[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Galectin-3, a member of the galectin family of carbohydrate binding proteins, is widely expressed, particularly in cells involved in the immune response. Galectin-3 has also been indicated to play a role in various biological activities ranging from cell repression to cell activation and adhesion and has, thus, been recognized as an immunomodulator. Whereas those activities are likely to be associated with ligand cross-linking by this lectin, galectin-3, unlike other members of the galectin family, exists as a monomer. It has consequently been proposed that oligomerization of the N-terminal domains of galectin-3 molecules, after ligand binding by the C-terminal domain, is responsible for this cross-linking. The oligomerization status of galectin-3 could, thus, control the majority of its extracellular activities. However, little is known about the actual mode of action through which galectin-3 exerts its function. In this report we present data suggesting that oligomerization of galectin-3 molecules occurs on cell surfaces with physiological concentrations of the lectin. Using galectin-3 labeled at the C terminus with Alexa 488 or Alexa 555, the oligomerization between galectin-3 molecules on cell surfaces was detected using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. We observed this fluorescence resonance energy transfer signal in different biological settings representing the different modes of action of galectin-3 that we previously proposed; that is, ligand crosslinking leading to cell activation, cell-cell interaction/adhesion, and lattice formation. Furthermore, our data suggest that galectin-3 lattices are robust and could, thus, be involved, as previously proposed, in the restriction of receptor clustering.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Podoplanin (Aggrus) is a mucin-type sialoglycoprotein that plays a key role in tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation. Podoplanin possesses a platelet aggregation-stimulating (PLAG) domain, and Thr52 in the PLAG domain of human podoplanin is important for its activity. Endogenous or recombinant human podoplanin were purified, and total glycosylation profiles were surveyed by lectin microarray. Analyses of glycopeptides produced by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry revealed that the disialyl-corel (NeuAc alpha2-3Gal beta l-3(NeuAc alpha2-6)GalNAc alpha l-O-Thr) structure was primarily attached to a glycosylation site at residue Thr52. Sialic acid-deficient podoplanin recovered its activity after additional sialylation. These results indicated that the sialylated Corel at Thr52 is critical for podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frontal affinity chromatography using fluorescence detection (FAC-FD) is a versatile technique for the precise determination of dissociation constants (Kd) between glycan-binding proteins (lectins) and fluorescent-labeled glycans. A series of glycan-containing solutions is applied to a lectin-immobilized column, and the elution profile of each glycan (termed the 'elution front', V) is compared with that (V0) for an appropriate control. Here we describe our standard protocol using an automated FAC system (FAC-1), consisting of two isocratic pumps, an autosampler, a column oven and two miniature columns connected to a fluorescence detector. Analysis time for 100 sugar-protein interactions is approximately 10 h, using as little as 2.5 pmol of pyridylaminated (PA) oligosaccharide per analysis. Using FAC-FD, we have so far obtained quantitative interaction data of >100 lectins for >100 PA oligosaccharides.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both saturated and unsaturated forms of isomeric unsulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) oligosaccharides, i.e., tetrasaccharides of chondroitin (CH) and hyaluronan (HA), were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Although the only structural difference between them was the hydroxyl group at the C-4 position in N-acetylhexosamine (GalNAc or GlcNAc, respectively), given the same m/z value of precursor ions, these isomers in both their saturated and unsaturated forms could be separated by careful examination of diagnostic fragment ions in their product ion mass spectra when the relative abundances of these fragment ions were considered. In addition, the product ion mass spectrum of the unsaturated HA tetrasaccharide was compared with its linkage isomer, N-acetylheparosan tetrasaccharide. In this case, the isomers were more easily differentiated by comparing their characteristic spectral patterns. By adopting this approach, systematic differentiation of isomeric unsulfated GAG oligosaccharides should be achieved by means of fragmentation. It should also contribute widely to GAG-related biochemical and medicinal research in the future.
Journal of the Mass Spectrometry Society of Japan 01/2007; 55(1):1-6. DOI:10.5702/massspec.55.1
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel lectin, PPL, was isolated from the mantle of penguin wing oyster (Pteria penguin) by affinity chromatography on mucin-Sepharose 4B and cation exchange chromatography on HiTrap SP. This lectin was estimated to be a 21-kDa monomer by gel filtration, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. However, dynamic light scattering experiments revealed that a non-covalently linked dimer formed under high salt conditions (500 mM NaCl). Interestingly, PPL showed an increasing hemagglutinating activity with increasing salt concentration. The amino acid sequence of PPL was determined by direct protein sequence analysis and cDNA cloning. The 167-amino acid sequence included 24 lysine residues and had two tandemly repeated homologous domains (residues 20-78 and 107-165) with 44% internal homology. PPL showed sequence homology to L-rhamnose-binding lectins from fish eggs and a D-galactose-binding lectin from sea urchin eggs, with sequence identities in the range 37-48%. PPL agglutinated various animal erythrocytes independently of calcium ions. The minimum concentration of PPL needed to agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes was 0.5 micro g/ml, and the most effective saccharides to inhibit the hemagglutination were D-galactose, methyl-D-galactopyranoside and N-acetyl-D-lactosamine. Lactose also inhibited hemagglutination, but L-rhamnose did so only weakly despite the sequence homology with trout egg L-rhamnose-binding lectins. The carbohydrate-binding specificity of PPL was further examined by frontal affinity chromatography using 37 different pyridylaminated oligosaccharides. PPL was found to have strong binding affinity for various oligosaccharides that have Galbeta1-4Glu/GlcNAc, Galbeta1-3GalNAc/GlcNAc and Galalpha 1-4Gal moieties in their structure. PPL had a high thermal stability and retained 50% of its hemagglutinating activity after incubation at 70 degrees C for 100 min. It agglutinated some Gram-negative bacteria by recognizing lipopolysaccharides. Together, these results suggest that PPL is a new member of the trout egg lectin family which participates in the self-defense mechanism against bacteria and pathogens with a distinct carbohydrate-binding specificity. We conclude that the trout egg lectin family proteins, in particular their carbohydrate recognition domains, have acquired diverse carbohydrate-binding specificities during molecular evolution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mucin-type sialoglycoprotein, podoplanin (aggrus), is a platelet-aggregating factor on cancer cells. We previously described up-regulated expression of podoplanin in malignant astrocytic tumors including glioblastoma. Its expression was associated with tumor malignancy. In the present study, we investigated podoplanin expression and platelet-aggregating activities of glioblastoma cell lines. First, we established a highly reactive anti-podoplanin antibody, NZ-1, which inhibits podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation completely. Of 15 glioblastoma cell lines, LN319 highly expressed podoplanin and induced platelet aggregation. Glycan profiling using a lectin microarray showed that podoplanin on LN319 possesses sialic acid, which is important in podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation. Interestingly, NZ-1 neutralized platelet aggregation by LN319. These results suggest that podoplanin is a main reason for platelet aggregation induced by LN319. We infer that NZ-1 is useful to determine whether platelet aggregation is podoplanin-specific or not. Furthermore, podoplanin might become a therapeutic target of glioblastoma for antibody-based therapy.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2006; 349(4):1301-7. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.08.171 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase catalyses the hydrolysis of the alpha-1,2-, alpha-1,3-, and alpha-1,5-L-arabinofuranosidic bonds in L-arabinose-containing hemicelluloses such as arabinoxylan. AkAbf54 (the glycoside hydrolase family 54 alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Aspergillus kawachii) consists of two domains, a catalytic and an arabinose-binding domain. The latter has been named AkCBM42 [family 42 CBM (carbohydrate-binding module) of AkAbf54] because homologous domains are classified into CBM family 42. In the complex between AkAbf54 and arabinofuranosyl-alpha-1,2-xylobiose, the arabinose moiety occupies the binding pocket of AkCBM42, whereas the xylobiose moiety is exposed to the solvent. AkCBM42 was found to facilitate the hydrolysis of insoluble arabinoxylan, because mutants at the arabinose binding site exhibited markedly decreased activity. The results of binding assays and affinity gel electrophoresis showed that AkCBM42 interacts with arabinose-substituted, but not with unsubstituted, hemicelluloses. Isothermal titration calorimetry and frontal affinity chromatography analyses showed that the association constant of AkCBM42 with the arabinose moiety is approximately 10(3) M(-1). These results indicate that AkCBM42 binds the non-reducing-end arabinofuranosidic moiety of hemicellulose. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a CBM that can specifically recognize the side-chain monosaccharides of branched hemicelluloses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural glycomics plays a fundamental role in glycoscience and glycotechnology. In this paper, a novel strategy for the
structural characterization of glycans is described, in which MS2 analysis involving a LIFT-TOF/TOF procedure is combined with frontal affinity chromatography (FAC). As model compounds, 20
neutral pyridylaminated (PA) oligosaccharides were chosen, which included four groups of structural isomers differing in sequence,
linkage, position, or branching features. By depicting significant diagnostic ions on MS2, most of the analyzed oligosaccharides were successfully differentiated, while two pairs of linkage isomers, i.e., LNT/LNnT, and LNH/LNnH were not. For subsequent analysis by FAC, 14 lectins showing significant affinity to either LNT (type 1) or LNnT (type 2) were screened, and a galectin from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium (GC1) and a plant seed lectin from Ricinus communis (RCA-I) were used for determination of type 1 and 2 chains, respectively. With these specific probes, both of the isomeric
pairs were unambiguously differentiated. Furthermore, a pair of triantennary, asparagine-linked oligosaccharide isomers could
also be successfully differentiated. Thus, the combination of MS2 and FAC is a practical alternative for the structural characterization of complex glycans.
Journal of Biochemistry 10/2006; 140(3):337-47. DOI:10.1093/jb/mvj154 · 2.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: beta1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase III (beta4GalNAc-T3), which was recently cloned and identified, exhibits GalNAc transferase activity toward a GlcNAcbeta residue with beta1,4-linkage, forming the N,N'-diacetyllactosediamine, GalNAcbeta1,4GlcNAc (LacdiNAc or LDN). Though LacdiNAc has not been found in the gastric mucosa, a large amount of transcript was detected in our previous study. To increase our knowledge of beta4GalNAc-T3 expression and its product LacdiNAc, we examined the exact localization of beta4GalNAc-T3 in human gastric mucosa using a newly developed antibody, monoclonal antibody (mAb) K1356. This antibody specifically detected the enzyme that transfected the beta4GalNAc-T3 gene into MKN45 cells, and the terminal betaGalNAc epitope yielded on the cell surface was recognized by a lectin, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA). beta4GalNAc-T3 was localized in the supra-nuclear region of surface mucous cells in gastric mucosa, and WFA positively stained the mucins secreted by the cells. In contrast, in the cells of the glandular compartment in the fundic glands and a few cells in the pyloric glands, beta4GalNAc-T3 was observed in the basolateral position of the nucleus, where no WFA reactivity was detected. The anti-Tn (GalNAcalpha-O-Ser/Thr) antibody staining did not overlap with the WFA staining. By measuring the binding activity of WFA using automated frontal affinity chromatography (FAC), we found WFA to bind most strongly LacdiNAc among the sugar chains examined. Neither beta4GalNAc-T3 nor WFA-positive staining was detected in intestinal metaplastic cells. These results suggest that the supra-nuclear expression of beta4GalNAc-T3 is essential for the formation of LacdiNAc on the surface mucous cells and that LacdiNAc and beta4GalNAc-T3 are novel differentiation markers of surface mucous cells in the gastric mucosa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lectin-based structural glycomics requires a search for useful lectins and their biochemical characterization to profile complex features of glycans. In this paper, two GlcNAc-binding lectins are reported with their detailed oligosaccharide specificity. One is a classic plant lectin, Griffonia simplicifolia lectin-II (GSL-II), and the other is a novel fungal lectin, Boletopsis leucomelas lectin (BLL). Their sugar-binding specificity was analyzed by frontal affinity chromatography using 146 glycans (125 pyridylaminated and 21 p-nitrophenyl saccharides). As a result, it was found that both GSL-II and BLL showed significant affinity toward complex-type N-glycans, which are either partially or completely agalactosylated. However, their branch-specific features differed significantly: GSL-II strongly bound to agalacto-type, tri- or tetra-antennary N-glycans with its primary recognition of a GlcNAc residue transferred by GlcNAc-transferase IV, while BLL preferred N-glycans with fewer branches. In fact, the presence of a GlcNAc residue transferred by GlcNAc-transferase V abolishes the binding of BLL. Thus, GSL-II and BLL forms a pair of complementally probes to profile a series of agalacto-type N-glycans.
Journal of Biochemistry 09/2006; 140(2):285-91. DOI:10.1093/jb/mvj148 · 2.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural complexity and heterogeneity of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have troubled biochemists in the research field for many years, thereby the progress of its functional research has long been delayed. Recently, rapid progress in mass spectrometry (MS), especially a tandem MS that can perform MS/MS (MS n) experiments, has lead to its increasing use for structural studies of GAGs. By using MS, though still under research, it is becoming possible to obtain information on not only molecular weights of GAG oligosaccharides but also position of sulfation, epimerization of a uronic acid, and more detail on the oligosaccharide sequence. Further refinement of MS methodology is expected to accelerate biochemical research of GAGs as well as their medical applications.
Trends in Glycoscience and Glycotechnology 09/2006; 18(103):293-312. DOI:10.4052/tigg.18.293 · 0.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agaricus bisporus agglutinin (ABA) is known as a useful lectin to detect T-antigen (Core1) disaccharide (Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha) and related O-linked glycans. However, a recent X-ray crystallographic study revealed the presence of another intrinsic sugar-binding site, i.e., for GlcNAc. To confirm this possibility, detailed analysis was performed using two advanced methods: lectin microarray and frontal affinity chromatography (FAC). In the lectin microarray, intense signals were observed on ABA spots for both N-glycanase-treated and O-glycanase/beta1-4galactosidase-treated Cy3-labeled asialofetuin. This indicates substantial affinity for both O-linked and agalactosylated (GlcNAc-exposed) N-linked glycans. A further approach by FAC using 20 pNP and 130 PA-oligosaccharides demonstrated that ABA bound to Core1 (K(d) = 3.4 x 10(-6) M) and Core2 (1.9 x 10(-5) M) but not to Core3 and Core6 O-linked glycans. It also showed substantial affinity to mono-, bi-, and tri-antennary agalactosylated complex-type N-linked glycans (K(d) > 1.8 x 10(-5) M). These results establish ABA as a lectin having dual sugar-binding sites with distinct specificity, i.e., for Gal-exposed O-linked glycans and GlcNAc-exposed N-linked glycans.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2006; 347(1):215-20. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.06.073 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intraocular inflammatory diseases are a common cause of severe visual impairment and blindness. In this study, we investigated the immunoregulatory role of galectin-1 (Gal-1), an endogenous lectin found at sites of T cell activation and immune privilege, in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), a Th1-mediated model of retinal disease. Treatment with rGal-1 either early or late during the course of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein-induced EAU was sufficient to suppress ocular pathology, inhibit leukocyte infiltration, and counteract pathogenic Th1 cells. Administration of rGal-1 at the early or late phases of EAU ameliorated disease by skewing the uveitogenic response toward nonpathogenic Th2 or T regulatory-mediated anti-inflammatory responses. Consistently, adoptive transfer of CD4(+) regulatory T cells obtained from rGal-1-treated mice prevented the development of active EAU in syngeneic recipients. In addition, increased levels of apoptosis were detected in lymph nodes from mice treated with rGal-1 during the efferent phase of the disease. Our results underscore the ability of Gal-1 to counteract Th1-mediated responses through different, but potentially overlapping anti-inflammatory mechanisms and suggest a possible therapeutic use of this protein for the treatment of human uveitic diseases of autoimmune etiology.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2006; 176(10):6323-32. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.176.10.6323 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gene encoding an exo-beta-1,3-galactanase from Clostridium thermocellum, Ct1,3Gal43A, was isolated. The sequence has similarity with an exo-beta-1,3-galactanase of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Pc1,3Gal43A). The gene encodes a modular protein consisting of an N-terminal glycoside hydrolase family 43 (GH43) module, a family 13 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM13), and a C-terminal dockerin domain. The gene corresponding to the GH43 module was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product was characterized. The recombinant enzyme shows optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 50 degrees C and catalyzes hydrolysis only of beta-1,3-linked galactosyl oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the hydrolysis products demonstrated that the enzyme produces galactose from beta-1,3-galactan in an exo-acting manner. When the enzyme acted on arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), the enzyme produced oligosaccharides together with galactose, suggesting that the enzyme is able to accommodate a beta-1,6-linked galactosyl side chain. The substrate specificity of the enzyme is very similar to that of Pc1,3Gal43A, suggesting that the enzyme is an exo-beta-1,3-galactanase. Affinity gel electrophoresis of the C-terminal CBM13 did not show any affinity for polysaccharides, including beta-1,3-galactan. However, frontal affinity chromatography for the CBM13 indicated that the CBM13 specifically interacts with oligosaccharides containing a beta-1,3-galactobiose, beta-1,4-galactosyl glucose, or beta-1,4-galactosyl N-acetylglucosaminide moiety at the nonreducing end. Interestingly, CBM13 in the C terminus of Ct1,3Gal43A appeared to interfere with the enzyme activity toward beta-1,3-galactan and alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase-treated AGP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Galectin-1 is a beta-galactoside-binding lectin. Previous studies have shown that galectin-1 was expressed in fibroblasts of chronic pancreatitis and of desmoplastic reaction associated with pancreatic cancer. These fibroblasts are now recognized as activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Here, we examined the role of galectin-1 in cell functions of PSCs. PSCs were isolated from rat pancreatic tissue and used in their culture-activated phenotype unless otherwise stated. Expression of galectin-1 was assessed by Western blot analysis, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescent staining. The effects of recombinant galectin-1 on chemokine production and proliferation were evaluated. Activation of transcription factors was assessed by EMSA. Activation of MAPKs was examined by Western blot analysis using anti-phosphospecific antibodies. Galectin-1 was strongly expressed in culture-activated but not freshly isolated PSCs. Recombinant galectin-1 increased proliferation and production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1. Galectin-1 activated ERK, JNK, activator protein-1, and NF-kappaB, but not p38 MAPK or Akt. Galectin-1 induced proliferation through ERK and chemokine production mainly through the activation of NF-kappaB and in part by JNK and ERK pathways. These effects of galectin-1 were abolished in the presence of thiodigalactosie, an inhibitor of beta-galactoside binding. In conclusion, our results suggest a role of galectin-1 in chemokine production and proliferation through its beta-galactoside binding activity in activated PSCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently developed a novel system for lectin microarray based on the evanescent-field fluorescence-detection principle, by which even weak lectin-oligosaccharide interactions are detectable without a washing procedure. For its practical application, cell glycan analysis was performed for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and their glycan profile was compared with those of their glycosylation-defective Lec mutants. Each of the cell surface extracts gave a significantly different profile from that of the parental CHO cells in a manner reflecting denoted biosynthetic features. Hence, the developed lectin microarray system is considered to be fully applicable for differential glycan profiling of crude samples.
Journal of Biochemistry 04/2006; 139(3):323-7. DOI:10.1093/jb/mvj070 · 2.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish a universal protocol for sequencing keratan sulfate (KS) using mass spectrometry (MS), systematic electrospray ionization-MSn fragmentation experiments were carried out for 10 KS-related oligosaccharides of defined structure. Under the experimental conditions employed, fully charged molecular-related ions were observed as dominant peaks in all MS(1) spectra, which clearly reflected the number of sulfates and sialic acids in the oligosaccharide structures. In the subsequent MS2, almost all of the oligosaccharides gave fragment ions corresponding to their dehydrated molecular-related ions as well as (0,2)A(r) scission ions (according to the nomenclature developed by Domon and Costello, where "r" represents the reducing end in this study). Further fragmentation of the (0,2)A(r) ions in MS3 predominantly yielded the corresponding (2,4)A(r) ions. Finally, in MS(4), these (2,4)A(r) ions were subjected to extensive glycosidic cleavage. Hence, the MS4 data of KS oligosaccharides provided sufficient information for their sequence determination. In addition, some important features of MSn fragmentation became evident. These findings should lead to the establishment of consensus rules applied for KS oligosaccharides, including those previously unidentified, and also accelerate functional studies on KS, i.e., KS-related glycosaminoglycomics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The carbohydrate specificity of three novel lectins, Boletopsis leucomelas lectin (BLL), Aralia cordate lectin (ACL), and Wasabia japonica lectin (WJL), was examined by frontal affinity chromatography using a panel of fluorescently labeled 47 oligosaccharides. The results indicate that BLL recognizes an agalacto structure of the biantennary chain and its bisecting structure. ACL showed strong affinity for triantennary oligosaccharides, but no affinity for tetraantennary structure. WJL showed no appreciable affinity for any of the 47 glycans examined. These lectins with a unique affinity specificity might be useful for examining alterations in the glycan structures of the glycoconjugates in association with development and various diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to prepare a series of N-acetylheparosan (NAH)-related oligosaccharides, bacterial NAH produced in Escherichia coli strain K5 was partially depolymerized with heparitinase I into a mixture of even-numbered NAH oligosaccharides, having an unsaturated uronic acid (DeltaUA) at the non-reducing end. A mixture of odd-numbered oligosaccharides was derived by removing this DeltaUA in the aforementioned mixture by a 'trimming' reaction using mercury(II) acetate. Each oligosaccharide mixture was subjected to gel-filtration chromatography to generate a series of size-uniform NAH oligosaccharides of satisfactory purity (assessed by analytical anion-exchange HPLC), and their structures were identified by MALDITOF-MS, ESIMS, and 1H NMR analysis. As a result, a microscale preparation of a series of both even- and odd-numbered NAH oligosaccharides was achieved for the first time. The developed procedure is simple and systematic, and thus, should be valuable for providing not only research tools for heparin/heparan sulfate-specific enzymes and their binding proteins, but also precursor substrates with medical applications.
Carbohydrate Research 03/2006; 341(2):230-7. DOI:10.1016/j.carres.2005.11.013 · 1.93 Impact Factor