Christopher G Burd

Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

Are you Christopher G Burd?

Claim your profile

Publications (57)489.18 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Retromer is an endosomal sorting device that orchestrates capture and packaging of cargo into transport carriers coated with sorting nexin BAR domain proteins (SNX-BARs). We report that fission of retromer SNX-BAR-coated tubules from yeast endosomes is promoted by Vps1, a dynamin-related protein that localizes to endosomes decorated by retromer SNX-BARs and Mvp1, a SNX-BAR that is homologous to human SNX8. Mvp1 exhibits potent membrane remodeling activity in vitro, and it promotes association of Vps1 with the endosome in vivo. Retrograde transport carriers bud from the endosome coated by retromer and Mvp1, and cargo export is deficient in mvp1- and vps1-null cells, but with distinct endpoints; cargo export is delayed in mvp1-null cells, but cargo export completely fails in vps1-null cells. The results indicate that Mvp1 promotes Vps1-mediated fission of retromer- and Mvp1-coated tubules that bud from the endosome, revealing a functional link between the endosomal sorting and fission machineries to produce retrograde transport carriers.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 02/2014; · 10.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plasma membrane PI4P helps determine the identity of this membrane and plays a key role in signal transduction as the precursor of PI(4,5)P2 and its metabolites. Here, we report the atomic structure of the protein scaffold that is required for the plasma membrane localization and function of Stt4/PI4KIIIα, the PI 4-kinase responsible for this PI4P pool. Both proteins of the scaffold, Efr3 and YPP1/TTC7, are composed of α-helical repeats, which are arranged into a rod in Efr3 and a superhelix in Ypp1. A conserved basic patch in Efr3, which binds acidic phospholipids, anchors the complex to the plasma membrane. Stt4/PI4KIIIα is recruited by interacting with the Ypp1 C-terminal lobe, which also binds to unstructured regions in the Efr3 C terminus. Phosphorylation of this Efr3 region counteracts Ypp1 binding, thus providing a mechanism through which Stt4/PI4KIIIα recruitment, and thus a metabolic reaction of fundamental importance in cell physiology, can be regulated.
    Developmental Cell 12/2013; · 12.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Retromer is an evolutionarily conserved protein complex composed of the VPS26, VPS29, and VPS35 proteins that selects and packages cargo proteins into transport carriers that export cargo from the endosome. The mechanisms by which retromer is recruited to the endosome and captures cargo are unknown. We show that membrane recruitment of retromer is mediated by bivalent recognition of an effector of PI3K, SNX3, and the RAB7A GTPase, by the VPS35 retromer subunit. These bivalent interactions prime retromer to capture integral membrane cargo, which enhances membrane association of retromer and initiates cargo sorting. The role of RAB7A is severely impaired by a mutation, K157N, that causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy 2B. The results elucidate minimal requirements for retromer assembly on the endosome membrane and reveal how PI3K and RAB signaling are coupled to initiate retromer-mediated cargo export.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vesicle-mediated protein transport between organelles of the secretory and endocytic pathways is strongly influenced by the composition and organization of membrane lipids. In budding yeast, protein transport between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and early endosome (EE) requires Drs2, a phospholipid translocase in the type IV P-type ATPase family. However, downstream effectors of Drs2 and specific phospholipid substrate requirements for protein transport in this pathway are unknown. Here, we show that the Arf GTPase-activating protein (ArfGAP) Gcs1 is a Drs2 effector that requires a variant of the ArfGAP lipid packing sensor (+ALPS) motif for localization to TGN/EE membranes. Drs2 increases membrane curvature and anionic phospholipid composition of the cytosolic leaflet, both of which are sensed by the +ALPS motif. Using mutant forms of Drs2 and the related protein Dnf1, which alter their ability to recognize phosphatidylserine, we show that translocation of this substrate to the cytosolic leaflet is essential for +ALPS binding and vesicular transport between the EE and the TGN.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 09/2013; · 10.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The retromer complex, composed of sorting nexin subunits and a Vps26/Vps29/Vps35 trimer, mediates sorting of retrograde cargo from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network. The retromer trimer subcomplex is an effector of Rab7 (Ypt7 in yeast). Whereas endosome targeting of human retromer has been shown to require Rab7-GTP, targeting of yeast retromer to the endosome is independent of Ypt7-GTP and requires the Vps5 and Vps17 retromer sorting nexin subunits. An evolutionarily conserved amino acid segment within Vps35 is required for Ypt7/Rab7 recognition in vivo by both yeast and human retromer, establishing that Rab recognition is a conserved feature of this subunit. Recognition of Ypt7 by retromer is required for its function in retrograde sorting, and in yeast cells lacking the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ypt7, retrograde cargo accumulates in endosomes that are decorated with retromer, revealing an additional role for Rab recognition at the cargo export stage of the retromer functional cycle. In addition, yeast retromer trimer antagonizes Ypt7-regulated organelle tethering and fusion of endosomes/vacuoles via recognition of Ypt7. Thus retromer has dual roles in retrograde cargo export and in controlling the fusion dynamics of the late endovacuolar system.
    Molecular biology of the cell 05/2012; 23(13):2505-15. · 5.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the Golgi apparatus, lipid homeostasis pathways are coordinated with the biogenesis of cargo transport vesicles by phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) that produce phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P), a signaling molecule that is recognized by downstream effector proteins. Quantitative analysis of the intra-Golgi distribution of a PtdIns4P reporter protein confirms that PtdIns4P is enriched on the trans-Golgi cisterna, but surprisingly, Vps74 (the orthologue of human GOLPH3), a PI4K effector required to maintain residence of a subset of Golgi proteins, is distributed with the opposite polarity, being most abundant on cis and medial cisternae. Vps74 binds directly to the catalytic domain of Sac1 (K(D) = 3.8 μM), the major PtdIns4P phosphatase in the cell, and PtdIns4P is elevated on medial Golgi cisternae in cells lacking Vps74 or Sac1, suggesting that Vps74 is a sensor of PtdIns4P level on medial Golgi cisternae that directs Sac1-mediated dephosphosphorylation of this pool of PtdIns4P. Consistent with the established role of Sac1 in the regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis, complex sphingolipid homeostasis is perturbed in vps74Δ cells. Mutant cells lacking complex sphingolipid biosynthetic enzymes fail to properly maintain residence of a medial Golgi enzyme, and cells lacking Vps74 depend critically on complex sphingolipid biosynthesis for growth. The results establish additive roles of Vps74-mediated and sphingolipid-dependent sorting of Golgi residents.
    Molecular biology of the cell 05/2012; 23(13):2527-36. · 5.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Christopher G Burd
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bidirectional traffic between the Golgi apparatus and the endosomal system sustains the functions of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in secretion and organelle biogenesis. Export of cargo from the TGN via anterograde trafficking pathways depletes the organelle of sorting receptors, processing proteases, SNARE molecules, and other factors, and these are subsequently retrieved from endosomes via the retrograde pathway. Recent studies indicate that retrograde trafficking is vital to early metazoan development, nutrient homeostasis, and for processes that protect against Alzheimer's and other neurological diseases.
    Traffic 03/2011; 12(8):948-55. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Todd R Graham, Christopher G Burd
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) regulate vesicle-mediated export from the Golgi apparatus via phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) binding effector proteins that control vesicle budding reactions and regulate membrane dynamics. Evidence has emerged from the characterization of Golgi PI4K effectors that vesicle budding and lipid dynamics are tightly coupled via a regulatory network that ensures that the appropriate membrane composition is established before a transport vesicle buds from the Golgi. An important hub of this network is protein kinase D, which regulates the activity of PI4K and several PtdIns4P effectors that control sphingolipid and sterol content of Golgi membranes. Other newly identified PtdIns4P effectors include Vps74/GOLPH3, a phospholipid flippase called Drs2 and Sec2, a Rab guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). These effectors orchestrate membrane transformation events facilitating vesicle formation and targeting. In this review, we discuss how PtdIns4P signaling is integrated with membrane biosynthetic and vesicle budding machineries to potentially coordinate these crucial functions of the Golgi apparatus.
    Trends in cell biology 02/2011; 21(2):113-21. · 12.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. α-Synuclein is a small synaptic protein that has been linked to familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and is also the primary component of Lewy bodies, the hallmark neuropathology found in the brain of sporadic and familial PD patients. The function of α-synuclein is currently unknown, although it has been implicated in the regulation of synaptic vesicle localization or fusion. Recently, overexpression of α-synuclein was shown to cause cytoplasmic vesicle accumulation in a yeast model of α-synuclein toxicity, but the exact role α-synuclein played in mediating this vesicle aggregation is unclear. Here, we show that α-synuclein induces aggregation of many yeast Rab GTPase proteins, that α-synuclein aggregation is enhanced in yeast mutants that produce high levels of acidic phospholipids, and that α-synuclein colocalizes with yeast membranes that are enriched for phosphatidic acid. Significantly, we demonstrate that α-synuclein expression induces vulnerability to perturbations of Ypt6 and other proteins involved in retrograde endosome-Golgi transport, linking a specific trafficking defect to α-synuclein phospholipid binding. These data suggest new pathogenic mechanisms for α-synuclein neurotoxicity.
    Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 10/2010; 43(3):391-405. · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Targeting and retention of resident integral membrane proteins of the Golgi apparatus underly the function of the Golgi in glycoprotein and glycolipid processing and sorting. In yeast, steady-state Golgi localization of multiple mannosyltransferases requires recognition of their cytosolic domains by the peripheral Golgi membrane protein Vps74, an orthologue of human GOLPH3/GPP34/GMx33/MIDAS (mitochondrial DNA absence sensitive factor). We show that targeting of Vps74 and GOLPH3 to the Golgi apparatus requires ongoing synthesis of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) by the Pik1 PtdIns 4-kinase and that modulation of the levels and cellular location of PtdIns4P leads to mislocalization of these proteins. Vps74 and GOLPH3 bind specifically to PtdIns4P, and a sulfate ion in a crystal structure of GOLPH3 indicates a possible phosphoinositide-binding site that is conserved in Vps74. Alterations in this site abolish phosphoinositide binding in vitro and Vps74 function in vivo. These results implicate Pik1 signaling in retention of Golgi-resident proteins via Vps74 and show that GOLPH3 family proteins are effectors of Golgi PtdIns 4-kinases.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 12/2009; 187(7):967-75. · 10.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The FYVE domain associates with phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] in membranes of early endosomes and penetrates bilayers. Here, we detail principles of membrane anchoring and show that the FYVE domain insertion into PtdIns(3)P-enriched membranes and membrane-mimetics is substantially increased in acidic conditions. The EEA1 FYVE domain binds to POPC/POPE/PtdIns(3)P vesicles with a Kd of 49 nM at pH 6.0, however associates approximately 24 fold weaker at pH 8.0. The decrease in the affinity is primarily due to much faster dissociation of the protein from the bilayers in basic media. Lowering the pH enhances the interaction of the Hrs, RUFY1, Vps27p and WDFY1 FYVE domains with PtdIns(3)P-containing membranes in vitro and in vivo, indicating that pH-dependency is a general function of the FYVE finger family. The PtdIns(3)P binding and membrane insertion of the FYVE domain is modulated by the two adjacent His residues of the R(R/K)HHCRXCG signature motif. Mutation of either His residue abolishes the pH-sensitivity. Both protonation of the His residues and nonspecific electrostatic contacts stabilize the FYVE domain in the lipid-bound form, promoting its penetration and increasing the membrane residence time.
    Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 03/2009; 76(4):852-60. · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endocytosed proteins are either delivered to the lysosome to be degraded or are exported from the endosomal system and delivered to other organelles. Sorting of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae reductive iron transporter, composed of the Fet3 and Ftr1 proteins, in the endosomal system is regulated by available iron; in iron-starved cells, Fet3-Ftr1 is sorted by Snx3/Grd19 and retromer into a recycling pathway that delivers it back to the plasma membrane, but when starved cells are exposed to iron, Fet3-Ftr1 is targeted to the lysosome-like vacuole and is degraded. We report that iron-induced endocytosis of Fet3-Ftr1 is independent of Fet3-Ftr1 ubiquitylation, and after endocytosis, degradation of Fet3-Ftr1 is mediated by the multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway. In mutant cells lacking any component of the ESCRT protein-dependent MVB sorting machinery, the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase, or in wild-type cells expressing Fet3-Ftr1 lacking cytosolic lysyl ubiquitin acceptor sites, Fet3-Ftr1 is constitutively sorted into the recycling pathway independent of iron status. In the presence and absence of iron, Fet3-Ftr1 transits an endosomal compartment where a subunit of the MVB sorting receptor (Vps27), Snx3/Grd19, and retromer proteins colocalize. We propose that this endosome is where Rsp5 ubiquitylates Fet3-Ftr1 and where the recycling and degradative pathways diverge.
    Molecular biology of the cell 10/2008; 19(11):4694-706. · 5.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanism of glycosyltransferase localization to the Golgi apparatus is a long-standing question in secretory cell biology. All Golgi glycosyltransferases are type II membrane proteins with small cytosolic domains that contribute to Golgi localization. To date, no protein has been identified that recognizes the cytosolic domains of Golgi enzymes and contributes to their localization. Here, we report that yeast Vps74p directly binds to the cytosolic domains of cis and medial Golgi mannosyltransferases and that loss of this interaction correlates with loss of Golgi localization of these enzymes. We have solved the X-ray crystal structure of Vps74p and find that it forms a tetramer, which we also observe in solution. Deletion of a critical structural motif disrupts tetramer formation and results in loss of Vps74p localization and function. Vps74p is highly homologous to the human GMx33 Golgi matrix proteins, suggesting a conserved function for these proteins in the Golgi enzyme localization machinery.
    Developmental Cell 05/2008; 14(4):523-34. · 12.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aggregated alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) fibrils form Lewy bodies (LBs), the signature lesions of Parkinson's disease (PD) and related synucleinopathies, but the pathogenesis and neurodegenerative effects of LBs remain enigmatic. Recent studies have shown that when overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alpha-syn localizes to plasma membranes and forms cytoplasmic accumulations similar to human alpha-syn inclusions. However, the exact nature, composition, temporal evolution, and underlying mechanisms of yeast alpha-syn accumulations and their relevance to human synucleinopathies are unknown. Here we provide ultrastructural evidence that alpha-syn accumulations are not comprised of LB-like fibrils, but are associated with clusters of vesicles. Live-cell imaging showed alpha-syn initially localized to the plasma membrane and subsequently formed accumulations in association with vesicles. Imaging of truncated and mutant forms of alpha-syn revealed the molecular determinants and vesicular trafficking pathways underlying this pathological process. Because vesicular clustering is also found in LB-containing neurons of PD brains, alpha-syn-mediated vesicular accumulation in yeast represents a model system to study specific aspects of neurodegeneration in PD and related synucleinopathies.
    Molecular biology of the cell 04/2008; 19(3):1093-103. · 5.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Jingxuan Liu, Anand Sitaram, Christopher G Burd
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae high-affinity copper transporter, Ctr1p, mediates cellular uptake of Cu(I). We report that when copper (50 microm CuSO(4)) is added to the growth medium of copper-starved cells, Ctr1p is rapidly internalized by endocytosis, delivered to the lumen of the lysosome-like vacuole and slowly degraded by vacuolar proteases. Through analysis of the trafficking and degradation of Ctr1p mutants, two lysine residues in the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of Ctr1p, Lys340 and Lys345, were found to be critical for copper-dependent endocytosis and degradation. In response to copper addition, Ctr1p was found to be ubiquitylated and a mutation in the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase largely abolished ubiquitylation, endocytosis and degradation. In a strain lacking the Rsp5p accessory factors Bul1p and Bul2p, endocytosis and degradation of Ctr1p-green fluorescent protein were substantially diminished. Surprisingly, a Ctr1p mutant that lacks Lys340 and Lys345 was still ubiquitylated in a copper-dependent manner, indicating that ubiquitylation of Ctr1p on other sites is insufficient to drive copper-dependent endocytosis and degradation. This study demonstrates that copper regulates turnover of Ctr1p by stimulating Rsp5p-dependent endocytosis and degradation of Ctr1p in the vacuole.
    Traffic 11/2007; 8(10):1375-84. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Amajor function of the endocytic system is the sorting of cargo to various organelles. Endocytic sorting of the yeast reductive iron transporter, which is composed of the Fet3 and Ftr1 proteins, is regulated by available iron. When iron is provided to iron-starved cells, Fet3p-Ftr1p is targeted to the lysosome-like vacuole and degraded. In contrast, when iron is not available, Fet3p-Ftr1p is maintained on the plasma membrane via an endocytic recycling pathway requiring the sorting nexin Grd19/Snx3p, the pentameric retromer complex, and the Ypt6p Golgi Rab GTPase module. A recycling signal in Ftr1p was identified and found to bind directly to Grd19/Snx3p. Retromer and Grd19/Snx3p partially colocalize to tubular endosomes, where they are physically associated. After export from the endosome, Fet3p-Ftr1p transits through the Golgi apparatus for resecretion. Thus, Grd19/Snx3p, functions as a cargo-specific adapter for the retromer complex, establishing a precedent for a mechanism by which sorting nexins expand the repertoire of retromer-dependent cargos.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 05/2007; 177(1):115-25. · 10.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Vam7p t-SNARE is an essential component of the vacuole fusion machinery that mediates membrane trafficking and protein sorting in yeast. Vam7p is recruited to vacuoles by its N-terminal PX domain that specifically recognizes PtdIns(3)P in the bilayers, however the precise mechanism of membrane anchoring remains unclear. Here we describe a molecular basis for membrane targeting and penetration by the Vam7p PX domain based on structural and quantitative analysis of its interactions with lipids and micelles. Our results derived from in vitro binding measurements using NMR, monolayer surface tension experiments and mutagenesis reveal a multivalent membrane docking mechanism involving specific PtdIns(3)P recognition that is facilitated by electrostatic interactions and accompanying hydrophobic insertion. Both the hydrophobic and electrostatic components enhance the Vam7p PX domain association with PtdIns(3)P-containing membranes. The inserting Val(70), Leu(71), and Trp(75) residues located next to the PtdIns(3)P binding pocket are surrounded by a basic patch, which is involved in nonspecific electrostatic contacts with acidic lipids, such as PtdSer. Substitution of the insertion residues significantly reduces the binding and penetrating power of the Vam7p PX domain and leads to cytoplasmic redistribution of the EGFP-tagged protein. The affinities of the PX domain for PtdIns(3)P and other lipids reveal a remarkable synergy within the multivalent complex that stably anchors Vam7p at the vacuolar membrane.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2007; 281(48):37091-101. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Specific recognition of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns3P] by the FYVE domain targets cytosolic proteins to endosomal membranes during key signaling and trafficking events within eukaryotic cells. Here, we show that this membrane targeting is regulated by the acidic cellular environment. Lowering the cytosolic pH enhances PtdIns3P affinity of the FYVE domain, reinforcing the anchoring of early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) to endosomal membranes. Reversibly, increasing the pH disrupts phosphoinositide binding and leads to cytoplasmic redistribution of EEA1. pH dependency is due to a pair of conserved His residues, the successive protonation of which is required for PtdIns3P head group recognition as revealed by NMR. Substitution of the His residues abolishes PtdIns3P binding by the FYVE domain in vitro and in vivo. Another PtdIns3P-binding module, the PX domain of Vam7 and p40phox is shown to be pH-independent. This provides the fundamental functional distinction between the two phosphoinositide-recognizing domains. The presented mode of FYVE regulation establishes the unique function of FYVE proteins as low pH sensors of PtdIns3P and reveals the critical role of the histidine switch in targeting of these proteins to endosomal membranes.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2005; 102(37):13052-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rab GTPases are crucial regulators of organelle biogenesis, maintenance, and transport. Multiple Rabs are expressed in all cells, and each is localized to a distinct set of organelles, but little is known regarding the mechanisms by which Rabs are targeted to their resident organelles. Integral membrane proteins have been postulated to serve as receptors that recruit Rabs from the cytosol in a complex with the Rab chaperone, GDI, to facilitate the dissociation of Rab and GDI, hence facilitating loading of Rabs on membranes. We show here that the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Golgi Rab GTPase Ypt1p can be copurified with the integral membrane protein Yip3p from detergent cell extracts. In addition, a member of the highly conserved reticulon protein family, Rtn1p, is also associated with Yip3p in vivo. However, Ypt1p did not copurify with Rtn1p, indicating that Yip3p is a component of at least two different protein complexes. Yip3p and Rtn1p are only partially colocalized in cells, with Yip3p localized predominantly to the Golgi and secondarily to the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas Rtn1p is localized predominantly to the endoplasmic reticulum and secondarily to the Golgi. Surprisingly, the intracellular localization of Rabs was not perturbed in yip3Delta or rtn1Delta mutants, suggesting that these proteins do not play a role in targeting Rabs to intracellular membranes. These data indicate that Yip3p may have multiple functions and that its interaction with Rabs is not critical for their recruitment to organelle membranes.
    Eukaryotic Cell 08/2005; 4(7):1166-74. · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: tGolgin-1 (trans-Golgi p230, golgin-245) is a member of a family of large peripheral membrane proteins that associate with the trans-Golgi network (TGN) via a C-terminal GRIP domain. Some GRIP-domain proteins have been implicated in endosome-to-TGN transport but no function for tGolgin-1 has been described. Here, we show that tGolgin-1 production is required for efficient retrograde distribution of Shiga toxin from endosomes to the Golgi. Surprisingly, we also found an indirect requirement for tGolgin-1 in Golgi positioning. In HeLa cells depleted of tGolgin-1, the normally centralized Golgi and TGN membranes were displaced to the periphery, forming 'mini stacks'. These stacks resembled those in cells with disrupted microtubules or dynein-dynactin motor, in that they localized to endoplasmic-reticulum exit sites, maintained their secretory capacity and cis-trans polarity, and were relatively immobile by video microscopy. The mini stacks formed concomitant with a failure of pre-Golgi elements to migrate along microtubules towards the microtubule-organizing centre. The requirement for tGolgin-1 in Golgi positioning did not appear to reflect direct binding of tGolgin-1 to motile pre-Golgi membranes, because distinct Golgi and tGolgin-1-containing TGN elements that formed after recovery of HeLa cells from brefeldin-A treatment moved independently toward the microtubule-organizing centre. These data demonstrate that tGolgin-1 functions in Golgi positioning indirectly, probably by regulating retrograde movement of cargo required for recruitment or activation of dynein-dynactin complexes on newly formed Golgi elements.
    Journal of Cell Science 06/2005; 118(Pt 10):2279-93. · 5.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
489.18 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2003–2012
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Cell and Developmental Biology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2011
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Nashville, MI, United States
  • 1970–2011
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Cell and Development Biology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Colorado
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Denver, CO, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Missouri
      Columbia, Missouri, United States
  • 1999
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 1991–1999
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 1997
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Medicine
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 1990
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Cell and Molecular Biology
      Evanston, IL, United States