Hilde Ween

Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (15)45.15 Total impact

  • Biochemical Pharmacology - BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 01/2011; 82(8):1030-1030.
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    ABSTRACT: Genistein and 5-hydroxyindole (5-HI) potentiate the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor current by primarily increasing peak amplitude, a property of type I α7 positive allosteric modulation. In this study, the effects of these two compounds were investigated at two different α7/5-HT(3) chimeras (chimera 1, comprising of extracellular α7 N-terminus fused to the remainder of 5-HT(3A), and chimera 2 containing an additional α7 encoded M2-M3 loop), and wild-type α7 and 5-HT(3A) receptors. Agonist-evoked responses, examined by expression of the chimeras in Xenopus laevis oocytes or HEK-293 cells, revealed that currents decayed slower and compounds {rank order: N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-4-chlorobenzamide hydrochloride (PNU-282987)~2-(1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonan-4-yl)-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (NS6784)>acetylcholine>choline} were more potent in chimera 2 than chimera 1 or α7 receptors. In chimera 2, genistein and 5-HI potentiated agonist-evoked responses (EC(50): 4-5 μM for genistein and 300-500 μM for 5-HI) and at higher concentrations evoked current directly consistent with ago-allosteric modulation. At chimera 1 and 5-HT(3A) receptors, neither compound directly evoked any current and 5-HI, only at chimera 1, was able to potentiate agonist-evoked responses. Genistein and 5-HI did not inhibit the binding of the α7 agonist [(3)H](1S,4S)-2,2-dimethyl-5-(6-phenylpyridazin-3-yl)-5-aza-2-azoniabicyclo[2.2.1] heptane ([(3)H]A-585539) to rat brain or chimera 2. In summary, this study supports the role of the M2-M3 loop being critical for the positive allosteric effect of genistein, but not 5-HI, and in agonist-evoked response fine-tuning. The identification of distinct α7 receptor modulatory sites offers unique opportunities for developing CNS therapeutics and understanding its pharmacology.
    European journal of pharmacology 11/2010; 647(1-3):37-47. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alpha3-containing (alpha 3*) and alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells and implicated in Ca(2+) signaling. In this study, we investigated the intracellular Ca(2+) transient generation evoked by selective activation of alpha 3* (agonist potency rank order: epibatidine>varenicline>nicotine approximately cytisine) and alpha 7 (rank order in the presence of alpha 7 positive allosteric modulator or PAM: A-795723>NS6784 approximately PNU-282987) using, respectively, varenicline and NS6784 (+alpha 7 PAM) by Ca(2+) imaging. Effects of inhibitors of nAChRs (MLA and mecamylamine), ER Ca(2+) ATPase pump (CPA and thapsigargin), Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (ryanodine and dantrolene), Ca(2+) channels (nitrendipine, diltiazem, and Cd(2+)), and removal of extracellular Ca(2+) were examined. alpha 7 PAMs, when tested in the presence of NS6784, were more active when added first, followed by the agonist, than in the reverse order. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) - but not CPA, thapsigargin, ryanodine, dantrolene, nitrendipine, diltiazem, or Cd(2+) - diminished the alpha 7 agonist-evoked Ca(2+) transients. In contrast, only diltiazem and nitrendipine and removal of extracellular Ca(2+) inhibited the alpha 3*-mediated Ca(2+) transients. The differential effect of diltiazem and nitrendipine versus Cd(2+) was due to direct inhibition of alpha 3* nAChRs as revealed by Ca(2+) imaging in HEK-293 cells expressing human alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs and patch clamp in IMR-32 cells. In summary, this study provides evidence that alpha 3* and alpha 7 nAChR agonist-evoked global Ca(2+) transient generation in IMR-32 cells does not primarily involve voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, intracellular Ca(2+) stores, or Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. These mechanisms may, however, be still involved in other forms of nAChR-mediated Ca(2+) signaling.
    Neurochemistry International 10/2010; 57(3):269-77. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enhancement of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity is considered a therapeutic approach for ameliorating cognitive deficits present in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. In this study, we describe the in vitro profile of a novel selective alpha7 nAChR agonist, 5-(6-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2,2,2]oct-3-yloxy]pyridazin-3-yl)-1H-indole (ABT-107). ABT-107 displayed high affinity binding to alpha7 nAChRs [rat or human cortex, [(3)H](1S,4S)-2,2-dimethyl-5-(6-phenylpyridazin-3-yl)-5-aza-2-azoniabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane (A-585539), K(i) = 0.2-0.6 nM or [(3)H]methyllycaconitine (MLA), 7 nM] that was at least 100-fold selective versus non-alpha7 nAChRs and other receptors. Functionally, ABT-107 did not evoke detectible currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing human or nonhuman alpha3beta4, chimeric (alpha6/alpha3)beta4, or 5-HT(3A) receptors, and weak or negligible Ca(2+) responses in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells (alpha3* function) and human alpha4beta2 and alpha4beta4 nAChRs expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. ABT-107 potently evoked human and rat alpha7 nAChR current responses in oocytes (EC(50), 50-90 nM total charge, approximately 80% normalized to acetylcholine) that were enhanced by the positive allosteric modulator (PAM) 4-[5-(4-chloro-phenyl)-2-methyl-3-propionyl-pyrrol-1-yl]-benzenesulfonamide (A-867744). In rat hippocampus, ABT-107 alone evoked alpha7-like currents, which were inhibited by the alpha7 antagonist MLA. In dentate gyrus granule cells, ABT-107 enhanced spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current activity when coapplied with A-867744. In the presence of an alpha7 PAM [A-867744 or N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-4-chlorobenzamide hydrochloride (PNU-120596)], the addition of ABT-107 elicited MLA-sensitive alpha7 nAChR-mediated Ca(2+) signals in IMR-32 cells and rat cortical cultures and enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in differentiated PC-12 cells. ABT-107 was also effective in protecting rat cortical cultures against glutamate-induced toxicity. In summary, ABT-107 is a selective high affinity alpha7 nAChR agonist suitable for characterizing the roles of this subtype in pharmacological studies.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 09/2010; 334(3):863-74. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several agonists of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) have been developed for treatment of cognitive deficits. However, agonist efficacy in vivo is difficult to reconcile with rapid alpha7 nAChR desensitization in vitro; and furthermore, the correlation between in vitro receptor efficacy and in vivo behavioural efficacy is not well delineated. The possibility that agonists of this receptor actually function in vivo as inhibitors via desensitization has not been finally resolved. Two structurally related alpha7 nAChR agonists were characterized and used to assess the degree of efficacy required in a behavioural paradigm. NS6784 activated human and rat alpha7 nAChR with EC(50)s of 0.72 and 0.88 microM, and apparent efficacies of 77 and 97% respectively. NS6740, in contrast, displayed little efficacy at alpha7 nAChR (<2% in oocytes, < or =8% in GH4C1 cells), although its agonist-like properties were revealed by adding a positive allosteric modulator of alpha7 nAChRs or using the slowly desensitizing alpha7V274T receptor. In mouse inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory retention, NS6784 enhanced performance as did the 60% partial agonist A-582941. In contrast, NS6740 did not enhance performance, but blocked effects of A-582941. Collectively, these findings suggest that a degree of alpha7 nAChR agonist efficacy is required for behavioural effects in the IA paradigm, and that such behavioural efficacy is not due to alpha7 nAChR desensitization. Also, a partial agonist of very low efficacy for this receptor could be used as an inhibitor, in the absence of alpha7 nAChR antagonists with favourable CNS penetration.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 11/2009; 158(6):1486-94. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of the alpha7 subtype are ligand-gated ion channels that are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system and considered as attractive targets for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Both agonists and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) are being developed as means to enhance the function of alpha7 nAChRs. The in vitro characterization of alpha7 ligands, including agonists and PAMs, relies on multiple technologies, but only electrophysiological measurements assess the channel activity directly. Traditional electrophysiological approaches utilizing two-electrode voltage clamp or patch clamp in isolated cells have very low throughput to significantly impact drug discovery. Abbott (Abbott Park, IL) has developed a two-electrode voltage clamp-based system, the Parallel Oocyte Electrophysiology Test Station (POETs()), that allows for the investigation of ligand-gated ion channels such as alpha7 nAChRs in a higher-throughput manner. We describe the utility of this technology in the discovery of selective alpha7 agonists and PAMs. With alpha7 agonists, POETs experiments involved both single- and multiple-point concentration-response testing revealing diverse activation profiles (zero efficacy desensitizing, partial, and full agonists). In the characterization of alpha7 PAMs, POETs testing has served as a reliable primary or secondary screen identifying compounds that fall into distinct functional types depending on the manner in which current potentiation occurred. Type I PAMs (eg, genistein, NS1738, and 5-hydroxyindole) increase predominantly the peak amplitude response, type II PAMs affect the peak current and current decay (eg, PNU-120,596 and 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline-8-sulfonamide), and anothertype slowing the current decay kinetics in the absence of increases in the peak current. In summary, POETs technology allows for significant impact on higher throughput in the testing of alpha7 agonists and PAMs and for identification of compounds with unique profiles that could prove valuable in identifying an optimum in vitro profile in the development of therapeutics for which the alpha7 subtype is considered.
    Assay and Drug Development Technologies 09/2009; 7(4):374-90. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of 5-(pyridine-3-yl)octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrroles have been prepared that exhibit high affinity to alpha4beta2 and/or alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Simple substitution patterns have been identified that allow construction of ligands that are highly selective for either nAChR subtype. The effects of substitution on subtype selectivity provide some insight into the differences in the ligand binding domains of the alpha4beta2 and alpha7 receptors, especially in regions removed from the cation binding pocket.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2009; 52(14):4126-41. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of a series of pyrrole-sulfonamides as positive allosteric modulators (PAM) of alpha7 nAChRs is described. Optimization of this series led to the identification of 19 (A-867744), a novel type II PAM with good potency and selectivity. Compound 19 showed acceptable pharmacokinetic profile across species and brain levels sufficient to modulate alpha7 nAChRs. In a rodent model of sensory gating, 19 normalized gating deficits. These results suggest that 19 represents a novel class of molecules capable of allosteric modulation of the alpha7 nAChRs.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 06/2009; 52(10):3377-84. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Targeting alpha7 neuronal acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with selective agonists and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) is considered a therapeutic approach for managing cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we describe a novel type II alpha7 PAM, 4-(5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-methyl-3-propionyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide (A-867744), that exhibits a unique pharmacological profile. In oocytes expressing alpha7 nAChRs, A-867744 potentiated acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked currents, with an EC(50) value of approximately 1 microM. At highest concentrations of A-867744 tested, ACh-evoked currents were essentially nondecaying. At lower concentrations, no evidence of a distinct secondary component was evident in contrast to 4-naphthalen-1-yl-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline-8-sulfonic acid amide (TQS), another type II alpha7 PAM. In the presence of A-867744, ACh concentration responses were potentiated by increases in potency, Hill slope, and maximal efficacy. When examined in rat hippocampus CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons or dentate gyrus granule cells, A-867744 (10 microM) increased choline-evoked alpha7 currents and recovery from inhibition/desensitization, and enhanced spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current activity. A-867744, like other alpha7 PAMs tested [1-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(2-chloro-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)urea (NS1738), TQS, and 1-(5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(5-methyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-urea (PNU-120596)], did not displace the binding of [(3)H]methyllycaconitine to rat cortex alpha7(*) nAChRs. However, unlike these PAMs, A-867744 displaced the binding of the agonist [(3)H](1S,4S)-2,2-dimethyl-5-(6-phenylpyridazin-3-yl)-5-aza-2-azoniabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane (A-585539) in rat cortex, with a K(i) value of 23 nM. A-867744 neither increased agonist-evoked responses nor displaced the binding of [(3)H]A-585539 in an alpha7/5-hydroxytryptamine(3) (alpha7/5-HT(3)) chimera, suggesting an interaction distinct from the alpha7 N terminus or M2-3 loop. In addition, A-867744 failed to potentiate responses mediated by 5-HT(3A) or alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta2 nAChRs. In summary, this study identifies a novel and selective alpha7 PAM showing activity at recombinant and native alpha7 nAChRs exhibiting a unique pharmacological interaction with the receptor.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 05/2009; 330(1):257-67. · 3.89 Impact Factor
  • Biochemical Pharmacology - BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 01/2009; 78(7):904-904.
  • Biochemical Pharmacology - BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 01/2009; 78(7):919-920.
  • Biochemical Pharmacology - BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 01/2009; 78(7):912-913.
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    ABSTRACT: The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has attracted considerable interest as a target for cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's Disease. However, most recently described alpha7 agonists are derived from the quinuclidine structural class. Alternatively, the present study identifies tilorone as a novel alpha7-selective agonist and characterizes analogues developed from this lead. Activity and selectivity were determined from rat brain alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nAChR binding, recombinant nAChR activation, and native alpha7 nAChR mediated stimulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in PC12 cells. Tilorone bound alpha7 nAChR (IC(50) 110 nM) with high selectivity relative to alpha4beta2 (IC(50) 70 000 nM), activated human alpha7 nAChR with an EC(50) value of 2.5 microM and maximal response of 67% relative to acetylcholine, and showed little agonist effect at human alpha3beta4 or alpha4beta2 nAChRs. However, the rat alpha7 nAChR maximal response was only 34%. Lead optimization led to 2-(5-methyl-hexahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrol-2-yl)-xanthen-9-one (A-844606) with improved binding (alpha7 IC(50) 11 nM, alpha4beta2 IC(50)>30 000 nM) and activity at both human and rat alpha7 nAChR (EC(50)s 1.4 and 2.2 microM and apparent efficacies 61 and 63%, respectively). These compounds also activated native alpha7 nAChR, stimulating ERK1/2 phosphorylation in PC12 cells. Tilorone, known as an interferon inducer, is a selective alpha7 nAChR agonist, suggesting utility of the fluorenone pharmacophore for the development of alpha7 nAChR selective agonists. Whether alpha7 stimulation mediates interferon induction, or whether interferon induction may influence the potential anti-inflammatory properties of alpha7 nAChR agonists remains to be elucidated.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 04/2008; 153(5):1054-61. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among the diverse sets of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the alpha7 subtype is highly expressed in the hippocampus and cortex and is thought to play important roles in a variety of cognitive processes. In this review, we describe the properties of a novel biaryl diamine alpha7 nAChR agonist, A-582941. A-582941 was found to exhibit high-affinity binding and partial agonism at alpha7 nAChRs, with acceptable pharmacokinetic properties and excellent distribution to the central nervous system (CNS). In vitro and in vivo studies indicated that A-582941 activates signaling pathways known to be involved in cognitive function such as ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation. A-582941 enhanced cognitive performance in behavioral models that capture domains of working memory, short-term recognition memory, memory consolidation, and sensory gating deficit. A-582941 exhibited a benign secondary pharmacodynamic and tolerability profile as assessed in a battery of assays of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and CNS function. The studies summarized in this review collectively provide preclinical validation that alpha7 nAChR agonism offers a mechanism with potential to improve cognitive deficits associated with various neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.
    CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 02/2008; 14(1):65-82. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selective modulation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is thought to regulate processes impaired in schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias. One approach to target alpha7 nAChRs is by positive allosteric modulation. Structurally diverse compounds, including PNU-120596, 4-naphthalene-1-yl-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3-H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline-8-sulfonic acid amide (TQS), and 5-hydroxyindole (5-HI) have been identified as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), but their receptor interactions and pharmacological profiles remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated interactions of these compounds at human alpha7 nAChRs, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, along with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Genistein was found to function as a PAM. Two types of PAM profiles were observed. 5-HI and genistein predominantly affected the apparent peak current (type I) whereas PNU-120596 and TQS increased the apparent peak current and evoked a distinct weakly decaying current (type II). Concentration-responses to agonists [ACh, 3-[(3E)-3-[(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene]-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyridin-2-yl]pyridine dihydrochloride (GTS-21), and N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-4-chlorobenzamide hydrochloride (PNU-282987)] were potentiated by both types, although type II PAMs had greater effects. When applied after alpha7 nAChRs were desensitized, type II, but not type I, PAMs could reactivate alpha7 currents. Both types of PAMs also increased the ACh-evoked alpha7 window currents, with type II PAMs generally showing larger potentiation. None of the PAMs tested increased nicotine-evoked Ca(2+) transients in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing human alpha4beta2 or alpha3beta4 nAChRs, although some inhibition was noted for 5-HI, genistein, and TQS. In summary, our studies reveal two distinct alpha7 PAM profiles, which could offer unique opportunities for modulating alpha7 nAChRs in vivo and in the development of novel therapeutics for central nervous system indications.
    Molecular Pharmacology 10/2007; 72(3):715-24. · 4.41 Impact Factor