[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pre-germinated brown rice (PR) has been developed industrially in order to enhance the nutritional functions of its source material, brown rice (BR). The present study was aimed at clarifying the effect of PR on the type 2 diabetes mellitus. We employed Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats as a model of type-2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats were fed on either PR or white rice (WR) from the age of 4 to 35 wk. Age-matched male Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats as a non-diabetic control were also fed on WR. The HbA(1c) level in OLETF rats was significantly higher than that in LETO rats. However, the level was lower in PR-fed OLETF rats than in WR-fed OLETF rats. The plasma concentrations of TNF-α and PAI-1 in OLETF rats were higher than those in LETO rats. However, both elevated levels were decreased by the PR-feeding, but not by the WR-feeding. On the other hand, the plasma adiponectin concentration in OLETF rats was lower than that in LETO rats. The decrease in adiponectin level of OLETF rats was ameliorated by PR-feeding. The size of adipocytes in PR-fed OLETF rats was smaller than that in WR-fed OLETF rats. In summary, intake of PR instead of WR ameliorates both insulin resistance and imbalance of the levels of plasma adipocytokines leading to diabetic complications.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 01/2010; 56(5):287-92. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: White rice (WR) is made by polishing brown rice (BR) and has lost various nutrients; however, most people prefer it to BR, maybe because of the hardness of BR. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) improves the problem of BR. It is made by soaking BR kernels in water to germinate and becomes softer than BR. In this study we compared the effects of WR and PGBR on blood glucose and lipid concentrations in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes patients. Six men and 5 women with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 6 wk on WR or PGBR diet separated by a 2 wk washout interval in a crossover design. Each subject was instructed to consume 3 packs of cooked WR or PGBR (180 g/pack) daily in each intervention phase. Blood samples were collected 4 times (in study weeks 0, 6, 8 and 14) for biochemical examination. Blood concentrations of fasting blood glucose, fructosamine, serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were favorably improved on the PGBR diet (p<0.01), but not on the WR diet. The present results suggest that diets including PGBR may be useful to control blood glucose level.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 04/2008; 54(2):163-8. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the effects of a pre-germinated brown rice diet (PR) on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
The effects of a PR diet on diabetic neuropathy in STZ-induced diabetic rats were evaluated and compared with those fed brown rice (BR) or white rice (WR) diets with respect to the following parameters: blood-glucose level, motor-nerve conduction velocity (NCV), sciatic-nerve Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and serum homocysteine-thiolactonase (HTase) activity.
Compared with diabetic rats fed BR or WR diets, those fed a PR diet demonstrated significantly lower blood-glucose levels (p < 0.001), improved NCV (1.2- and 1.3-fold higher, respectively), and increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity (1.6- and 1.7-fold higher, respectively). The PR diet was also able to normalize decreased serum homocysteine levels normally seen in diabetic rats. The increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity observed in rats fed PR diets was associated with elevations in HTase activity (r = 0.913, p < 0.001). The in vitro effect of the total lipid extract from PR bran (TLp) on the Na+/K+-ATPase and HTase activity was also examined. Incubation of homocysteine thiolactone (HT) with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro resulted in generation of HT-modified LDL, which possessed high potency to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the sciatic nerve membrane. The inhibitory effect of HT-modified LDL on Na+/K+-ATPase activity disappeared when TLp was added to the incubation mixture. Furthermore, TLp directly activated the HTase associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL).
PR treatment shows efficacy for protecting diabetic deterioration and for improving physiological parameters of diabetic neuropathy in rats, as compared with a BR or WR diet. This effect may be induced by a mechanism whereby PR intake mitigates diabetic neuropathy by one or more factors in the total lipid fraction. The active lipid fraction is able to protect the Na+/K+-ATPase of the sciatic-nerve membrane from the toxicity of HT-modified LDL and to directly activate the HTase of HDL.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on cholesterol metabolism was studied in Donryu rats subcutaneously implanted with the ascites hepatoma cell line AH109A and compared with that of white rice (WR). The effect of brown rice (BR), the source of PGBR, was also studied. Hepatoma-bearing rats fed a WR diet exhibited hypercholesterolemia compared with normal rats fed the same diet. Feeding hepatoma-bearing rats a PGBR or BR diet suppressed hepatoma-induced hypercholesterolemia, and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion and the activity of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid biosynthesis, in the microsomal fraction of the liver without affecting cholesterol synthesis in the host liver of hepatoma-bearing rats. These results suggest that PGBR as well as BR suppresses hypercholesterolemia induced by hepatoma growth by up-regulating cholesterol catabolism.
Life Sciences 07/2006; 79(3):259-64. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intake of pre-germinated brown rice (PR) instead of white rice (WR) ameliorates the hyperglycemia. To clarify the mechanism(s) to decrease the post-prandial blood glucose concentration, the effect of water-soluble/oil-soluble fraction-depleted PR bran (termed as "DB"; which is destarched and defatted PR bran) on post-prandial blood glucose was compared with that of full-fat PR bran (PB) or WR. The test diets, WR diet, PB diet and DB diet which are containing identical amount of available carbohydrate (1.5 g) were fed to Wistar strain rats. Post-prandial blood glucose concentration and incremental area under the curve (IAUC) for DB diet were lower than those for WR diet, and there was no difference between the DB diet and PB diet. Changes in plasma insulin concentration and the IAUC obtained also revealed the same tendency as those observed in blood glucose concentration. These results indicate that the blood glucose-lowering effect of PB diet may be derived from the properties of PB involving substantially higher content of dietary fiber than WR, and that the potential benefit of intake of PR instead of WR in the prevention of diabetic vascular complications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations were compared with brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) in two studies. In the first study, we investigated the time course of postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations after ingesting 25% (W/V) glucose solution, PGBR, BR or WR in 19 healthy young subjects. In the second study, dose-dependent effect of PGBR on the time course of postprandial blood glucose concentrations was compared among 4 different mixtures of PGBR and WR in 13 healthy young subjects. They were solely PGBR, 2/3 PGBR (PGBR: WR = 2 : 1), 1/3 PGBR (PGBR : WR = 1 : 2) and solely WR. Each sample was studied on a different day. The samples were selected randomly by the subjects. All the rice samples contained 50 g of available carbohydrates. The previous day the subjects ate the assigned dinner by 9:00 pm and then were allowed only water until the examination. The next morning, they ingested each test rice sample with 150 ml of water in 5-10 min. Blood was collected into capillary tubes from finger at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the ingestion. The incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) of blood glucose concentrations (IAUC-Glc) for 120 min after the administration of PGBR and BR were lower than those after WR. In contrast the IAUC-Glc of BR and PGBR were not different (Study 1). The higher the ratio of PGBR/WR, the lower the glycemic index became (Study 2). These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of WR is effective for the control of postprandial blood glucose concentration without increasing the insulin secretion.
The Journal of Medical Investigation 09/2005; 52(3-4):159-64.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effects of pre-germinated brown rice (hatsuga genmai, PGR) on learning and memory and compared them with those of polished rice or cornstarch. In mice that were fed pellets of polished rice or PGR for two weeks, the learning ability in the Morris water maze test was significantly enhanced compared with mice that were fed cornstarch pellets. In the Y-maze test, the intake of food pellets for two weeks failed to affect spontaneous alternation behavior. Beta-amyloid(25-35) (Abeta(25-35): 3 nmol/mouse, i.c.v.) protein impaired spontaneous alternation behavior in mice that were fed pellets of cornstarch or polished rice. In contrast, PGR pellets prevented the Abeta(25-35)-induced impairment of spontaneous alternation behavior. These results suggest that polished rice and PGR have facilitating effects on spatial learning. In particular, it is surmised that PGR may prevent Alzheimer's disease associated with Abeta.