[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although host immune response is an emerging prognostic factor for colorectal cancer, there is no consensus on the optimal methodology, surrogate markers or tissue for study.
Tumour blocks were prospectively collected from 344 patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Whole section lymphocytic infiltration was studied along with mRNA expression of CD3Z, CD8, CD4, CXCL9, CXCL13, IGHM, FOXP3, SNAI2 and ESR1 by qRT-qPCR in tissue microarray (TMA) cores from the centre of tumour, invasive margin and adjacent normal mucosa.
Lymphocytic infiltration, deficient MMR (10.9%), KRAS (40.7%) and BRAF (4.9%) mutations or single mRNA gene expression were not prognostic. Tumour ESR1 gene expression (Hazard Ratio [HR] for relapse 2.33, 95% CI 1.35-4.02; HR for death 1.74, 95% CI 1.02-2.97) and absence of necrosis (HR for relapse 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.71; HR for death 1.98, 95% CI 1.14-3.43) were adverse prognostic features. We used CD3Z and CD8 expression in order to devise the mRNA-based Immune Score (mIS) and proceeded to partitioning analysis in 267 patients, with age, stage, tumour site (Right vs Left CRC), KRAS mutation and tumour mIS as input factors. Only in patients with stage III right-sided colon cancer, a low immune response was associated with inferior disease-free survival (mIS-low, HR for relapse 2.28, 95% CI 1.05-8.02). No prognostic significance was seen for tumour mIS in any other stage or site of CRC, or for a similar mIS score derived from adjacent normal mucosa. Independent adverse prognostic significance was retained in multivariable analysis for absence of necrosis, tumour ESR1 expression in all patients and low tumour mIS in stage III right-sided CRC.
In localised CRC, mRNA-based CD3Z/CD8 profiling of tumour immune response may have stage, site and tissue-specific prognostic significance, along with ESR1 expression.
PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0124612. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0124612 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the trial was to compare two active adjuvant chemotherapy regimens in patients with early stage colorectal cancer (CRC).
Patients were assigned to oxaliplatin, leucovorin and 5-FU for 12 cycles (group A, FOLFOX6) or oxaliplatin and capecitabine for eight cycles (group B, CAPOX). Primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). Tumors were classified as mismatch repair proficient (pMMR) or deficient (dMMR) according to MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression. KRAS exon two and BRAF V600E mutational status were also assessed.
Between 2005 and 2008, 441 patients were enrolled, with 408 patients being eligible. After a median follow-up of 74.7 months, 3-year DFS was 79.8 % (95 % CI 76.5-83.4) in the FOLFOX group and 79.5 % (95 % CI 75.9-83.1) in the CAPOX group (p = 0.78). Three-year OS was 87.2 % (95 % CI 84.1-91.1) in the FOLFOX and 86.9 % (95 % CI 83.4-89.9) in the CAPOX group (p = 0.84). Among 306 available tumors, 11.0 % were dMMR, 34.0 % KRAS mutant and 4.9 % BRAF mutant. Multivariate analysis showed that primary site in the left colon, earlier TNM stage and the presence of anemia at diagnosis were associated with better DFS and overall survival (OS), while grade one-two tumors were associated with better OS. Finally, a statistically significant interaction was detected between the primary site and MMR status (p = 0.010), while KRAS mutated tumors were associated with shorter DFS. However, the sample was too small for safe conclusions.
No significant differences were observed in the efficacy of FOLFOX versus CAPOX as adjuvant treatment in high-risk stage II or stage III CRC patients, but definitive conclusions cannot be drawn because of the small sample size.
ANZCTR 12610000509066 . Date of Registration: June 21, 2010.
BMC Cancer 05/2015; 15(1):384. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1406-7 · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the more effective dosing sequence of intermittent erlotinib and docetaxel for treating chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC).
Anticancer research 10/2014; 34(10):5649-55. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Aims: The aim of this article was to evaluate afatinib (BIBW 2992), an ErbB family blocker, and nintedanib (BIBF 1120), a triple angiokinase inhibitor, in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. Patients & methods: Patients were randomized to receive nintedanib (250 mg twice daily), afatinib (40 mg once daily [q.d.]), or alternating sequential 7-day nintedanib (250 mg twice daily) and afatinib (70 mg q.d. [Combi70]), which was reduced to 40 mg q.d. (Combi40) due to adverse events. The primary end point was progression-free rate at 12 weeks. Results: Of the 85 patients treated 46, 20, 16 and three received nintedanib, afatinib, Combi40 and Combi70, respectively. At 12 weeks, the progression-free rate was 26% (seven out of 27 patients) for nintedanib, and 0% for afatinib and Combi40 groups. Two patients had a ≥50% decline in PSA (nintedanib and the Combi40 groups). The most common drug-related adverse events were diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and lethargy. Conclusion: Nintedanib and/or afatinib demonstrated limited anti-tumor activity in unselected advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ichthyoses are a heterogeneous group of cutaneous keratinization disorders that can be congenital or acquired. Apart from neoplastic disorders, the acquired form of ichthyosis (AI) has been associated with a variety of diseases including infections, autoimmune/inflammatory and endocrine/metabolic diseases as well as nutritional conditions, medications and others. However, malignancy accounts for half of the reported cases, most commonly including lymphoproliferative disorders. We present a case of AI as a paraneoplastic skin manifestation of a primary, osseous hemangiopericytoma (HP) accompanied by multiple liver metastases. We also review the literature and discuss the necessity of investigating underlying diseases, especially malignancy, when adult-onset ichthyosis arises.
Case Reports in Dermatology 01/2014; 6(1):10-5. DOI:10.1159/000358294
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCDLBL-LT) is a primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma of intermediate behavior. The disease predominantly affects elderly patients. A 76-year old man presented with red to violaceous nodules in the anterior aspect of both tibias. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of PCDLBL-LT. A thorough clinical and laboratory investigation was negative for any systemic involvement. However, computed tomography of the thorax showed mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Both bone marrow aspiration and trephine did not show any evidence of bone marrow infiltration. Initially R-CHOP regimen (rituximab-cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) achieved a total clearance of the lesions. Nevertheless, five months later patient presented with a relapse and was managed with palliative radiotherapy. The same treatment modality was applied for the second recurrence, as well. PCDLBL-LT affects mostly elderly patients. The consequent age related comorbidities and the frequent relapses require a strict follow up of the patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although lymphomas involving the prostate gland are rare, they should always be considered in the differential diagnosis. We report a case of primary prostatic NHL in a 70-year-old man presented with hematuria and urinary obstructive symptoms. Routine laboratory tests were within normal limits and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 0,01 ng/ml. The patient underwent radical prostatectomy. Histologically, two different coexisting patterns of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, infiltrating the prostatic tissue, were identified. The diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) presenting with an associated low-grade lymphoma of MALT-type was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The patient received chemotherapy without any complication and has been followed-up for 2 years since surgical resection with no recurrence. The clinicopathologic characteristics of prostatic lymphomas are discussed, while reviewing the current English-language literature. Hippokratia. 2012; 16 (1): 86-89
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We undertook this phase I study to investigate the feasibility of the combination of temozolomide (TMZ) and lapatinib (LP) and to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of LP in patients with relapsed high-grade gliomas. Eligible patients were enrolled in this dose escalation study of LP. TMZ was administered at a fixed dose of 200 mg/m(2) d1-d5 every 28 days. Starting dose of LP was set at 1,000 mg daily continuously, escalated by 250 mg in cohorts of minimum three patients. Translational research investigations were also undertaken in available biopsy material. Between January 2009 and December 2010, 16 patients were entered into the study at three LP levels: 1,000 mg sid (11 patients), 1,250 mg sid (4 patients) and 1,500 mg sid (1 patient). A total of 55 cycles had been delivered. Fourteen patients had stopped treatment because of disease progression, and two because of toxicity. Three patients received 10, 11 and 17 cycles of treatment. Dose-limiting hematological toxicity was observed in 2 patients at the second LP dose level of 1,250 mg sid. MTD was defined at LP 1,000 mg sid. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and survival were 2.4 and 5.9 months, respectively. EGFR amplification and EGFRvIII expression were not related to PFS. Combination of TMZ and LP is feasible with manageable toxicity. The activity of this combination in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme is further investigated in a recently initiated phase II trial.
Journal of Neurology 01/2013; 260(6). DOI:10.1007/s00415-012-6812-z · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: The association between two polymorphisms of ERCC1 and treatment outcomes after platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced urothelial cancer (UC) was examined. Materials & methods: Genotyping of 19007C>T and 8092C>A polymorphisms was determined by PCR amplification and RFLP in 113 advanced UC patients, treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Results: Seventy eight patients (69%) were carriers of the 19007T polymorphic allele: 51 (45%) heterozygotes and 27 (24%) homozygotes. Fifty three (47%) patients were carriers of the 8092A polymorphic allele: the frequencies of C/A and A/A genotypes were 37% and 10%, respectively. The T/T genotype was independently associated with prolonged median cancer-specific survival (not-reached vs 14.8 months; p = 0.026). There was no interaction between T/T or any other genotype with the type of platinum derivative (cisplatin/carboplatin). Conclusion: 19007C>T, especially in its homozygotic state, but not 8092C>A polymorphism, could be a useful prognostic marker in advanced UC treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Original submitted 17 July 2012; Revision submitted 21 September 2012.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background–aim: ALK1 (ALK) translocation is a rare event in NSCLC, which more often seem to harbor aberrant ALK gene copies. Herein, we investigated the still undefined impact of ALK gene copies and of ALK mRNA expression on NSCLC patient outcome.
Methods: The presence and relative quantity of two ALK exon spanning transcript targets located before (ALK-5’) and after (ALK-3’) the translocation breakpoints of this gene were assessed with qRT-PCR in 198 NSCLC RNA samples from paraffin tissues upon stringent intra- and inter-run assay performance validation. ALK
mRNA expression was compared with ALK gene status assessed with FISH. Patients
had been treated in the adjuvant and/or 1st line setting. None of them received crizotinib.
Results: Four patterns of ALK mRNA expression emerged: tumors negative for both transcripts (85/198, 42.9%) or positive for both (56/198, 28.3%), which were considered as close to normal (ALK-N); and, ALK-5’ positive only (34/198, 17.2%) or ALK-3’ positive only (23/198, 11.6%), which were termed as aberrant (ALK-A).
ALK translocation was observed in 9/124 cases (7.3%). ALK copies >2.2 were noticed
in 40 cases (32.3%) with >6 copies in 26 cases (21%) and overall complex gene gain patterns. ALK mRNA was unrelated to ALK translocation, but ALK-3’ was associated with increased ALK gene copies (p = 0.017). ALK-A was more common in stage IIIB-IV tumors, while ALK mRNA and gene copy gains were not associated with gender, smoking and histology. ALK gene status was not associated with patient
outcome. In comparison to patients with tumors expressing ALK-N, those with ALK-A had a significantly shorter overall survival (OS, median 29.3 vs. 13.1 months, CI95% 19.1-39.6 vs. 5.4-20.9, p = 0.0007). The same unfavorable impact of ALK-N vs. ALK-A was observed on stage IIIB-IV patient OS (median 17.5 vs. 11 months, CI95% 9.1-26.0 vs. 6.6-15.3, p = 0.0050).
Conclusions: ALK gene status and mRNA expression seem to suffer a complex pathology in NSCLC. When expressed, ALK mRNA may be fragmented, possibly due to currently unknown genomic alterations. Aberrant ALK mRNA expression appears to have an unfavorable prognostic impact on NSCLC patient outcome; its
role on NSCLC biology merits further evaluation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suppression of gonadal androgens by medical or surgical castration remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with advanced prostate cancer. However, the response to treatment is not durable, and transition to a "castration-resistant" state is invariable. Recent advances in our understanding of the androgen receptor signaling pathway have led to the development of therapeutic strategies to overcome castration resistance. This article reviews current concepts and challenges behind targeting continued androgen receptor signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer and provides an overview of recently completed and ongoing clinical trials of novel hormonal agents, with a focus on abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide (MDV3100). Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine Volume 64 is January 07, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
Annual review of medicine 09/2012; 64. DOI:10.1146/annurev-med-121211-091605 · 15.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have become a treatment option in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, despite their use in this disease, a significant number of patients will eventually develop resistance and relapse. In this study, we aimed to characterize several molecular events involved in potential resistance mechanisms to anti-EGFR treatment and correlate our findings with clinical outcome.
Material and methods
The medical records of patients with NSCLC who received anti-EGFR TKIs in any line within the participating centers were reviewed and available paraffin embedded tissue was retrieved. Mutational analysis for EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and intron-exon 14 deletions of MET; FISH analysis for chromosomal gain or amplification for EGFR, MET and the deletion marker D7S486 were performed. Furthermore, the expression of EGFR and MET were analysed by immunohistochemistry. All results were correlated with treatment outcomes.
Between 10/2001 and 12/2009 from an initial cohort of 72 treated patients, 59 cases (28 gefitinib/ 31 erlotinib) were included in the analysis. The majority had adenocarcinoma histology (68%), and received treatment in the second line setting (56%). Disease control rate (DCR) was 25.4% for all patients. EGFR and RAS mutational rates were 33% and 10% respectively, no other mutations were identified. High EGFR expressing tumors were found in 7 of 45 cases and pEGFR positivity (IHC) was found in 56% of the cases; MET expression was found in 48% of tumors. EGFR gene amplification was found in 4 cases, two cases showed high polysomy; overall, 13% cases were FISH positive for EGFR. High polysomy of MET gene was detected in 1/43 cases tested. D7S486 locus deletion was detected in 15/37 (40%) of cases. EGFR mutational status and gene gain were both associated with more favorable DCR. No other associations between examined biomarkers and DCR or survival were noted.
EGFR mutational status is a predictor for disease control in patients with NSCLC treated with anti-EGFR TKIs. The predictive role of several other molecules involved in potential resistance to anti-EGFR TKIs is worthy of additional investigation.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 09/2012; 31(1):77. DOI:10.1186/1756-9966-31-77 · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background TH-302 is a hypoxia targeted prodrug with a hypoxia-triggered 2-nitroimidazole component designed to release the DNA alkylator,
bromo-isophosphoramide mustard (Br-IPM), when reduced in severe hypoxia. A randomized Phase 2B study (NCT01144455) was conducted to assess the benefit of G + T to standard dose G as first-line therapy of PAC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
BRCA1 (B), ERCC1 (E), RRM1 (R) and TYMS (T) mRNA expression has been extensively studied with respect to NSCLC patient outcome upon various chemotherapy agents. However, these markers have not been introduced into clinical practice yet. One of the reasons seems to be lack of a standard approach for the classification of the reported high/low mRNA expression. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic/predictive impact of B, E, R, T in routinely-treated NSCLC patients by taking into account the expression of these genes in the normal lung parenchyma.
B, E, R, T mRNA expression was examined in 276 NSCLC samples (real-time PCR). The normal range of B, E, R, T transcript levels was first determined in matched tumor – normal pairs and then applied to the entire tumor series. Four main chemotherapy categories were examined: taxanes-without-platinum (Tax); platinum-without-taxanes (Plat); taxanes/platinum doublets (Tax/Plat); and, all-other combinations.
In comparison to remotely located normal lung parenchyma, B, E, R, T mRNA expression was generally increased in matched tumors, as well as in the entire tumor series. Therefore, tumors were classified as expressing normal or aberrant B, E, R, T mRNA. In general, no marker was associated with overall and progression free survival (OS, PFS). Upon multivariate analysis, aberrant intratumoral TYMS predicted for shorter PFS than normal TYMS in 1st line chemo-naïve treated patients (p = 0.012). In the same setting, specific interactions were observed for aberrant TYMS with Plat and Tax/Plat (p = 0.003 and p = 0.006, respectively). Corresponding patients had longer PFS in comparison to those treated with Tax (Plat: HR = 0.234, 95% CI:0.108-0.506, Wald’s p < 0.0001; Tax/Plat: HR = 0.242, 95% CI:0.131-0.447, Wald’s p < 0.0001). Similar results were obtained for PFS in 1st line chemo-naïve and (neo)adjuvant pre-treated patients. Adenocarcinoma, early disease stage, and treatment with Tax/Plat doublets independently predicted for prolonged OS in patients who received only one line of treatment (adjuvant or 1st line).
Classifying intratumoral B, E, R, T mRNA expression in comparison to normal lung may facilitate standardization of these parameters for prospective studies. With this approach, NSCLC patients with aberrant intratumoral TYMS expression will probably fare better with platinum-based treatments.
BMC Cancer 08/2012; 12(1):342. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-12-342 · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although lymphomas involving the prostate gland are rare, they should always be considered in the differential diagnosis. We report a case of primary prostatic NHL in a 70-year-old man presented with hematuria and urinary obstructive symptoms. Routine laboratory tests were within normal limits and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 0,01 ng/ml. The patient underwent radical prostatectomy. Histologically, two different coexisting patterns of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, infiltrating the prostatic tissue, were identified. The diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) presenting with an associated low-grade lymphoma of MALT-type was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The patient received chemotherapy without any complication and has been followed-up for 2 years since surgical resection with no recurrence. The clinicopathologic characteristics of prostatic lymphomas are discussed, while reviewing the current English-language literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This phase Ib trial assessed safety, tolerability, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of figitumumab (CP-751,871), a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR), in combination with docetaxel.
Patients with advanced solid tumours were treated with escalating dose levels of figitumumab plus 75 mg m(-2) docetaxel every 21 days. Safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and biomarker responses were evaluated.
In 46 patients, no dose-limiting toxicities were attributable to the treatment combination. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities included neutropaenia (n=28), febrile neutropaenia (n=11), fatigue (n=10), leukopaenia (n=7), diarrhoea (n=5), hyperglycaemia, lymphopaenia, cellulitis, DVT, and pain (all n=1). The MTD was not reached. Four partial responses were observed; 12 patients had disease stabilisation of > or =6 months. Pharmacokinetic and biomarker analyses showed a dose-dependent increase in plasma exposure, and complete sIGF-IR downregulation at doses of >or =3 mg kg(-1). Pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in combination was similar to when given alone. Out of 18 castration-resistant prostate cancer patients, 10 (56%) had > or =5 circulating tumour cells (CTCs) per 7.5 ml of blood at baseline: 6 out of 10 (60%) had a decline from > or =5 to <5 CTCs and 9 out of 10 (90%) had a > or =30% decline in CTCs after therapy.
Figitumumab and docetaxel in combination are well tolerated. Further evaluation is warranted.
British Journal of Cancer 07/2010; 103(3):332-9. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605767 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. This paper aimed to assess the utility of second-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcoma. Materials and Methods. A retrospective search of a prospectively maintained database identified patients treated between 1991 and 2005. Patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours, small round cell tumours, and Ewing's sarcoma were excluded. Response was assessed using WHO and RECIST. Patients who achieved stable disease for 6 months or more were classified as having disease control. Results. Three hundred and seventy-nine patients received second-line chemotherapy. Eighty-six (22.7%) achieved disease control. Median duration of response was 11 months (95% CI: 9-13). On multivariate analysis, pathological subtype, absence of lung metastases, and the use of combination chemotherapy were independent predictors of disease control. Twenty-eight (16.1%) patients who failed to respond to first-line therapy achieved disease control. Eight (2.1%) patients had sufficient downstaging to enable complete surgical resection. Progression-free survival was 23% at 6 months. Median overall survival was 8 months (95% CI: 7-10 months). On multivariate analysis, synovial histology and absence of lung metastases were associated with improved survival. Conclusion. Second-line chemotherapy can provide clinical benefit in over 20% of soft-tissue sarcoma patients.