Nobuo Ohta

Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (107)260.87 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and Pregnancy malaria (PM) have been individually reported to cause severe negative outcomes in pregnancies but the diagnostic method is still debatable. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of PM and CT single and co-infections in pregnant women by using various specimens including plasma and placental tissues. Genomic DNA extracted from the placenta, cord blood or blood of mothers was tested by PCR. Conventional method of immunodiagnosis was done for CT. We tested 79 pregnant women aged 18-42 years (mean: 28±1.06). Prevalence of P. falciparum infection determined by PCR on mother's peripheral blood specimen was 6.3% whiles 57.3% was recorded for placental tissues (p <0.01). PCR testing for placental tissues showed 29.2% positive for T. gondii, whiles 76.0% of mothers had serum IgG against T. gondii. It should be noted that 6.3% of the placental tissues showed PCR positive for SAG 3, a marker of active infection in T. gondii. Although there were no enhanced fetal disorders at birth in our study, there is a possibility of active transmission of T. gondii from mothers to fetuses even in immune mothers. Our study suggests that fetuses were exposed to P. falciparum and T. gondii in utero, and placenta is a better specimen for PCR in detecting such episodes. In cases of PCR-positive samples, clinical follow-up after birth may be important. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Parasitology International 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.parint.2015.08.004 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly known as sleeping sickness has remained a serious health problem in many African countries with thousands of new infected cases annually. Chemotherapy, which is the main form of control against HAT has been characterized lately by the viewpoints of toxicity and drug resistance issues. Recently, there have been a lot of emphases on the use of medicinal plants world-wide. Morinda lucida Benth. is one of the most popular medicinal plants widely distributed in Africa and several groups have reported on its anti-protozoa activities. In this study, we have isolated one novel tetracyclic iridoid, named as molucidin, from the CHCl3 fraction of the M. lucida leaves by bioassay-guided fractionation and purification. Molucidin was structurally elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR including HMQC, HMBC, H-H COSY and NOESY resulting in tetracyclic iridoid skeleton, and its absolute configuration was determined. We have further demonstrated that molucidin presented a strong anti-trypanosomal activity, indicating an IC50 value of 1.27μM. The cytotoxicity study using human normal and cancer cell lines indicated that molucidin exhibited selectivity index (SI) against two normal fibroblasts greater than 4.73. Furthermore, structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was undertaken with molucidin and oregonin, which is identical to anti-trypanosomal active components of Alnus japonica. Overlapping analysis of the lowest energy conformation of molucidin with oregonin suggested a certain similarities of aromatic rings of both oregonin and molucidin. These results contribute to the future drug design studies for HAT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 05/2015; 25(15). DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2015.05.003 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is still urgent need for a vaccine against schistosomiasis, especially in Schistosoma japonicum endemic areas where even a vaccine that will interrupt zoonotic transmission will be potentially effective as an intervention tool. We had developed a novel nanoparticle gene delivery system, which has proven efficacious in gene transfection to target immune cells with complementary adjuvant effect and high protective efficacy in several diseases. Here, we applied this nanoparticle system in combination with S. japonicum glutathione S-transferase (SjGST) DNA vaccine to show the immunogenicity and anti-fecundity effect of the nanoparticle coated vaccine formulation against murine schistosomiasis. The nanoparticle-coated DNA vaccine formulation induced desired immune responses. In comparison with the nanoparticle coated empty vector, it produced significantly increased antigen-specific humoral response, T-helper 1 polarized cytokine environment, higher proportion of IFN-γ producing CD4+ T-cells and the concomitant decrease in IL-4 producing CD4+ T-cells. Although there was no effect on worm burden, we recorded a marked reduction in tissue egg burden. There was up to 71.3% decrease in tissue egg burden and 55% reduction in the fecundity of female adult worms. Our data showed that SjGST DNA vaccine, delivered using the nanoparticle gene delivery system, produced anti-fecundity effect on female adult schistosomes as previously described by using conventional subunit vaccine with adjuvant, proving this DNA vaccine formulation as a promising candidate for anti-pathology and transmission blocking application.
    Parasitology International 01/2015; 2015. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is still urgent need for a vaccine against schistosomiasis, especially in Schistosoma japonicum endemic areas where even a vaccine that will interrupt zoonotic transmission will be potentially effective as an intervention tool. We had developed a novel nanoparticle gene delivery system, which has proven efficacious in gene transfection to target immune cells with complementary adjuvant effect and high protective efficacy in several diseases. Here, we applied this nanoparticle system in combination with S. japonicum glutathione S-transferase (SjGST) DNA vaccine to show the immunogenicity and anti-fecundity effect of the nanoparticle coated vaccine formulation against murine schistosomiasis. The nanoparticle-coated DNA vaccine formulation induced desired immune responses. In comparison with the nanoparticle coated empty vector, it produced significantly increased antigen-specific humoral response, T-helper 1 polarized cytokine environment, higher proportion of IFN-gamma producing CD4+ T-cells and the concomitant decrease in IL-4 producing CD4+ T-cells. Although there was no effect on worm burden, we recorded a marked reduction in tissue egg burden. There was up to 71.3% decrease in tissue egg burden and 55% reduction in the fecundity of female adult worms. Our data showed that SjGST DNA vaccine, delivered using the nanoparticle gene delivery system, produced anti-fecundity effect on female adult schistosomes as previously described by using conventional subunit vaccine with adjuvant, proving this DNA vaccine formulation as a promising candidate for anti-pathology and transmission blocking application.
    Parasitology International 01/2015; 64(4). DOI:10.1016/j.parint.2015.01.005 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in the East China Sea. The identification of A. typica, recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii, H. amoyense and H. fabri is first reported in this area. The wide diversity and substantial geographical distributions of these nematodes will provide a foundation for future studies of Anisakidae family. The high prevalence of these nematodes in marine fishes off the East China Sea may pose considerable food safety problems, which is a potential cause of human anisakiasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 01/2015; 199C:1-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2015.01.007 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mosquito eggs laid within two hours are necessary for transgenic (injection) studies, because mosquito eggs become hard after that period. Thus, in order to have eggs available within this two-hour window, it is important to understand the ovipositional behavior of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. In the present study, the ovipositional behavior of An. gambiae s.s. (Kisumu) was investigated in several different conditions: age of mosquitoes, time post blood meal to access oviposition substrate, and light conditions. Two groups of mosquitoes, 3–5 days old and 9–11 days old were blood-fed. For those mosquito groups, an oviposition dish was set either at 48 hours or 72 hours after the blood meal either in a light condition or in an artificial dark condition. The number of laid eggs was compared among the different conditions. The 3–5 day-old mosquitoes apparently produced a higher number of eggs than 9–11 day-old mosquitoes, while there was no significant difference between the two groups. The number of laid eggs per one surviving blood-fed mosquito in the dark condition was significantly higher than that in the light condition (p = 0.03). Providing an oviposition dish at 72 hours after blood meal resulted in a significantly higher number of laid eggs per one surviving blood-fed mosquito than at 48 hours after blood meal (p = 0.03). In conclusion, the optimal condition to have readily available egg supply for transgenic analysis was as follows: 3–5 day-old mosquitoes with an oviposition dish placed at 72 hours after the blood meal in a dark environment.
    Tropical Medicine and Health 09/2014; 42(4):187-190. DOI:10.2149/tmh.2014-13
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    ABSTRACT: The crude extract of Alnus japonica bark exhibited a strong effect on the growth of Trypanosoma brucei. Subsequent chromatographic separation resulted in the isolation of two novel diarylheptanoids, known as alnuside C (2) and alnuside D (3), and three known compounds, 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-heptan-3(R)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), oregonin (4) and hirsutanone (5). The structures of the isolates were elucidated based on the use of extensive spectroscopic and chemical methods. Among the isolated diarylheptanoids, oregonin (4) (a major component of plant bark) and hirsutanone (5) exhibited potent in vitro inhibitory activity against T. brucei growth in the bloodstream with IC50 values of 1.14 and 1.78 μM, respectively. We confirmed that oregonin (4) and hirsutanone (5) were not toxic to human normal skin fibroblast cells (NB1RGB) and colon cancer cells (HCT-15) at a concentration of 50 μM; however, lower levels of toxicity were observed for leukemia cells. To determine the structure activity relationships of the isolated components, we performed Conformation Search and found that the 3-oxo function of the heptane chain in the diarylheptanoid molecule is required for their trypanocidal activity.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 09/2014; 42(05):1-16. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X14500785 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused primarily by Anisakis spp. larvae in Asia and in Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype of Anisakis larvae endoscopically removed from Middle Eastern Japanese patients and to determine whether mucosal atrophy affects the risk of penetration in gastric anisakiasis. In this study, 57 larvae collected from 44 patients with anisakiasis (42 gastric and 2 colonic anisakiasis) were analyzed retrospectively. Genotyping was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of ITS regions and by sequencing the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) region. In the cases of gastric anisakiasis, correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of larval penetration in normal/atrophic area and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. Nearly all larvae were A. simplex seusu stricto (s.s.) (99%), and one larva displayed a hybrid genotype. The A. simplex larvae penetrated normal mucosa more frequently than atrophic area (p = 0.005). Finally, patients with normal mucosa infection were more likely to exhibit clinical symptoms than those with atrophic mucosa infection (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-31.8). In Japan, A. simplex s.s. is the main etiological agent of human anisakiasis and tends to penetrate normal gastric mucosa. Careful endoscopic examination of normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the greater curvature of the stomach will improve the detection of Anisakis larvae.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89188. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089188 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although schistosomiasis remains a serious health problem worldwide, significant achievements in schistosomiasis control has been made in the People's Republic of China. The disease has been eliminated in five out of 12 endemic provinces, and the prevalence in remaining endemic areas is very low and is heading toward elimination. A rapid and sensitive method for monitoring the distribution of infected Oncomelania hupensis is urgently required. We applied a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting 285 rDNA for the rapid and effective detection of Schistosoma japonicum DNA in infected and prepatent infected O. hupensis snails. The detection limit of the LAMP method was 100 fg of S. japonicum genomic DNA. To promote the application of the approach in the field, the LAMP assay was used to detect infection in pooled samples of field-collected snails. In the pooled sample detection, snails were collected from 28 endemic areas, and 50 snails from each area were pooled based on the maximum pool size estimation, crushed together and DNA was extracted from each pooled sample as template for the LAMP assay. Based on the formula for detection from pooled samples, the proportion of positive pooled samples and the positive proportion of O. hupensis detected by LAMP of Xima village reached 66.67% and 1.33%, while those of Heini, Hongjia, Yangjiang and Huangshan villages were 33.33% and 0.67%, and those of Tuanzhou and Suliao villages were 16.67% and 0.33%, respectively. The remaining 21 monitoring field sites gave negative results. A risk map for the transmission of schistosomiasis was constructed using ArcMap, based on the positive proportion of O. hupensis infected with S. japonicum, as detected by the LAMP assay, which will form a guide for surveillance and response strategies in high risk areas.
    Acta tropica 02/2014; 141. DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.01.006 · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Ref. No: PH-5727-US, Year: 01/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (Hr-CLM) is caused by animal hookworm larvae migrating in the human epidermis where they elicit an inflammatory response. This study describes the immunological profile in Hr-CLM patients. In 77 Hr-CLM patients from Manaus, Brazil, peripheral eosinophils were counted, and serum concentrations of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and selected cytokines were determined by ELISA before and after treatment with ivermectin. Controls included patients' household members (endemic controls), non-endemic Brazilian and Japanese individuals. Eosinophil counts and total IgE in Hr-CLM patients were higher than in controls and correlated with disease severity. Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10 were higher in Hr-CLM patients than in endemic controls (p < 0.001) while no differences were detected for interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β, IL-2, or transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Following ivermectin treatment, numbers of eosinophils and concentrations of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 decreased whereas IgE, IFN-γ, and TGF-β concentrations increased. The IL-5/IFN-γ ratio declined from 5.9 (interquartile range [IQR] 0.8-31.6) before to 0.1 (IQR 0.05-0.2; p = 0.001) after treatment. Thus, although an impact of other infections on the immune parameters determined cannot be excluded, Hr-CLM in endemic areas is associated with eosinophilia and elevated cytokine levels, particularly of IL-5 and IL-10, which decrease following ivermectin treatment.
    European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology 12/2013; 3(4):258-266. DOI:10.1556/EuJMI.3.2013.4.4
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    ABSTRACT: Once animals have experienced a helminthic infection, they often show stronger protective immunity against subsequent infections. Although helminthic infections are well known to elicit Th2-type immune responses, it remains ill-defined where and how acquired protection is executed. Here we show that skin-invading larvae of the intestinal helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis are surrounded by skin-infiltrating cells and are prevented from migrating out of infected skin during the second but not the first infection. B cell- or IgE receptor FcεRI-deficient mice showed impaired larval trapping in the skin. Selective ablation of basophils, but not mast cells, abolished the larval trapping, leading to increased worm burden in the lung and hence severe lung injury. Skin-infiltrating basophils produced IL-4 that in turn promoted the generation of M2-type macrophages, leading to the larval trapping in the skin through arginase-1 production. Basophils had no apparent contribution to worm expulsion from the intestine. This study thus reveals a novel mode of acquired antihelminth immunity, in which IgE-armed basophils mediate skin trapping of larvae, thereby limiting lung injury caused by larval migration.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2013; 210(12). DOI:10.1084/jem.20130761 · 13.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a nematode larva in a subcutaneous nodule excised from a 44-year-old Chinese male who had been living in Japan for 15years. Morphological features suggested that the worm was a dioctophimatid nematode. PCR amplification and sequencing of small subunit ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial cytochrome subunit c oxidase genes allowed us to identify the larva as the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1972). This is the first molecularly confirmed human case of a dermal D. renale infection.
    Parasitology International 10/2013; 63(1). DOI:10.1016/j.parint.2013.09.015 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) is a parasite of murid rodents and causative agent of human neuro-angiostrongyliasis. In 2011, the Ogasawara Islands in the western North Pacific were assigned a World Natural Heritage site status. The occurrence of A. cantonensis is well documented in the Chichijima, Hahajima, and Anijima Islands. However, the occurrence of A. cantonensis in the other islands of the Ogasawara Islands has not been reported. Between March 2010 and July 2011, 57 Rattus norvegicus and 79 R. rattus were collected from 9 islands (the Hahajima group: Anejima, Imoutojima, Meijima, Mukohjima, and Hirajima; Chichijima group: Minamijima; Mukojima group: Nakoudojima and Yomejima; and Iwojima group: Iwojima). Adult nematodes were found in the pulmonary artery of 46 R. norvegicus collected in the 5 islands of the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hrajima, and Mukohjima Islands). These nematodes were identified by molecular analysis as A. cantonensis. Comparison of the mitochondrial DNA sequences confirmed that all the samples from the Ogasawara Islands shared only a single lineage of A. cantonensis, which has been previously detected in the Okinawa, Hawaii, and Brazil. We describe new endemic foci of rat angiostrongyliasis in the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hirajima, and Mukohjima Islands) of the Ogasawara Islands. These findings indicate that the endemic foci of A. cantonensis are widely distributed in the Ogasawara Islands. Although human cases have not yet been reported in the Ogasawara Islands, the widespread detection of A. cantonensis could be of importance from the perspective of public health.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e70729. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0070729 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Granuloma formation around parasite eggs during schistosomal infection is considered to be controlled by Th2 cytokines. However, it is still controversial which cell populations are responsible for the host Th2 cytokine-dependent granuloma formation. Basophils have recently attracted attention because of their ability to produce large amounts of IL-4. Therefore, we investigated whether basophils play an essential role in induction of granuloma formation induced by Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Together with our previous observation that basophil numbers increased markedly in the spleen at 7weeks postinfection, immunohistochemical staining using anti-mMCP8 monoclonal antibody (mAb) showed basophil infiltration in the granulomatous lesions formed around parasite eggs. To examine the roles of basophils more directly, we treated mice with anti-CD200R3 mAb to deplete basophils. Depletion of basophils resulted in a reduction of basophil number with concomitant downregulation of egg granuloma formation at 7weeks postinfection. Moreover, we observed a significant reduction in the size of egg granulomas formed in basophil-depleted mice in the pulmonary granuloma model. Taken together, these findings indicated that basophils are essential for S. mansoni egg-induced granuloma formation, and this may serve as a novel therapeutic target in ameliorating the pathology of schistosomiasis.
    Parasitology International 07/2013; 62(6). DOI:10.1016/j.parint.2013.07.003 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics 01/2013; 03(03):115-121. DOI:10.4236/ojcd.2013.33020
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    ABSTRACT: Familial cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) deficiency is more common in some East Asian populations than elsewhere, suggesting the possibility of a selective advantage of this genetic defect against regional infectious diseases. Historically, infection with the Asian blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum has been endemic in these regions, including Japan. We previously reported that eggs of S. japonicum require cholesteryl ester uptake from normal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) but not from CETP-deficient HDL for their maturation to miracidia, a critical step of the hepatic pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. Herein we show that cholesteryl ester uptake is selective from HDL, and identified CD36-related protein (CD36RP) as a candidate to mediate the reaction. CD36RP was cloned from the adult and the egg developmental stages of S. japonicum, with 1880 bp encoding 506 amino acid residues exhibiting the CD36 domains and two transmembrane regions. Using antibodies against recombinant peptides representing the potential extracellular domains of CD36RP, Western blotting detected a protein with a molecular mass of 82 kDa in the particulate fraction of the adult parasite cells, which was reduced to 62 kDa after N-glycanase treatment. The extracellular domain peptide bound human HDL, as established by immunoblots following nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. Antibodies against the extracellular domain suppressed HDL cholesteryl ester uptake and maturation of the eggs in vitro. CD36RP is a candidate receptor on eggs of S. japonicum that facilitates uptake of HDL cholesteryl ester necessary for egg embryonation and maturation.-Okumura-Noji, K., Miura, Y., Lu, R., Asai, K., Ohta, N., Brindley, P. J., Yokoyama, S. CD36-related protein in Schistosoma japonicum: candidate mediator of selective cholesteryl ester uptake from high-density lipoprotein for egg maturation.
    The FASEB Journal 11/2012; 27(3). DOI:10.1096/fj.12-219816 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a membrane-mediated degradation process, which is governed by sequential functions of Atg proteins. Although Atg proteins are highly conserved in eukaryotes, protozoa possess only a partial set of Atg proteins. Nonetheless, almost all protozoa have the complete factors belonging to the Atg8 conjugation system, namely, Atg3, Atg4, Atg7, and Atg8. Here, we report the biochemical properties and subcellular localization of the Atg8 protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfAtg8). PfAtg8 is expressed during intra-erythrocytic development and associates with membranes likely as a lipid-conjugated form. Fluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy show that PfAtg8 localizes to the apicoplast, a four membrane-bound non-photosynthetic plastid. Autophagosome-like structures are not observed in the erythrocytic stages. These data suggest that, although Plasmodium parasites have lost most Atg proteins during evolution, they use the Atg8 conjugation system for the unique organelle, the apicoplast.
    PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e42977. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0042977 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • K Macuhova · N Akao · Y Fujinami · T Kumagai · N Ohta
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    ABSTRACT: The contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs in sandpits in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, are described. A total of 34 sandpits were examined, 14 of which were contaminated with T. cati eggs, as assessed by the floatation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Two naturally contaminated sandpits were investigated to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of eggs, and an inverse relationship between the sand depth and number of eggs was observed. To examine the pathogenicity of the eggs, three ICR mice were inoculated with 300 eggs, which were recovered from sandpits. The mice exhibited eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and IgG antibody production in the sera after 3 weeks of infection. Most migrating larvae were recovered from carcasses, although three were found in the brains of two infected mice. These three larvae were determined to be T. canis by PCR, revealing that not only T. cati, but also T. canis eggs could be found in sandpits and, further, that eggs recovered from sandpits have the ability to invade a paratenic host.
    Journal of Helminthology 06/2012; 87(3):1-6. DOI:10.1017/S0022149X12000314 · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a pilot survey of genetic variation of A. cantonensis using small subunit (SSU) ribosomal (r) RNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coxI) gene sequences. Two distinct SSU genotypes (G1 and G2) were identified among 17 individual A. cantonensis worms from 17 different geographical localities in Japan, Mainland China, Taiwan, and Thailand. The partial coxI sequences were determined for 83 worms from 18 different geographical localities from Japan, Mainland China, Taiwan, and Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed eight distinct coxI haplotypes (ac1 to ac8). In 16 out of 18 localities, only a single coxI haplotype was found. However, in two localities, two coxI haplotypes coexisted. The common haplotypes found were: haplotype ac1 (Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa, Amamioshima Island, and Taichung), haplotype ac2 (Ishikawa, Shenzhen, and Lianjiang), haplotype ac5 (the Okinawa and the Ogasawara Islands), and haplotype ac7 (Miyagi, Aichi, and Kanagawa). Each of these regions is separated from the others by high mountain ranges or oceans. In addition, the lower genetic variation and particular geographical distribution of A. cantonensis in each location could indicate a founder effect, which may have resulted from multiple independent origins, and suggests that haplotypes migrated from endemic areas via human-related transportation.
    Parasitology International 02/2012; 61(3):431-6. DOI:10.1016/j.parint.2012.02.005 · 2.11 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
260.87 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2015
    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      • • Division of Public Health
      • • Department of International Health Development
      • • Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2004–2012
    • Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research
      • Department of Parasitology
      Akra, Greater Accra, Ghana
    • Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China
  • 1997–2012
    • Nagoya City University
      • • Graduate School of Medical Sciences
      • • Department of Radiology (Hospital)
      • • Medical School
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2011
    • National Defense Medical College
      Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
  • 2001
    • Aichi Medical University
      Okazaki, Aichi, Japan