[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complex diseases result from molecular changes induced by multiple genetic factors and the environment. To derive a systems view of how genetic loci interact in the context of tissue-specific molecular networks, we constructed an F2 intercross comprised of >500 mice from diabetes-resistant (B6) and diabetes-susceptible (BTBR) mouse strains made genetically obese by the Leptin(ob/ob) mutation (Lep(ob)). High-density genotypes, diabetes-related clinical traits, and whole-transcriptome expression profiling in five tissues (white adipose, liver, pancreatic islets, hypothalamus, and gastrocnemius muscle) were determined for all mice. We performed an integrative analysis to investigate the inter-relationship among genetic factors, expression traits, and plasma insulin, a hallmark diabetes trait. Among five tissues under study, there are extensive protein-protein interactions between genes responding to different loci in adipose and pancreatic islets that potentially jointly participated in the regulation of plasma insulin. We developed a novel ranking scheme based on cross-loci protein-protein network topology and gene expression to assess each gene's potential to regulate plasma insulin. Unique candidate genes were identified in adipose tissue and islets. In islets, the Alzheimer's gene App was identified as a top candidate regulator. Islets from 17-week-old, but not 10-week-old, App knockout mice showed increased insulin secretion in response to glucose or a membrane-permeant cAMP analog, in agreement with the predictions of the network model. Our result provides a novel hypothesis on the mechanism for the connection between two aging-related diseases: Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonalchoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver dysfunction and is associated with metabolic diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. We mapped a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for NAFLD to chromosome 17 in a cross between C57BL/6 (B6) and BTBR mouse strains made genetically obese with the Lep(ob/ob) mutation. We identified Tsc2 as a gene underlying the chromosome 17 NAFLD QTL. Tsc2 functions as an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, which is involved in many physiological processes, including cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism. We found that Tsc2(+/-) mice have increased lipogenic gene expression in the liver in an insulin-dependent manner. The coding single nucleotide polymorphism between the B6 and BTBR strains leads to a change in the ability to inhibit the expression of lipogenic genes and de novo lipogenesis in AML12 cells and to promote the proliferation of Ins1 cells. This difference is due to a different affinity of binding to Tsc1, which affects the stability of Tsc2.
The Journal of Lipid Research 05/2012; 53(8):1493-501. · 4.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously mapped a type 2 diabetes (T2D) locus on chromosome 16 (Chr 16) in an F2 intercross from the BTBR T (+) tf (BTBR) Lep(ob/ob) and C57BL/6 (B6) Lep(ob/ob) mouse strains. Introgression of BTBR Chr 16 into B6 mice resulted in a consomic mouse with reduced fasting plasma insulin and elevated glucose levels. We derived a panel of sub-congenic mice and narrowed the diabetes susceptibility locus to a 1.6 Mb region. Introgression of this 1.6 Mb fragment of the BTBR Chr 16 into lean B6 mice (B6.16(BT36-38)) replicated the phenotypes of the consomic mice. Pancreatic islets from the B6.16(BT36-38) mice were defective in the second phase of the insulin secretion, suggesting that the 1.6 Mb region encodes a regulator of insulin secretion. Within this region, syntaxin-binding protein 5-like (Stxbp5l) or tomosyn-2 was the only gene with an expression difference and a non-synonymous coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between the B6 and BTBR alleles. Overexpression of the b-tomosyn-2 isoform in the pancreatic β-cell line, INS1 (832/13), resulted in an inhibition of insulin secretion in response to 3 mM 8-bromo cAMP at 7 mM glucose. In vitro binding experiments showed that tomosyn-2 binds recombinant syntaxin-1A and syntaxin-4, key proteins that are involved in insulin secretion via formation of the SNARE complex. The B6 form of tomosyn-2 is more susceptible to proteasomal degradation than the BTBR form, establishing a functional role for the coding SNP in tomosyn-2. We conclude that tomosyn-2 is the major gene responsible for the T2D Chr 16 quantitative trait locus (QTL) we mapped in our mouse cross. Our findings suggest that tomosyn-2 is a key negative regulator of insulin secretion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic vasculature is not thought to pose a permeability barrier for diffusion of macromolecules from the bloodstream to hepatocytes. In contrast, in extrahepatic tissues, the microvasculature is critically important for insulin action, because transport of insulin across the endothelial cell layer is rate limiting for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. However, very little is known concerning the role in this process of pericytes, the mural cells lining the basolateral membrane of endothelial cells. PDGF-B is a growth factor involved in the recruitment and function of pericytes. We studied insulin action in mice expressing PDGF-B lacking the proteoglycan binding domain, producing a protein with a partial loss of function (PDGF-B(ret/ret)). Insulin action was assessed through measurements of insulin signaling and insulin and glucose tolerance tests. PDGF-B deficiency enhanced hepatic vascular transendothelial transport. One outcome of this change was an increase in hepatic insulin signaling. This correlated with enhanced whole body glucose homeostasis and increased insulin clearance from the circulation during an insulin tolerance test. In obese mice, PDGF-B deficiency was associated with an 80% reduction in fasting insulin and drastically reduced insulin secretion. These mice did not have significantly higher glucose levels, reflecting a dramatic increase in insulin action. Our findings show that, despite already having a high permeability, hepatic transendothelial transport can be further enhanced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to connect PDGF-B-induced changes in hepatic sinusoidal transport to changes in insulin action, demonstrating a link between PDGF-B signaling and insulin sensitivity.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 06/2011; 301(3):E517-26. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There remains a need for robust mouse models of diabetic nephropathy (DN) that mimic key features of advanced human DN. The recently developed mouse strain BTBR with the ob/ob leptin-deficiency mutation develops severe type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, elevated triglycerides, and insulin resistance, but the renal phenotype has not been characterized. Here, we show that these obese, diabetic mice rapidly develop morphologic renal lesions characteristic of both early and advanced human DN. BTBR ob/ob mice developed progressive proteinuria beginning at 4 weeks. Glomerular hypertrophy and accumulation of mesangial matrix, characteristic of early DN, were present by 8 weeks, and glomerular lesions similar to those of advanced human DN were present by 20 weeks. By 22 weeks, we observed an approximately 20% increase in basement membrane thickness and a >50% increase in mesangial matrix. Diffuse mesangial sclerosis (focally approaching nodular glomerulosclerosis), focal arteriolar hyalinosis, mesangiolysis, and focal mild interstitial fibrosis were present. Loss of podocytes was present early and persisted. In summary, BTBR ob/ob mice develop a constellation of abnormalities that closely resemble advanced human DN more rapidly than most other murine models, making this strain particularly attractive for testing therapeutic interventions.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2010; 21(9):1533-42. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: beta-Cell mass expansion is one mechanism by which obese animals compensate for insulin resistance and prevent diabetes. FoxM1 is a transcription factor that can regulate the expression of multiple cell cycle genes and is necessary for the maintenance of adult beta-cell mass, beta-cell proliferation, and glucose homeostasis. We hypothesized that FoxM1 is up-regulated by nondiabetic obesity and initiates a transcriptional program leading to beta-cell proliferation. We performed gene expression analysis on islets from the nondiabetic C57BL/6 Leptin(ob/ob) mouse, the diabetic BTBR Leptin(ob/ob) mouse, and an F2 Leptin(ob/ob) population derived from these strains. We identified obesity-driven coordinated up-regulation of islet Foxm1 and its target genes in the nondiabetic strain, correlating with beta-cell mass expansion and proliferation. This up-regulation was absent in the diabetic strain. In the F2 Leptin(ob/ob) population, increased expression of Foxm1 and its target genes segregated with higher insulin and lower glucose levels. We next studied the effects of FOXM1b overexpression on isolated mouse and human islets. We found that FoxM1 stimulated mouse and human beta-cell proliferation by activating many cell cycle phases. We asked whether FOXM1 expression is also responsive to obesity in human islets by collecting RNA from human islet donors (body mass index range: 24-51). We found that the expression of FOXM1 and its target genes is positively correlated with body mass index. Our data suggest that beta-cell proliferation occurs in adult obese humans in an attempt to expand beta-cell mass to compensate for insulin resistance, and that the FoxM1 transcriptional program plays a key role in this process.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An absolute or functional deficit in beta-cell mass is a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes. We model obesity-driven beta-cell mass expansion by studying the diabetes-resistant C57BL/6-Leptin(ob/ob) mouse. We previously reported that cholecystokinin (Cck) was the most up-regulated gene in obese pancreatic islets. We now show that islet cholecystokinin (CCK) is up-regulated 500-fold by obesity and expressed in both alpha- and beta-cells. We bred a null Cck allele into the C57BL/6-Leptin(ob/ob) background and investigated beta-cell mass and metabolic parameters of Cck-deficient obese mice. Loss of CCK resulted in decreased islet size and reduced beta-cell mass through increased beta-cell death. CCK deficiency and decreased beta-cell mass exacerbated fasting hyperglycemia and reduced hyperinsulinemia. We further investigated whether CCK can directly affect beta-cell death in cell culture and isolated islets. CCK was able to directly reduce cytokine- and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death. In summary, CCK is up-regulated by islet cells during obesity and functions as a paracrine or autocrine factor to increase beta-cell survival and expand beta-cell mass to compensate for obesity-induced insulin resistance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that adenovirus-mediated expression of preprocholecystokin (CCK) stimulates human and mouse islet cell proliferation. In follow-up studies, we became concerned that the CCK adenovirus might have been contaminated with a wild-type E1A-containing adenovirus. Here we show conclusively that the proliferative effects reported in the original paper in mouse and human islets were not due to CCK expression but rather to a contaminating E1A-expressing wild-type adenovirus. We also show, however, that CCK expression does have a proliferative effect in rat islets. We hope that our report of the steps taken to detect the wild-type virus contamination, and purification of the contributing viral stocks, will be helpful to other investigators, and that our experience will serve as a cautionary tale for use of adenovirus vectors, especially for studies on cellular replication.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes results from severe insulin resistance coupled with a failure of b cells to compensate by secreting sufficient insulin. Multiple genetic loci are involved in the development of diabetes, although the effect of each gene on diabetes susceptibility is thought to be small. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding 19-22-nucleotide RNA molecules that potentially regulate the expression of thousands of genes. To understand the relationship between miRNA regulation and obesity-induced diabetes, we quantitatively profiled approximately 220 miRNAs in pancreatic islets, adipose tissue, and liver from diabetes-resistant (B6) and diabetes-susceptible (BTBR) mice. More than half of the miRNAs profiled were expressed in all three tissues, with many miRNAs in each tissue showing significant changes in response to genetic obesity. Furthermore, several miRNAs in each tissue were differentially responsive to obesity in B6 versus BTBR mice, suggesting that they may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes. In liver there were approximately 40 miRNAs that were downregulated in response to obesity in B6 but not BTBR mice, indicating that genetic differences between the mouse strains play a critical role in miRNA regulation. In order to elucidate the genetic architecture of hepatic miRNA expression, we measured the expression of miRNAs in genetically obese F2 mice. Approximately 10% of the miRNAs measured showed significant linkage (miR-eQTLs), identifying loci that control miRNA abundance. Understanding the influence that obesity and genetics exert on the regulation of miRNA expression will reveal the role miRNAs play in the context of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes result from a deficit in insulin production and beta-cell mass. Methods to expand beta-cell mass are under intensive investigation for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that cholecystokinin (CCK) can promote beta-cell proliferation. We treated isolated mouse and human islets with an adenovirus containing the CCK cDNA (AdCMV-CCK). We measured [(3)H]thymidine and BrdU incorporation into DNA and additionally, performed flow cytometry analysis to determine whether CCK overexpression stimulates beta-cell proliferation. We studied islet function by measuring glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and investigated the cell cycle regulation of proliferating beta-cells by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Overexpression of CCK stimulated [(3)H]thymidine incorporation into DNA 5.0-fold and 15.8-fold in mouse and human islets, respectively. AdCMV-CCK treatment also stimulated BrdU incorporation into DNA 10-fold and 21-fold in mouse and human beta-cells, respectively. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was unaffected by CCK expression. Analysis of cyclin and cdk mRNA and protein abundance revealed that CCK overexpression increased cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin E, cdk1, and cdk2 with no change in cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3, cdk4, or cdk6 in mouse and human islets. Additionally, AdCMV-CCK treatment of CCK receptor knockout and wild-type mice resulted in equal [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. CCK is a beta-cell proliferative factor that is effective in both mouse and human islets. CCK triggers beta-cell proliferation without disrupting islet function, up-regulates a distinct set of cell cycle regulators in islets, and signals independently of the CCK receptors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is necessary but not sufficient for the development of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes results when pancreatic beta-cells fail to compensate for insulin resistance by increasing insulin production through an expansion of beta-cell mass or increased insulin secretion. Communication between insulin target tissues and beta-cells may initiate this compensatory response. Correlated changes in gene expression between tissues can provide evidence for such intercellular communication. We profiled gene expression in six tissues of mice from an obesity-induced diabetes-resistant and a diabetes-susceptible strain before and after the onset of diabetes. We studied the correlation structure of mRNA abundance and identified 105 co-expression gene modules. We provide an interactive gene network model showing the correlation structure between the expression modules within and among the six tissues. This resource also provides a searchable database of gene expression profiles for all genes in six tissues in lean and obese diabetes-resistant and diabetes-susceptible mice, at 4 and 10 wk of age. A cell cycle regulatory module in islets predicts diabetes susceptibility. The module predicts islet replication; we found a strong correlation between (2)H(2)O incorporation into islet DNA in vivo and the expression pattern of the cell cycle module. This pattern is highly correlated with that of several individual genes in insulin target tissues, including Igf2, which has been shown to promote beta-cell proliferation, suggesting that these genes may provide a link between insulin resistance and beta-cell proliferation.
Genome Research 06/2008; 18(5):706-16. · 14.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lipogenic gene stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)1 appears to be a promising new target for obesity-related diabetes, as mice deficient in this enzyme are resistant to diet- and leptin deficiency-induced obesity. The BTBR mouse strain replicates many features of insulin resistance found in humans with excess visceral adiposity. Using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique, we determined that insulin sensitivity was improved in heart, soleus muscle, adipose tissue, and liver of BTBR SCD1-deficient mice. We next determined whether SCD1 deficiency could prevent diabetes in leptin-deficient BTBR mice. Loss of SCD1 in leptin(ob/ob) mice unexpectedly accelerated the progression to severe diabetes; 6-week fasting glucose increased approximately 70%. In response to a glucose challenge, Scd1(-/-) leptin(ob/ob) mice had insufficient insulin secretion, resulting in glucose intolerance. A morphologically distinct class of islets isolated from the Scd1(-/-) leptin(ob/ob) mice had reduced insulin content and increased triglycerides, free fatty acids, esterified cholesterol, and free cholesterol and also a much higher content of saturated fatty acids. We believe the accumulation of lipid is due to an upregulation of lipoprotein lipase (20-fold) and Cd36 (167-fold) and downregulation of lipid oxidation genes in this class of islets. Therefore, although loss of Scd1 has beneficial effects on adiposity, this benefit may come at the expense of beta-cells, resulting in an increased risk of diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously mapped the type 2 diabetes mellitus-2 locus (T2dm2), which affects fasting insulin levels, to distal chromosome 19 in a leptin-deficient obese F2 intercross derived from C57BL/6 (B6) and BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) mice. Introgression of a 7-Mb segment of the B6 chromosome 19 into the BTBR background (strain 1339A) replicated the reduced insulin linked to T2dm2. The 1339A mice have markedly impaired insulin secretion in vivo and disrupted islet morphology. We used subcongenic strains derived from 1339A to localize the T2dm2 quantitative trait locus (QTL) to a 242-kb segment comprising the promoter, first exon and most of the first intron of the Sorcs1 gene. This was the only gene in the 1339A strain for which we detected amino acid substitutions and expression level differences between mice carrying B6 and BTBR alleles of this insert, thereby identifying variation within the Sorcs1 gene as underlying the phenotype associated with the T2dm2 locus. SorCS1 binds platelet-derived growth factor, a growth factor crucial for pericyte recruitment to the microvasculature, and may thus have a role in expanding or maintaining the islet vasculature. Our identification of the Sorcs1 gene provides insight into the pathway underlying the pathophysiology of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most patients at risk for developing type 2 diabetes are hyperinsulinemic. Hyperinsulinemia may be a response to insulin resistance, but another possible abnormality is insulin hypersecretion. BTBR mice are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic. When the leptin(ob) mutation is introgressed into BTBR mice, they develop severe diabetes. We compared the responsiveness of lean B6 and BTBR mouse islets to various insulin secretagogues. The transamination product of leucine, alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC), elicited a dramatic insulin secretory response in BTBR islets. The KIC response was blocked by methyl-leucine or aminooxyacetate, inhibitors of branched-chain amino transferase. When dimethylglutamate was combined with KIC, the fractional insulin secretion was identical in islets from both mouse strains, predicting that the amine donor is rate-limiting for KIC-induced insulin secretion. Consistent with this prediction, glutamate levels were higher in BTBR than in B6 islets. The transamination product of glutamate, alpha-ketoglutarate, elicited insulin secretion equally from B6 and BTBR islets. Thus formation of alpha-ketoglutarate is a requisite step in the response of mouse islets to KIC. alpha-Ketoglutarate can be oxidized to succinate. However, succinate does not stimulate insulin secretion in mouse islets. Our data suggest that alpha-ketoglutarate may directly stimulate insulin secretion and that increased formation of alpha-ketoglutarate leads to hyperinsulinemia.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2005; 289(2):E218-24. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes occurs when pancreatic beta-cells become unable to compensate for the underlying insulin resistance. Insulin secretion requires beta-cell insulin stores to be replenished by insulin biosynthesis, which is mainly regulated at the translational level. Such translational regulation often involves the 5'-untranslated region. Recently, we identified a human insulin splice-variant (SPV) altering only the 5'-untranslated region and conferring increased translation efficiency. We now describe a mouse SPV (mSPV) that is found in the cytoplasm and exhibits increased translation efficiency resulting in more normal (prepro)insulin protein per RNA. The RNA stability of mSPV is not increased, but the predicted secondary RNA structure is altered, which may facilitate translation. To determine the role of mSPV in insulin resistance and diabetes, mSPV expression was measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in islets from three diabetic and/or insulin-resistant, obese and nonobese, mouse models (BTBRob/ob, C57BL/6ob/ob, and C57BL/6azip). Interestingly, mSPV expression was significantly higher in all diabetic/insulin-resistant mice compared with wild-type littermates and was dramatically induced in primary mouse islets incubated at high glucose. This raises the possibility that the mSPV may represent a compensatory beta-cell mechanism to enhance insulin biosynthesis when insulin requirements are elevated by hyperglycemia/insulin resistance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein disulfide isomerase (Pdi) is reported to be an insulin-regulated gene whose expression level is increased in the livers of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. We found that Pdi mRNA is approximately 20-fold more abundant in the diabetes-susceptible BTBR mouse strain relative to the diabetes-resistant C56BL/6 (B6) strain. A genetic analysis was carried out to determine whether there is a causal relationship between elevated Pdi expression and diabetes phenotype in BTBR-ob/ob mice. We mapped Pdi mRNA abundance as a quantitative trait in 108 (B6 x BTBR)F(2)-ob/ob mice segregating for diabetes. We detected a single linkage at the telomeric end of chromosome 11, where the Pdi gene itself resides (logarithm of odds score >30.0). No linkage was detected for the Pdi mRNA trait in the regions where we have previously identified quantitative trait loci for diabetes traits. Sequencing of the Pdi promoter and cDNA revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms between these two mouse strains. We conclude that in our experimental model, elevated Pdi expression is cis regulated and is not linked to diabetes susceptibility. Genetic analysis is a powerful tool for distinguishing covariation from causation in expression array studies of disease traits.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a strong risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. We have previously reported that in adipose tissue of obese (ob/ob) mice, the expression of adipogenic genes is decreased. When made genetically obese, the BTBR mouse strain is diabetes susceptible and the C57BL/6J (B6) strain is diabetes resistant. We used DNA microarrays and RT-PCR to compare the gene expression in BTBR-ob/ob versus B6-ob/ob mice in adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreatic islets. Our results show: 1) there is an increased expression of genes involved in inflammation in adipose tissue of diabetic mice; 2) lipogenic gene expression was lower in adipose tissue of diabetes-susceptible mice, and it continued to decrease with the development of diabetes, compared with diabetes-resistant obese mice; 3) hepatic expression of lipogenic enzymes was increased and the hepatic triglyceride content was greatly elevated in diabetes-resistant obese mice; 4) hepatic expression of gluconeogenic genes was suppressed at the prediabetic stage but not at the onset of diabetes; and 5) genes normally not expressed in skeletal muscle and pancreatic islets were expressed in these tissues in the diabetic mice. We propose that increased hepatic lipogenic capacity protects the B6-ob/ob mice from the development of type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin stimulates muscle and adipose tissue to absorb glucose through a signaling cascade that is incompletely understood. Insulin resistance, the inability of insulin to appropriately stimulate glucose uptake, is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The development of experimental systems that model human insulin resistance is important in elucidating the defects responsible for the development of type 2 diabetes. When two strains of mice, BTBR and C57BL/6J (B6), are crossed, the resultant male offspring (BtB6) demonstrate insulin resistance in muscle tissue. Here, we report an insulin resistance phenotype in adipose tissue from lean, nondiabetic BtB6 mice similar to that observed in human muscle. Adipocytes isolated from insulin-resistant male mice display 65% less insulin-stimulated glucose uptake compared with insulin-sensitive female mice. Similarly, adipocytes from insulin-resistant mice have diminished insulin-stimulated IRS-1 phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. However, normal activation of protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) by insulin is observed. Thus BtB6 mice demonstrate the dissociation of insulin-stimulated PI3K activity and Akt/PKB activation and represent a useful model to investigate the causes of insulin resistance in humans.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 01/2002; 281(6):E1249-54. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relation of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH; the rate-limiting enzyme in GTP synthesis) to mitogenesis was studied by enzymatic assay, immunoblots, and RT-PCR in several dissimilar transformed pancreatic ss-cell lines, using intact cells. Both of the two isoforms of IMPDH (constitutive type 1 and inducible type 2) were identified using RT-PCR in transformed beta cells or in intact islets. IMPDH 2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and IMPDH protein were both regulated reciprocally by changes in levels of their end-products. Flux through IMPDH was greatest in rapidly growing cells, due mostly to increased uptake of precursor. Glucose (but not 3-0-methylglucose, L-glucose, or fructose) further augmented substrate uptake and also increased IMPDH enzymatic activity after either 4 or 21 h of stimulation. Serum or ketoisocaproate also increased IMPDH activity (but not uptake). Two selective IMPDH inhibitors (mycophenolic acid and mizoribine) reduced IMPDH activity in all cell lines, and, with virtually identical concentration-response curves, inhibited DNA synthesis (assessed as bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) in response to glucose, serum, or ketoisocaproate. Inhibition of DNA synthesis was reversible, completely prevented by repletion of cellular guanine (but not adenine) nucleotides, and could not be attributed to toxic effects. Despite the fact that modulation of IMPDH expression by guanine nucleotides was readily detectable, glucose and/or serum failed to alter IMPDH mRNA or protein, indicating that their effects on IMPDH activity were largely at the enzyme level. Precursors of guanine nucleotides failed, by themselves, to induce mitogenesis. Thus, adequate IMPDH activity (and thereby, availability of GTP) is a critical requirement for beta-cell proliferation. Although it is unlikely that further increases in GTP can, by themselves, initiate DNA synthesis, such increments may be needed to sustain mitogenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relation of inosine-59-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH; the rate-limiting enzyme in GTP synthesis) to mitogenesis was studied by enzymatic assay, immunoblots, and RT-PCR in sev- eral dissimilar transformed pancreatic b-cell lines, using intact cells. Both of the two isoforms of IMPDH (constitutive type 1 and inducible type 2) were identified using RT-PCR in transformed b cells or in intact islets. IMPDH 2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and IMPDH protein were both regulated reciprocally by changes in levels of their end- products. Flux through IMPDH was greatest in rapidly growing cells, due mostly to increased uptake of precursor. Glucose (but not 3- 0- methylglucose, L-glucose, or fructose) further augmented substrate uptake and also increased IMPDH enzymatic activity after either 4 or 21 h of stimulation. Serum or ketoisocaproate also increased IM- PDH activity (but not uptake). Two selective IMPDH inhibitors (my- cophenolic acid and mizoribine) reduced IMPDH activity in all cell lines, and, with virtually identical concentration-response curves, inhibited DNA synthesis (assessed as bromodeoxyuridine incorpora- tion) in response to glucose, serum, or ketoisocaproate. Inhibition of DNA synthesis was reversible, completely prevented by repletion of cellular guanine (but not adenine) nucleotides, and could not be at- tributed to toxic effects. Despite the fact that modulation of IMPDH expression by guanine nucleotides was readily detectable, glucose and/or serum failed to alter IMPDH mRNA or protein, indicating that their effects on IMPDH activity were largely at the enzyme level. Precursors of guanine nucleotides failed, by themselves, to induce mitogenesis. Thus, adequate IMPDH activity (and thereby, availabil- ity of GTP) is a critical requirement for b-cell proliferation. Although it is unlikely that further increases in GTP can, by themselves, ini- tiate DNA synthesis, such increments may be needed to sustain mi- togenesis. (Endocrinology 142: 193-204, 2001)