 mg-1 i.v., 5 min after SAO) had a non-significant effect (10% survival) at 4 h of reperfusion. 5. The present data show that melanocortins are effective also in SAO shock, their effect being, at least in part, mediated by reduced production of TNF-alpha. Furthermore, they demonstrate, for the first time, that this inhibition is responsible for the adrenocorticotropin-induced reversal of vascular failure and leukocyte accumulation.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 11/1999; 128(3):816-22. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental studies have shown that intrapulmonary leukocyte sequestration and activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury during endotoxemia. Selectins are involved in the adhesion of leukocyte to the endothelium. Sulfatide is recognized by P selectin and blocks this adhesion molecule. We studied the effects of sulfatide on endotoxin-induced lung damage in rats. Endotoxin shock was produced in male rats by a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of 20 mg/kg of Salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS administration reduced survival rate (0%, 72 h after endotoxin challenge) decreased mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), produced leukopenia (Controls = 11,234+/-231 cells/mL, LPS = 4,567+/-123 cells/mL) and increased lung myeloperoxidase activity (MPO; a marker of leukocyte accumulation) in the lung (Controls = 0.35+/-0.1 U/g/tissue; LPS = 10+/-1.2 U/g/tissue). Furthermore LPS administration markedly impaired the concentration-response curves for acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in isolated pulmonary arterial rings. There was also an increased staining for P-selectin in the pulmonary arteries. Sulfatide treatment (10 mg/kg, 30 min. after LPS challenge), significantly protected against LPS-induced lethality (90% survival rate and 70% survival rate 24 h and 72 h after LPS injection), reduced LPS induced hypotension, reverted leukopenia (8,895+/-234 cells/ml) and lowered lung MPO activity (1.7+/-0.9 U/g/tissue). Furthermore sulfatide restored to control values the LPS-induced impairment in arterial pulmonary vasorelaxation and reduced P-selectin immunostaining. Our data indicate that sulfatide attenuates LPS-induced lung injury and protects against endotoxin shock.
    Life Sciences 11/1999; 65(24):2541-52. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) is a pleiotropic cytokine which is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of splanchnic artery occlusion (SAO) shock. Tacrolimus, formerly known as FK506, is a macrolide antibiotic, that blocks the transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha. 2. Male anaesthetized rats were subjected to clamping of the splanchnic arteries for 45 min. This surgical procedure resulted in an irreversible state of shock (SAO shock). Sham operated animals were used as controls. SAO shocked rats had a decreased survival rate (0% at 4 h of reperfusion, while sham shocked rats survived more than 4 h), enhanced serum TNF-alpha concentrations (415+/-12 U ml(-1)), decreased mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), leukopenia and increased ileal leukocyte accumulation studied by means of myeloperoxidase activity (MPO=7.5+/-0.3 U g(-1) tissue). Moreover aortic rings from shocked rats showed a marked hyporeactivity to phenylephrine (PE, 1 nM - 10 microM), reduced responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh, 10 nM - 10 microM) and increased staining for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore increased mRNA for TNF-alpha was observed in peritoneal macrophages of SAO shocked rats. 3. Tacrolimus (100 microg kg(-1), 5 min after splanchnic arteries occlusion) increased survival rate (SAO + Tacrolimus = 100% at 4 h of reperfusion), reverted the marked hypotension, reduced serum TNF-alpha (15+/-3 U ml(-1)), ameliorated leukopenia, reduced ileal MPO (0.9+/-0.01 U g(-1) tissue), restored to control values the hyporeactivity to PE. improved the reduced responsiveness to ACh and blunted the enhanced immunostaining for ICAM-1 in the aorta. Finally tacrolimus suppressed cytokine mRNA levels in peritoneal macrophages. 4. The data suggest that tacrolimus may represent a new therapeutic approach in circulatory shock.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 06/1999; 127(2):498-504. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. We investigated the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rh-EPO) in splanchnic artery occlusion (SAO) shock. Sham operated animals were used as controls. Survival rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), serum Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-alpha), plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations, red blood cell (RBC) count, blood haemoglobin (Hb), the responsiveness of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PE, 1 nM-10 microM) and the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were studied. 2. SAO shocked rats had a decreased survival rate (0% at 4 h of reperfusion, while sham shocked rats survived more than 4 h), enhanced serum TNF-alpha concentrations, increased plasma nitrite/nitrate levels (60+/-9.5 microM; sham shocked rats= 2+/-0.4 microM), decreased MAP, unchanged RBC count and blood Hb and enhanced iNOS activity in the aorta. Moreover aortic rings from shocked rats showed a marked hyporeactivity to PE. 3. Rh-EPO (25, 50 and 100 U 100 g(-1), 5 min following the onset of reperfusion) increased survival rate (70% at 4 h of reperfusion with the highest dose), reduced plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations (10.3+/-3.3 microM), increased MAP, did not change RBC count and blood Hb, and inhibited iNOS activity in thoracic aortae. Furthermore rh-EPO, either in vivo or in vitro (10 U for 1 h in the organ bath), restored to control values the hyporeactivity to PE. Finally rh-EPO inhibited the activity of iNOS in peritoneal macrophages activated with endotoxin. 4. Our data suggest that rh-EPO protects against SAO shock by inhibiting iNOS activity.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 06/1999; 127(2):482-8. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of the 21-aminosteroid U-74389G [21- < 4-(2,6-di-1-pyrrolidinyl-4-pyrimidinyl)-1-piperazinyl-pregna-1,4,9,(11) triene-3,20-dione(z)-2-butenedionate] on the l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in a rat model of endotoxin shock. Endotoxin shock was produced in male rats by a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of 20 mg/kg of Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were treated with U-74389G (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle (1 ml/kg i.v.) 5 min after endotoxin challenge. Lipopolysaccharide administration reduced survival rate (0%, 72 h after endotoxin administration) decreased mean arterial blood pressure, enhanced plasma concentration of bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase and increased plasma nitrite concentrations. Lipopolysaccharide injection also increased the activity of inducible NO synthase in the liver and in the aorta. Furthermore aortic rings from shocked rats showed a marked hyporeactivity to phenylephrine (1 nM-10 microM). In addition lipopolysaccharide (50 microg/ml for 4 h) in vitro stimulation significantly increased nitrite production in peritoneal macrophages harvested from normal rats. Treatment with U-74389G (15 and 30 mg/kg i.v., 5 min after endotoxin challenge) significantly protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality (90% survival rate 24 h and 80% 72 h after lipopolysaccharide injection, respectively, following the highest dose of the drug), reduced hypotension, ameliorated liver function, decreased plasma nitrite levels, restored the hyporeactivity of aortic rings to their control values and inhibited the activity of inducible NO synthase in the liver and in the aorta. Finally, U-74389G in vitro (12.5, 25 and 50 microM) significantly inhibited nitrite production in endotoxin stimulated peritoneal macrophages. The data suggest that U-74389G may exert beneficial effects in an experimental model of septic shock by inhibiting the activity of the inducible NO synthase.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 03/1999; 369(1):49-55. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of cyclosporin A in a rat model of myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury (MI/R). Anaesthetized rats were subjected to total occlusion (20 min) of the left main coronary artery followed by 5 h reperfusion (MI/R). Sham myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion rats (Sham MI/R) were used as controls. Myocardial necrosis, myocardial myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), serum creatinine phosphokinase activity (CPK), serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), cardiac mRNA for TNF-alpha, cardiac intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) immunostaining and myocardial contractility (left ventricle dP/dtmax) were evaluated. Myocardial ischaemia plus reperfusion in untreated rats produced marked myocardial necrosis, increased serum CPK activity and myeloperoxidase activity (a marker of leukocyte accumulation) both in the area-at-risk and in the necrotic area, reduced myocardial contractility and induced a marked increase in the serum levels of the TNF-alpha. Furthermore increased cardiac mRNA for TNF-alpha was measurable within 10 to 20 min of left main coronary artery occlusion in the area-at-risk and increased levels were generally sustained for 0.5 h. Finally, myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury increased ICAM-1 staining in the myocardium. Administration of cyclosporin A (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg as an i.v. infusion 5 min after coronary artery occlusion) lowered myocardial necrosis and myeloperoxidase activity in the area-at-risk and in the necrotic area, decreased serum CPK activity, increased myocardial contractility, reduced serum levels of TNF-alpha and the cardiac cytokine mRNA levels, and blunted ICAM-1 immunostaining in the injured myocardium. The data suggest that cyclosporin A suppresses leukocyte accumulation and protects against myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 02/1999; 364(2-3):159-68. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selectin-mediated leucocyte accumulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of splanchnic artery occlusion. Sulfatide is recognized by P-selectin and blocks this adhesion molecule. We investigated the effects of sulfatide in rats subjected to splanchnic artery occlusion shock. Anaesthetized rats, subjected to total occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery and the coeliac trunk for 45 min developed severe shock resulting in death within 85-90 min after the release of occlusion. Sham operated animals were used as controls. Splanchnic artery occlusion shocked rats had marked hypotension, enhanced levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in serum and macrophages, leucopenia and increased ileal leucocyte accumulation, studied by the means of myeloperoxidase activity. Furthermore, aortae from shocked rats showed marked hyporeactivity to phenylephrine (1 nM-10 microM), reduced responsiveness to acetylcholine (10 nM-10 microM) and an increased staining for P-selectin in the vasculature. In vivo administration of sulfatide (10 mg/kg, i.v., 5 min after occlusion of the splanchnic arteries) increased survival rate (90%, 4 h after splanchnic artery occlusion shock), enhanced mean arterial blood pressure, reduced serum TNF-alpha (37 +/- 11 U/ml vs. 398 +/- 18 U/ml), ameliorated leucopenia and reduced ileal myeloproxidase activity (1.2 +/- 0.4 U/g tissue vs. 8.2 +/- 0.8 U/g tissue). Aortae from splanchnic artery occlusion shocked rats treated with sulfatide exhibited a greater contractile response to phenylephrine and improved responsiveness to acetylcholine. Moreover sulfatide-treated rats showed a reduced staining for P-selectin in the aorta and in the superior mesenteric artery. Finally, passive immunization with specific monoclonal antibodies raised against P-selectin significantly protected from the lethality induced by splanchnic artery occlusion shock. Our results suggest that sulfatide protects against splanchnic artery occlusion shock.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 12/1998; 361(1):101-8. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether oestrogens modulate the phenomenon of leukocyte accumulation during ischaemia and reperfusion of the myocardium. Anaesthetized rats were subjected to total occlusion (1 h) of the left main coronary artery followed by 1 h reperfusion. Sham myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion rats (Sham) were used as controls. Myocardial necrosis, myocardial myeloperoxidase activity, serum creatinine phosphokinase activity, serum and macrophages tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and the myocardial staining of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were evaluated. Myocardial ischaemia plus reperfusion in untreated rats produced marked myocardial necrosis, increased serum creatinine phosphokinase activity (348 +/- 38 U/ml) and cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation, both in the area at risk and in the necrotic area (MPO 9 +/- 1.1 mU/g tissue and 8.2 +/- 1 mU/g tissue, respectively), and induced a marked increase in the macrophage (156 +/- 14 U/ml at the end of reperfusion) and serum (344 +/- 12 U/ml, at the end of reperfusion) levels of TNF-alpha. Finally, myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury increased ICAM-1 staining in the myocardium. Administration of 17beta-oestradiol (5, 10 and 20 microg/kg, i.m. 5 min after induction of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury), lowered myocardial necrosis and myeloperoxidase activity in the area at risk and in the necrotic area, reduced serum and macrophages TNF-alpha (20 +/- 3 U/ml and 9 +/- 3 U/ml, respectively) and decreased serum creatinine phosphokinase activity (67 +/- 3 U/ml). Oestrogen treatment also blunted the increased staining of ICAM-1 in the injured myocardium. Finally, 17beta-oestradiol added in vitro to peritoneal macrophages collected from untreated rats subjected to myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury, significantly reduced TNF-alpha production. Our results suggest that 17beta-oestradiol, by inhibiting TNF-alpha production, limits the deleterious ICAM-1-mediated binding of leukocytes to injured myocardium and protects against myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 10/1997; 335(2-3):185-92. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine that is implicated in the pathogenesis of ischaemic states and atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that the vasoprotective effects of the oestrogens may be mediated in vivo by inhibition of the formation of TNF-alpha. 2. Anaesthetized rats, subjected to total occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery and the coeliac trunk for 45 min developed a severe shock state resulting in a fatal outcome within 75-90 min after the release of occlusion. Sham-operated animals were used as controls. 3. Splanchnic artery occlusion (SAO) shocked rats had a marked hypotension, enhanced levels of TNF-alpha in serum and macrophages, leukopenia and increased ileal leukocyte accumulation, studied by means of myeloperoxidase activity (MPO). Furthermore, aortae from SAO rats showed a marked hyporeactivity to phenylephrine (PE, 1 nM-10 microM), reduced responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh, 10 nM-10 microM) and an increased staining for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). 4. In vivo administration of 17 beta oestradiol (500 micrograms kg-1, i.m., three hours before the induction of SAO) increased survival rate (100%, 4 h after SAO), enhanced mean arterial blood pressure; reduced serum TNF-alpha (25 +/- 5 u ml-1 vs 379 +/- 16 u ml-1), ameliorated leukopaenia and reduced ileal MPO (0.7 +/- 0.02 u 10(-3) g-1 tissue vs 4.2 +/- 0.4 u 10(-3) g-1 tissue). Furthermore aortae from SAO rats treated with 17 beta oestradiol exhibited a greater contractile response to phenylephrine, improved responsiveness to ACh and a blunted staining of ICAM-1. Finally 17 beta oestradiol, added in vitro to peritoneal macrophages collected from untreated SAO rats, significantly reduced TNF-alpha production. 5. Our results suggest that inhibition of TNF-alpha in vivo may explain, at least in part, the vasoprotective effects of oestrogens.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 09/1997; 121(8):1782-8. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in a rat model of splanchnic ischaemia-reperfusion injury. 2. Male anaesthetized rats were subjected to clamping of the splanchnic arteries for 45 min. This surgical procedure resulted in an irreversible state of shock (splanchnic artery occlusion shock. SAO shock). Sham operated animals were used as controls. Survival rate, serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), neutrophil count, bone marrow myeloid precursor cells, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO; studied as a quantitative means to assess leukocyte accumulation), mean arterial blood pressure and the responsiveness of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PE, 1 nM-10 microM) were studied. 3. SAO shocked rats had a decreased survival rate (0% at 4 h of reperfusion, while sham shocked rats survived more than 4 h), increased serum levels of TNF-alpha (201 +/- 10 u ml-1; sham shocked rats = undetectable), neutropenia, enhanced MPO activity in the ileum (0.11 +/- 0.06 u x 10(-3) g-1 tissue; sham shocked rats = 0.02 +/- 0.001 u x 10(-3) g-1 tissue) and in the lung (1.5 +/- 0.2 u x 10(-3) g-1 tissue; sham shocked rats = 0.19 +/- 0.05 u x 10(-3) g-1 tissue) and unchanged bone marrow myeloid precursor cells. Furthermore aortic rings from shocked rats showed a marked hyporeactivity to PE. 4. Administration of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rh G-CSF; 5, 10 and 20 micrograms kg-1 5 min following the release of occlusion) increased in a dose-dependent manner survival rate (90% at 4 h of reperfusion with the dose of 20 u x 10(-3) g kg-1), reduced serum TNF-alpha (13 +/- 5 u ml-1) and MPO activity in the ileum (0.065 +/- 0.002 u x 10(-3) g-1 tissue) and in the lung (0.7 +/- 0.03 microgram kg-1 tissue), improved neutropenia and mean arterial blood pressure but did not modify bone marrow myeloid progenitor cells. Furthermore rh G-CSF, either in vivo or in vitro (200 nM for 1 h in the organ bath), restored to control values the hyporeactivity to PE. Finally rh G-CSF potently inhibited the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase in peritoneal macrophages activated with endotoxin. 5. Our results suggest that rh G-CSF protects against splanchnic ischaemia reperfusion injury by a mechanism(s) that does not depend upon its haematopoietic effects.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 02/1997; 120(2):333-9. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to investigate the vascular effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rh G-CSF) in a rat model of irreversible vascular failure. Male anesthetized rats were subjected to the clamping of the splanchnic arteries for 45 min. This surgical procedure resulted in an irreversible state of shock (splanchnic artery occlusion shock) characterized by high mortality rate (0% survival, 120 min following the release of clamps), a profound hypotension and vascular dysfunction consisting of a marked hyporeactivity to phenylephrine (PE 1 nM-10 microM) of aortic rings. Administration of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (20 micrograms/kg i.v. 5 min after the release of occlusion) increased survival rate (90% 4 h after the release of occlusion), blunted the profound hypotension and reverted the marked vascular dysfunction. Finally, rh G-CSF inhibited the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase in peritoneal macrophages activated with endotoxin. Our data suggest that rh G-CSF may influence vascular function when low-flow states occur.
    International Journal of Microcirculation 01/1997; 17(1):10-4.