Andrew J Sandford

University of British Columbia - Vancouver, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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Publications (132)864.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BPIFA1 and BPIFB1 are putative innate immune molecules expressed in the upper airways. Due to their hypothesized roles in airway defense, these molecules may contribute to lung disease severity in cystic fibrosis (CF). We interrogated BPIFA1/BPIFB1 SNPs in data from an association study of CF modifier genes and found an association of the G allele of rs1078761 with increased lung disease severity (p=2.71 x 10-4). We hypothesized that the G allele of rs1078761 is associated with decreased expression of BPIFA1 and/or BPIFB1. Genome-wide lung gene expression and genotyping data from 1,111 individuals with lung disease, including 51 CF patients, were tested for associations between genotype and BPIFA1 and BPIFB1 gene expression levels. Findings were validated by qPCR in a subset of 77 individuals. Western blotting was used to measure BPIFA1 and BPIFB1 protein levels in 93 lung and 101 saliva samples. The G allele of rs1078761 was significantly associated with decreased mRNA levels of BPIFA1 (p=4.08 x 10-15) and BPIFB1 (p=0.0314). These findings were confirmed with qPCR and western blotting. We conclude that the G allele of rs1078761 may be detrimental to lung function in CF due to decreased levels of BPIFA1 and BPIFB1.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 01/2015; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified "protective" associations between the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1837253 in the TSLP gene and risk for allergy, asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The absence of linkage disequilibrium of rs1837253 with other SNPs in the region suggests it is likely a causal polymorphism for these associations, having functional consequences. We hypothesized that rs1837253 genotype would influence TSLP secretion from mucosal surfaces. We therefore evaluated the secretion of TSLP protein from primary nasal epithelial cells (NECs) of atopic and nonatopic individuals and its association with rs1837253 genotype. We found that although atopic sensitization does not affect the secretion of TSLP from NECs, there was decreased TSLP secretion in NECs obtained from heterozygous (CT; 1.8-fold) and homozygous minor allele (TT; 2.5-fold) individuals, as compared with NECs from homozygous major allele individuals (CC; P<0.05), after double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) stimulation (50 μg ml(-1)). Our novel results show that rs1837253 polymorphism may be directly involved in the regulation of TSLP secretion. This may help explain the protective association of this genetic variant with asthma and related traits. Identifying functional consequences of SNPs in genes with previously reported clinical associations is critical in understanding and targeting allergic inflammation.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 17 December 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.126.
    Mucosal Immunology 12/2014; · 7.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Increased airway responsiveness is linked to lung function decline and mortality in subjects with COPD; however the genetic contribution to airway responsiveness remains largely unknown. Methods: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using the Illumina Human660W-Quad BeadChip on European Americans with COPD from the Lung Health Study. Linear regression models with correlated meta-analyses, including data from baseline (n=2,814) and year 5 (n=2,657), were used to test for common genetic variants associated with airway responsiveness. Genotypic imputation was performed using reference 1000 Genomes Project data. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses in lung tissues were assessed for the top ten markers identified and immunohistochemistry assays assessed protein staining for SGCD and MYH15. Results: Four genes were identified within the top 10 associations with airway responsiveness. Markers on chromosome 9p21.2 flanked by LINGO2 met pre-determined threshold of genome-wide significance (P<9.57x10-8). Markers on chromosomes 3q13.1 (flanked by MYH15), 5q33 (SGCD) and 6q21 (PDSS2) yielded suggestive evidence of association (9.57x10-8<P≤4.6x10-6). Gene expression studies in lung tissue showed SNPs on chromosomes 5 and 3 to act as eQTL for SGCD (P=2.57x10-9) and MYH15, (P=1.62x10-6), respectively. Immunohistochemistry confirmed localization of SGCD protein to airway smooth muscle and vessels and MYH15 to airway epithelium, vascular endothelium and inflammatory cells. Conclusions: We identified novel loci associated with airway responsiveness in a GWAS among smokers with COPD. Risk alleles on chromosomes 5 and 3 acted as eQTLs for SGCD and MYH15 mRNA and these proteins were expressed in lung cells relevant to the development of airway responsiveness.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 12/2014; · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 09/2014; · 11.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: COPD is a complex chronic disease with poorly understood pathogenesis. Integrative genomic approaches have the potential to elucidate the biological networks underlying COPD and lung function. We recently combined genome-wide genotyping and gene expression in 1111 human lung specimens to map expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL).
    Thorax 09/2014; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of airway obstruction in α1-antitrypsin deficient patients. This may result in a shortening of telomere length, resulting in cellular senescence. To test whether telomere length differs in α1-antitrypsin deficient patients compared with controls, we measured telomere length in DNA from peripheral blood cells of 217 α1-antitrypsin deficient patients and 217 control COPD patients. We also tested for differences in telomere length between DNA from blood and DNA from lung tissue in a subset of 51 controls. We found that telomere length in the blood was significantly longer in α1-antitrypsin deficient COPD patients compared with control COPD patients (p = 1×10-29). Telomere length was not related to lung function in α1-antitrypsin deficient patients (p = 0.3122) or in COPD controls (p = 0.1430). Although mean telomere length was significantly shorter in the blood when compared with the lungs (p = 0.0078), telomere length was correlated between the two tissue types (p = 0.0122). Our results indicate that telomere length is better preserved in α1-antitrypsin deficient COPD patients than in non-deficient patients. In addition, measurement of telomere length in the blood may be a suitable surrogate for measurement in the lung.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95600. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 04/2014; · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the pleiotropic effects of nitric oxide (NO) within the lungs, it is likely that NO is a significant factor in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to test for association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three NO synthase (NOS) genes and lung function, as well as to examine gene expression and protein levels in relation to the genetic variation. One SNP in each NOS gene (neuronal NOS (NOS1), inducible NOS (NOS2), and endothelial NOS (NOS3)) was genotyped in the Lung Health Study (LHS) and correlated with lung function. One SNP (rs1800779) was also analyzed for association with COPD and lung function in four COPD case--control populations. Lung tissue expression of NOS3 mRNA and protein was tested in individuals of known genotype for rs1800779. Immunohistochemistry of lung tissue was used to localize NOS3 expression. For the NOS3 rs1800779 SNP, the baseline forced expiratory volume in one second in the LHS was significantly higher in the combined AG + GG genotypic groups compared with the AA genotypic group. Gene expression and protein levels in lung tissue were significantly lower in subjects with the AG + GG genotypes than in AA subjects. NOS3 protein was expressed in the airway epithelium and subjects with the AA genotype demonstrated higher NOS3 expression compared with AG and GG individuals. However, we were not able to replicate the associations with COPD or lung function in the other COPD study groups. Variants in the NOS genes were not associated with lung function or COPD status. However, the G allele of rs1800779 resulted in a decrease of NOS3 gene expression and protein levels and this has implications for the numerous disease states that have been associated with this polymorphism.
    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 11/2013; 13(1):64. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several infrequent genetic polymorphisms in the SERPINA1 gene are known to substantially reduce concentration of alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) in the blood. Since low AAT serum levels fail to protect pulmonary tissue from enzymatic degradation, these polymorphisms also increase the risk for early onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The role of more common SERPINA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in respiratory health remains poorly understood. We present here an agnostic investigation of genetic determinants of circulating AAT levels in a general population sample by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1392 individuals of the SAPALDIA cohort. Five common SNPs, defined by showing minor allele frequencies (MAFs) >5%, reached genome-wide significance, all located in the SERPINA gene cluster at 14q32.13. The top-ranking genotyped SNP rs4905179 was associated with an estimated effect of β = -0.068 g/L per minor allele (P = 1.20*10(-12)). But denser SERPINA1 locus genotyping in 5569 participants with subsequent stepwise conditional analysis, as well as exon-sequencing in a subsample (N = 410), suggested that AAT serum level is causally determined at this locus by rare (MAF<1%) and low-frequent (MAF 1-5%) variants only, in particular by the well-documented protein inhibitor S and Z (PI S, PI Z) variants. Replication of the association of rs4905179 with AAT serum levels in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (N = 8273) was successful (P<0.0001), as was the replication of its synthetic nature (the effect disappeared after adjusting for PI S and Z, P = 0.57). Extending the analysis to lung function revealed a more complex situation. Only in individuals with severely compromised pulmonary health (N = 397), associations of common SNPs at this locus with lung function were driven by rarer PI S or Z variants. Overall, our meta-analysis of lung function in ever-smokers does not support a functional role of common SNPs in the SERPINA gene cluster in the general population.
    PLoS Genetics 08/2013; 9(8):e1003585. · 8.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alveolar macrophages play an important role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) via production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cathepsins as well as their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and cystatin C (CST3). We hypothesized that expression levels of these molecules by alveolar macrophages at baseline and after stimulation would be influenced by genotype and associated with COPD phenotypes.Quantitative PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays/gelatin zymography were used to investigate expression levels of mRNA and protein, respectively. The relationships of expression with genotype, pulmonary function and emphysema were analysed.The results showed that basal expression level of MMP12 mRNA was inversely related to DL,CO/VA and to FEV1/FVC after correction for multiple comparisons. The expression level of MMP12 protein stimulated with LPS was also inversely related to DL,CO/VA and was positively related to the extent of emphysema. The basal expression of MMP1 mRNA was positively correlated with the extent of emphysema. Cathepsin L protein level was positively associated with FEV1% predicted.We conclude that increased MMP12 and MMP1 expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Cathepsin L and MMP9 may be involved in the development of airflow limitation.
    European Respiratory Journal 07/2013; · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory diseases are the most frequent chronic illnesses in babies and children. Although a vigorous innate immune system is critical for maintaining lung health, a balanced response is essential to minimize damaging inflammation. We investigated the functional and clinical impact of human genetic variants in the promoter of NFKBIA, which encodes IκBα, the major negative regulator of NF-κB. In this study, we quantified the functional impact of NFKBIA promoter polymorphisms (rs3138053, rs2233406, and rs2233409) on promoter-driven protein expression, allele-specific and total NFKBIA mRNA expression, IκBα protein expression, and TLR responsiveness; mapped innate immune regulatory networks active during respiratory syncytial virus infection, asthma, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia; and genotyped and analyzed independent cohorts of children with respiratory syncytial virus infection, asthma, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Genetic variants in the promoter of NFKBIA influenced NFKBIA gene expression, IκBα protein expression, and TLR-mediated inflammatory responses. Using a systems biology approach, we demonstrated that NFKBIA/IκBα is a central hub in transcriptional responses of prevalent childhood lung diseases, including respiratory syncytial virus infection, asthma, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Finally, by examining independent pediatric lung disease cohorts, we established that this immunologically relevant genetic variation in the promoter of NFKBIA is associated with differential susceptibility to severe bronchiolitis following infection with respiratory syncytial virus, airway hyperresponsiveness, and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. These data highlight the importance of negative innate immune regulators, such as NFKBIA, in pediatric lung disease and begin to unravel common aspects in the genetic predisposition to bronchopulmonary dysplasia, bronchiolitis, and childhood asthma.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2013; · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peanut allergy (PA) is a common and serious food allergy and its prevalence has increased in the past decade. Although there is strong evidence of inheritance, the genetic causes of this disease are not well understood. Previously, a large-scale genome-wide association study described an association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 and asthma; the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HLA-DQB1 and PA. Genotypic and allelic profiles were established for 311 Caucasian members of a well-described Canadian group of children with PA and 226 Caucasian controls. Firth's logistic regression analyses showed associations between HLA-DQB1 alleles and PA for DQB1*02 (P=1.1 × 10(-8), odds ratio (OR)=0.09 (CI=0.03-0.23)) and DQB1*06:03P alleles (P=2.1 × 10(-2), OR=2.82 (CI=1.48-5.45)). This study of HLA in PA demonstrates specific association between two allelic groups of the HLA-DQB1 gene (DQB1*02 and DQB1*06:03P) and PA, highlighting its possible role in the development of this disease.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 27 February 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.13.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 02/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor
  • Samuel J Wadsworth, Andrew J Sandford
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    ABSTRACT: Human beings come in all shapes and sizes. Heterogeneity makes life interesting, but leads to inter-individual variation in disease susceptibility and response to therapy. One major health challenge is to develop "personalised medicine"; therapeutic interventions tailored to an individual to ensure optimal treatment of disease. Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with several different phenotypes triggered by multiple gene-environment interactions. Inhaled corticosteroids and β2-agonists have been the mainstay asthma therapies for 30 years, but they are not effective in all patients, while high costs and side-effects also drive the need for better targeted treatment of asthma. Pharmacogenetics is the study of variations in the genetic code for proteins in signaling pathways targeted by pharmacological therapies. Biomarkers are biological markers obtained from patients that can aid in asthma diagnosis, prediction of treatment response, and monitoring of disease control. This review presents a broad discussion of the use of genetic profiling and biomarkers to better diagnose, monitor, and tailor the treatment of asthmatics. We also discuss possible future developments in personalised medicine, including the construction of artificially engineered airway tissues containing a patient's own cells for use as personalised drug-testing tools.
    Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 12/2012; · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci reproducibly associated with pulmonary diseases; however, the molecular mechanism underlying these associations are largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to discover genetic variants affecting gene expression in human lung tissue, to refine susceptibility loci for asthma identified in GWAS studies, and to use the genetics of gene expression and network analyses to find key molecular drivers of asthma. We performed a genome-wide search for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in 1,111 human lung samples. The lung eQTL dataset was then used to inform asthma genetic studies reported in the literature. The top ranked lung eQTLs were integrated with the GWAS on asthma reported by the GABRIEL consortium to generate a Bayesian gene expression network for discovery of novel molecular pathways underpinning asthma. We detected 17,178 cis- and 593 trans- lung eQTLs, which can be used to explore the functional consequences of loci associated with lung diseases and traits. Some strong eQTLs are also asthma susceptibility loci. For example, rs3859192 on chr17q21 is robustly associated with the mRNA levels of GSDMA (P = 3.55×10(-151)). The genetic-gene expression network identified the SOCS3 pathway as one of the key drivers of asthma. The eQTLs and gene networks identified in this study are powerful tools for elucidating the causal mechanisms underlying pulmonary disease. This data resource offers much-needed support to pinpoint the causal genes and characterize the molecular function of gene variants associated with lung diseases.
    PLoS Genetics 11/2012; 8(11):e1003029. · 8.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The innate immune system is essential for host survival because of its ability to recognize invading pathogens and mount defensive responses. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify genetic associations of innate immunity genes with atopy and asthma and interactions with early viral infections (first 12 months of life) in a high-risk birth cohort. METHODS: Three Canadian family-based studies and 1 Australian population-based case-control study (n = 5565) were used to investigate associations of 321 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 innate immunity genes with atopy, asthma, atopic asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Interactions between innate immunity genes and early viral exposure to 3 common viruses (parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and picornavirus) were examined in the Canadian Asthma Primary Prevention Study by using both an affected-only family-based transmission disequilibrium test and case-control methods. RESULTS: In a joint analysis of all 4 cohorts, IL-1 receptor 2 (IL1R2) and Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) SNPs were associated with atopy after correction for multiple comparisons. In addition, an NFKBIA SNP was associated with atopic asthma. Six SNPs (rs1519309 [TLR3], rs740044 [ILIR2], rs4543123 [TLR1], rs5741812 [LBP], rs917998 [IL18RAP], and rs3136641 [NFKBIB]) were significant (P < .05, confirmed with 30,000 permutations) in both the combined analysis of main genetic effects and SNP-virus interaction analyses in both case-control and family-based methods. The TLR1 variant (rs4543123) was associated with both multiple viruses (respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus) and multiple phenotypes. CONCLUSION: We have identified novel susceptibility genes for asthma and related traits and interactions between these genes and early-life viral infections.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 10/2012; · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prior studies have demonstrated that the distal 1.5 kb of the MMP-1 promoter is fundamental in directing the induction of the MMP-1 gene by cigarette smoke. METHODS: To characterize the genetic variants in the MMP-1 cigarette smoke-responsive element, deep re-sequencing of this element was performed on DNA samples from participants in the Lung Health Study. Furthermore, evidence of Sp1 binding to the MMP-1 promoter was assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and the influence of cigarette smoke exposure on this interaction was evaluated in cultured human small airway epithelial cells. RESULTS: Ten polymorphisms (four novel) were detected in the cigarette smoke-responsive element. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to assess the protein-DNA interactions at Sp1 sites in the MMP-1 promoter showed increased binding to the Sp1 sites in the cigarette smoke-responsive element in small airway epithelial cells treated with cigarette smoke extract. In contrast, a Sp1 site outside of the element exhibited the opposite effect. None of the polymorphisms were more prevalent in the fast decliners versus the slow decliners (fast decliners = mean -4.14% decline in FEV1 % predicted per year vs. slow decliners = mean +1.07%/year). CONCLUSIONS: Sequencing analyses identified four novel polymorphisms within the cigarette smoke-responsive element of the MMP-1 promoter. This study identifies functional activity within the cigarette smoke-responsive element that is influenced by cigarette smoke exposure and examines this region of the promoter within a small patient population.
    Respiratory research 09/2012; 13(1):79. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accelerated lung function decline is a key COPD phenotype; however, its genetic control remains largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study using the Illumina Human660W-Quad v.1_A BeadChip. Generalized estimation equations were used to assess genetic contributions to lung function decline over a 5-year period in 4,048 European American Lung Health Study participants with largely mild COPD. Genotype imputation was performed using reference HapMap II data. To validate regions meeting genome-wide significance, replication of top SNPs was attempted in independent cohorts. Three genes (TMEM26, ANK3 and FOXA1) within the regions of interest were selected for tissue expression studies using immunohistochemistry. Two intergenic SNPs (rs10761570, rs7911302) on chromosome 10 and one SNP on chromosome 14 (rs177852) met genome-wide significance after Bonferroni. Further support for the chromosome 10 region was obtained by imputation, the most significantly associated imputed SNPs (rs10761571, rs7896712) being flanked by observed markers rs10761570 and rs7911302. Results were not replicated in four general population cohorts or a smaller cohort of subjects with moderate to severe COPD; however, we show novel expression of genes near regions of significantly associated SNPS, including TMEM26 and FOXA1 in airway epithelium and lung parenchyma, and ANK3 in alveolar macrophages. Levels of expression were associated with lung function and COPD status. We identified two novel regions associated with lung function decline in mild COPD. Genes within these regions were expressed in relevant lung cells and their expression related to airflow limitation suggesting they may represent novel candidate genes for COPD susceptibility.
    Human Genetics 09/2012; · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in the lung contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that is caused by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental risk factors. Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2 or NRF2) is a critical molecule in the lung's defense mechanism against oxidants. We investigated whether polymorphisms in the NFE2L2 pathway affected the rate of decline of lung function in smokers from the Lung Health Study (LHS)(n = 547) and in a replication set, the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort (n = 533). We selected polymorphisms in NFE2L2 in genes that positively or negatively regulate NFE2L2 transcriptional activity and in genes that are regulated by NFE2L2. Polymorphisms in 11 genes were significantly associated with rate of lung function decline in the LHS. One of these polymorphisms, rs11085735 in the KEAP1 gene, was previously shown to be associated with the level of lung function in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort but not with decline of lung function. Of the 23 associated polymorphisms in the LHS, only rs634534 in the FOSL1 gene showed a significant association in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort with rate of lung function decline, but the direction of the association was not consistent with that in the LHS. In summary, despite finding several nominally significant polymorphisms in the LHS, none of these associations were replicated in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort, indicating lack of effect of polymorphisms in the NFE2L2 pathway on the rate of decline of lung function.
    Physiological Genomics 06/2012; 44(15):754-63. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is the leading risk factor for lung cancer. To identify genes deregulated by smoking and to distinguish gene expression changes that are reversible and persistent following smoking cessation, we carried out genome-wide gene expression profiling on nontumor lung tissue from 853 patients with lung cancer. Gene expression levels were compared between never and current smokers, and time-dependent changes in gene expression were studied in former smokers. A total of 3,223 transcripts were differentially expressed between smoking groups in the discovery set (n = 344, P < 1.29 × 10(-6)). A substantial number of smoking-induced genes also were validated in two replication sets (n = 285 and 224), and a gene expression signature of 599 transcripts consistently segregated never from current smokers across all three sets. The expression of the majority of these genes reverted to never-smoker levels following smoking cessation, although the time course of normalization differed widely among transcripts. Moreover, some genes showed very slow or no reversibility in expression, including SERPIND1, which was found to be the most consistent gene permanently altered by smoking in the three sets. Our findings therefore indicate that smoking deregulates many genes, many of which reverse to normal following smoking cessation. However, a subset of genes remains altered even decades following smoking cessation and may account, at least in part, for the residual risk of lung cancer among former smokers. Cancer Res; 72(15); 3753-63. ©2012 AACR.
    Cancer Research 06/2012; 72(15):3753-63. · 9.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
864.23 Total Impact Points


  • 1997–2014
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Respiratory Medicine
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 1996–2014
    • St. Paul's Hospital
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • 2013
    • University of Québec in Chicoutimi
      • Department of Sciences Fondamentales
      Saguenay, Quebec, Canada
  • 2003–2012
    • University of British Columbia - Okanagan
      Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2009
    • Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
  • 2008
    • Laval University
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
  • 2002
    • Universität Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2001
    • Vancouver General Hospital
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada