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Publications (6)70.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy and safety of orally administered capecitabine (Xeloda; Roche Laboratories, Inc, Nutley, NJ), a novel fluoropyrimidine carbamate designed to mimic continuous fluorouracil (5-FU) infusion but with preferential activation at the tumor site, with that of intravenous (IV) 5-FU plus leucovorin (5-FU/LV) as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. We prospectively randomized 602 patients to treatment with capecitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) administered twice daily days 1 to 14 every 3 weeks, or to the 4-weekly Mayo Clinic regimen (5-FU/LV) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary objective, to demonstrate at least equivalent response rates in the two treatment groups, was met. The overall response rate was 18.9% for capecitabine and 15.0% for 5-FU/LV. In the capecitabine and 5-FU/LV groups, respectively, median time to disease progression was 5.2 and 4.7 months (log-rank P =.65); median time to treatment failure was 4.2 and 4.0 months (log-rank P =.89); and median overall survival was 13.2 and 12.1 months (log-rank P =.33). The toxicity profiles of both treatments were typical of fluoropyrimidines. However, capecitabine led to significantly lower incidences (P <.00001) of stomatitis and alopecia, but a higher incidence of cutaneous hand-foot syndrome (P <.00001). Capecitabine also resulted in lower incidences (P <.00001) of grade 3/4 stomatitis and neutropenia, leading to a lower incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenic fever and sepsis. Only grade 3 hand-foot syndrome (P <.00001) and uncomplicated grade 3/4 hyperbilirubinemia (P <.0001) were reported more frequently with capecitabine. Oral capecitabine achieved an at least equivalent efficacy compared with IV 5-FU/LV. Capecitabine demonstrated clinically meaningful safety advantages and the convenience of an oral agent.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2001; 19(21):4097-106. · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) three treatment regimens of oral capecitabine in order to select the most appropriate regimen for testing in phase III. Three capecitabine schedules were evaluated in a randomized phase II design: arm A, 1,331 mg/m(2)/d bid continuously; arm B, 2,510 mg/m(2)/d bid intermittently (2 weeks on/1 week off); and arm C, 1,657 mg/m(2)/d plus oral leucovorin 60 mg/d bid intermittently (2 weeks on/1 week off). One hundred nine patients were randomized; 39 patients were assessable for efficacy in arm A, 34 in arm B, and 35 in arm C. Patient characteristics were balanced in the arms. Confirmed tumor responses (partial response [PR] + complete response [CR]) were reported for eight patients with two CRs (21%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 36%) in arm A, eight patients with one CR (24%; 95% CI, 11% to 41%) in arm B, and eight patients with two CRs (23%; 95% CI, 10% to 40%) in arm C. Median times to progression (TTP) in arms A, B, and C were 127, 230, and 165 days, respectively. Overall, more toxicity was seen with capecitabine plus leucovorin, particularly diarrhea and hand-foot syndrome. There was no grade 3 or 4 marrow toxicity. Capecitabine offers a new, effective treatment option as an oral single agent in advanced CRC. Promising overall response rates were reported for all three regimens. The addition of leucovorin to the intermittent regimen had no marked effect on tumor response or median TTP. The intermittent single-agent capecitabine schedule is proposed for phase III evaluation, based on considerations of toxicity, dose-intensity, response rate, and TTP.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2000; 18(6):1337-45. · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Capecitabine (Xeloda) is a novel rationally designed fluoropyrimidine carbamate. It passes through the intestinal mucosal membrane intact and is subsequently activated by a cascade of three enzymes resulting in preferential release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) at the tumor site. Preclinical studies indicated an enhancement of the therapeutic index when capecitabine was combined with leucovorin. This Phase I trial was designed to determine the safety profile, maximal tolerated dose, and pharmacokinetic profile of the combination of capecitabine plus a fixed dose of p.o. leucovorin (60 mg/day) during administration to patients with refractory advanced cancers. The intention was to administer both drugs continuously, but the starting dose of capecitabine was also the maximum tolerated dose (1004 mg/m2/day) in six patients treated with this regimen. A cycle of treatment was then redefined as leucovorin and capecitabine given p.o., twice daily for 2 consecutive weeks followed by a 1-week rest period. Capecitabine doses from 1004 mg/m2/day to 2510 mg/m2/day were evaluated with the intermittent schedule over approximately 80 courses in an additional 25 patients. The dose-limiting toxicities that defined the maximum tolerated dose at 2000 mg/m2/day were diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and palmar plantar erythrodysesthesia. The recommended Phase II dose using this schedule was 1650 mg/m2/day of capecitabine plus leucovorin 60 mg/day. Plasma concentrations of capecitabine, intermediate metabolites, and 5-FU were measured in 26 patients on days 1 and 14 of therapy. The pharmacokinetics of capecitabine were characterized by rapid GI absorption, with Cmax at 1 h, followed by conversion to active drug. The coadministration of leucovorin had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of capecitabine. Two patients with colorectal cancer, both previously treated with 5-FU, had partial responses. Phase II studies have confirmed the promising antitumor activity of this drug, and capecitabine is currently in Phase III evaluation.
    Clinical Cancer Research 12/1998; 4(11):2755-61. · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Capecitabine is an orally administered fluoropyrimidine carbamate selectively activated to fluorouracil (5-FU) in tumors. It passes through the intestinal mucosal membrane intact and is subsequently activated by a cascade of three enzymes that results in the preferential release of 5-FU at the tumor site. In this phase I study, capecitabine was administered twice daily as outpatient therapy, each cycle administered for 2 weeks followed by 1 week of rest. Thirty-four patients with solid tumors, all of whom except three patients were pretreated, were treated at dose levels from 502 to 3,514 mg/m2 daily. The median treatment duration was four cycles (85 days; range, 14 to 833+ days). Two patients continue on treatment at 686 and 833+ days. Capecitabine 3,000 mg/m2 daily was not tolerable, with dose-limiting toxicities of diarrhea with hypotension, abdominal pain, and leukopenia. Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE) became evident at higher dose levels after prolonged treatment. Evidence of objective tumor response was reported in four patients at 2,510 mg/m2 daily and greater (one complete response [CR] and three partial responses [PRs]) with subjective minor tumor responses in a further seven patients. Pharmacokinetic studies showed rapid gastrointestinal absorption of capecitabine, followed by extensive conversion into 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR), with only low systemic 5-FU levels. Capecitabine is a tolerable oral outpatient therapy that shows promising clinical activity in a variety of cancers. The recommended phase II dose is 2,510 mg/m2 daily administered by this intermittent schedule.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/1998; 16(9):2977-85. · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Capecitabine (Ro 09-1978) is a novel oral fluoropyrimidine carbamate that was rationally designed to generate 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) selectively in tumors. The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of capecitabine and its metabolites was investigated in 11 patients with advanced colorectal cancer using a two-way cross-over design with randomized sequence. Patients received repeated doses of 666 or 1255 mg/m2 of capecitabine twice daily. On study days 1 and 8, drug was administered following an overnight fast or within 30 min after consumption of a standard breakfast, and serial blood samples were collected. Concentrations of capecitabine and its metabolites [5'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5'-DFCR), 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR), 5-FU, dihydro-5-fluorouracil (FUH2), and alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL)] in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Intake of food prior to the administration of capecitabine resulted in pharmacokinetic changes of all compounds involved. The extent of these changes, however, varied considerably between the various compounds. Maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) values were decreased after food, and time until the occurrence of Cmax values were increased. In contrast, the apparent elimination half-life was not affected by food intake. The extent of change in Cmax and AUC was highest for capecitabine and decreased with the order of formation of the metabolites. The "before:after food" ratios of the Cmax values were 2.47 for capecitabine, 1.81 for 5'-DFCR, 1.53 for 5'-DFUR, 1.58 for 5-FU, 1.26 for FUH2, and 1.11 for FBAL. The before: after food ratios of the AUC values were 1.51 for capecitabine, 1.26 for 5'-DFCR, 1.15 for 5'-DFUR, 1.13 for 5-FU, 1.07 for FUH2, and 1.04 for FBAL. The results show that food has a profound effect on the AUC of capecitabine, a moderate effect on the AUC of 5'-DFCR, and only a minor influence on the AUC of the other metabolites in plasma. In addition, a profound influence on Cmax of capecitabine and most of its metabolites was found. Detailed information on the relationship between concentration and safety/efficacy is necessary to evaluate the clinical significance of these pharmacokinetic findings. At present, it is recommended that capecitabine be administered with food as this procedure was used in the clinical trials.
    Clinical Cancer Research 05/1998; 4(4):941-8. · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of orally administered capecitabine (Xeloda; Roche Laboratories, Inc, Nutley, NJ), a novel fluoropyrimidine carbamate de- signed to mimic continuous fluorouracil (5-FU) infusion but with preferential activation at the tumor site, with that of intravenous (IV) 5-FU plus leucovorin (5-FU/LV) as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients and Methods: We prospectively random- ized 602 patients to treatment with capecitabine 1,250 mg/m2 administered twice daily days 1 to 14 every 3 weeks, or to the 4-weekly Mayo Clinic regimen (5-FU/ LV) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Results: The primary objective, to demonstrate at least equivalent response rates in the two treatment groups, was met. The overall response rate was 18.9% for capecitabine and 15.0% for 5-FU/LV. In the capecit- abine and 5-FU/LV groups, respectively, median time to disease progression was 5.2 and 4.7 months (log-rank P.65); median time to treatment failure was 4.2 and 4.0 months (log-rank P.89); and median overall survival was 13.2 and 12.1 months (log-rank P.33). The toxicity profiles of both treatments were typical of fluoropyrimidines. However, capecitabine led to signif- icantly lower incidences (P < .00001) of stomatitis and alopecia, but a higher incidence of cutaneous hand-foot syndrome (P < .00001). Capecitabine also resulted in lower incidences (P < .00001) of grade 3/4 stomatitis and neutropenia, leading to a lower incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenic fever and sepsis. Only grade 3 hand- foot syndrome (P < .00001) and uncomplicated grade 3/4 hyperbilirubinemia (P < .0001) were reported more frequently with capecitabine. Conclusion: Oral capecitabine achieved an at least equivalent efficacy compared with IV 5-FU/LV. Capecit- abine demonstrated clinically meaningful safety ad- vantages and the convenience of an oral agent. J Clin Oncol 19:4097-4106. © 2001 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.