Bipan Chand

Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States

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Publications (80)309.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Placement of an adjustable gastric band (AGB) over the gastric pouch after RYGB failure has had varied results.Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate safety and outcomes of AGB after RYGB failure.SettingAcademic center, United StatesMethods We identified 28 patients who underwent laparoscopic placement of an AGB around the gastric pouch as a revisional procedure for inadequate weight loss or recidivism after RYGB between 2008-2011.ResultsTwenty-four (86%) patients had a dilated gastric pouch and/or stoma. The mean operative and adhesiolysis time was 137.9±52.3 and 83±51 minutes, respectively. History of a previous open RYGB was associated with a longer adhesiolysis time (p=0.03). Three (11%) major intraoperative and five (18%) early postoperative complications occurred. Late complications (all requiring band removal) were observed in 6 (21%) patients and included: ineffectiveness (n=2), dysphagia/esophageal dilation (n=2), band erosion (n=1), and peritonitis (n=1). In all four patients with a normal sized pouch and stoma at the time of band placement, the band was removed. After a mean follow-up of 38.3±14.8 months, the mean body mass index (BMI) change and median excess weight loss (EWL) after salvage banding were -3.6±4.5 kg/m2 and 12.7%, respectively. In the subset of patients with a dilated pouch/stoma, BMI less than 42 kg/m2 at the time of band placement was associated with a significantly higher EWL (41.4±37.0%) compared with a baseline BMI>42 kg/m2 (12.1±7.2%, p=0.03).Conclusions Salvage banding is technically challenging due to dense adhesions, carries significant morbidity, and is associated with only 13% additional EWL. However, this approach may still be an option in carefully selected patients, such as those with previous laparoscopic RYGB who have a dilated pouch and/or stoma and lower BMI.
    Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 11/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Pornthep Prathanvanich, Bipan Chand
    Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 07/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Pornthep Prathanvanich, Bipan Chand
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    ABSTRACT: Background Pulmonary depression remains a major concern when performing upper endoscopy in the morbidly obese patient. Objectives The aim of this prospective study is to determine the effects of sedation and role of capnography during preoperative upper endoscopy in obese patients. Setting Major tertiary medical referral center Methods 82 consecutive diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopies were performed in morbidly obese patients in an outpatient setting. Data on amount of drug administration and cardiorespiratory change were recorded. Results Mean body mass index and duration of procedure was 46.4 ± 8.2 kg/m2and 9.4±2.5 minutes, respectively. The mean dose of propofol was 139.5±45.1 mg. No clinically significant cardiorespiratory complications occurred. Respiratory depression (RD) was seen in 33/82 (40.2%) patients and included a mean absolute change in EtCO2 of 7.1±8.5 mmHg from baseline (p = 0.001). 54/82(65.9%) patients had subclinical RD with 27/54 (50%) having RD. Abnormal EtCO2 detected all episodes of RD. The sensitivity and negative predictive value in determining RD by a change in EtCO2 >10 mmHg or an absent EtCO2 waveform during any point of the procedure was 81% and 78% respectively. The relative risk was 2.3. Conclusion Capnography provided a real time assessment of changes in ventilation and can detect early phases of respiratory depression. Utilization of propofol as a means for sedation, with extended advanced monitoring technique, can allow for reduced adverse outcomes in morbidly obese patients undergoing upper endoscopy.
    Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 05/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Pornthep Prathanvanich, Bipan Chand
    Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 04/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Pornthep Prathanvanich, Bipan Chand
    Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 01/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The outcome of incisional and ventral hernia repair depends on surgical technique, patient, and material. Permacol™ surgical implant (crosslinked porcine collagen) has been used for over a decade; however, there are few data on outcomes. This study is the largest retrospective multinational study to date to evaluate outcomes with Permacol™ surgical implant in the repair of incisional and ventral hernias. Methods Data were collected retrospectively on 343 patients treated for 213 incisional and 130 ventral hernias. Data evaluated included patient demographics, wound classification, surgical technique, morbidity, and recurrence rates. Results Median follow-up time was 649 days (max: 2857), median age 57 years (range 23–91), and BMI 32 kg/m2 (range 17.6–77.8). Two or more comorbidities were present in 70% of patients. Open surgery was performed in 220 (64%) patients. Permacol™ surgical implant was used as an underlay (250), sublay (39), onlay (37), or inlay (17). Surgical techniques included component separation (89; 25.9%), modified Stoppa technique (197; 57.4%), and Rives–Stoppa (17; 5.0%). CDC Surgical Wound Classification was Class I (190), Class II (103), Class III (28), and Class IV (22). Complications were seen in 40.5% (139) of the patients, with seroma (19%) and wound infection (15%) as the most common. Mesh removal occurred in 1 (0.3%) patient. Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that the probabilities for hernia recurrence at one, two, and three years were 5.8%, 16.6%, and 31.0%, respectively. Conclusions Permacol™ surgical implant was shown to be safe with relatively low rates of hernia recurrence. Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT01214252 (
    International Journal of Surgery (London, England) 01/2014; · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • Pornthep Prathanvanich, Bipan Chand
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    ABSTRACT: A review of benefits, indications, techniques, and special populations when considering enteral access. The purpose of this article is not to provide an exhaustive in-depth review but to highlight major considerations when deciding which patient would benefit and what tools should be considered before procedure. The focus is limited to endoscopic enteral access and does not cover additional methods (radiologic or surgical).
    Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 10/2013; 15(4):216–223.
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluate the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remission and metabolic risk factors. Although the impressive antidiabetic effects of bariatric surgery have been shown in short- and medium-term studies, the durability of these effects is uncertain. Specifically, long-term remission rates following bariatric surgery are largely unknown. Clinical outcomes of 217 patients with T2DM who underwent bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2007 and had at least 5-year follow-up were assessed. Complete remission was defined as glycated hemoglobin (A1C) less than 6% and fasting blood glucose (FBG) less than 100 mg/dL off diabetic medications. Changes in other metabolic comorbidities, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetic nephropathy, were assessed. At a median follow-up of 6 years (range: 5-9) after surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, n = 162; gastric banding, n = 32; sleeve gastrectomy, n = 23), a mean excess weight loss (EWL) of 55% was associated with mean reductions in A1C from 7.5% ± 1.5% to 6.5% ± 1.2% (P < 0.001) and FBG from 155.9 ± 59.5 mg/dL to 114.8 ± 40.2 mg/dL (P < 0.001). Long-term complete and partial remission rates were 24% and 26%, respectively, whereas 34% improved (>1% decrease in A1C without remission) from baseline and 16% remained unchanged. Shorter duration of T2DM (P < 0.001) and higher long-term EWL (P = 0.006) predicted long-term remission. Recurrence of T2DM after initial remission occurred in 19% and was associated with longer duration of T2DM (P = 0.03), less EWL (P = 0.02), and weight regain (P = 0.015). Long-term control rates of low high-density lipoprotein, high low-density lipoprotein, high triglyceridemia, and hypertension were 73%, 72%, 80%, and 62%, respectively. Diabetic nephropathy regressed (53%) or stabilized (47%). Bariatric surgery can induce a significant and sustainable remission and improvement of T2DM and other metabolic risk factors in severely obese patients. Surgical intervention within 5 years of diagnosis is associated with a high rate of long-term remission.
    Annals of surgery 10/2013; 258(4):628-37. · 7.90 Impact Factor
  • Pornthep Prathanvanich, Bipan Chand
    Gastrointestinal endoscopy 09/2013; · 6.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Weight regain or insufficient loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is common. This is partially attributable to dilatation of the gastrojejunostomy (GJ), which diminishes the restrictive capacity of RYGB. Endoluminal interventions for GJ reduction are being explored as alternatives to revision surgery. We performed a randomized, blinded, sham-controlled trial to evaluate weight loss following sutured transoral outlet reduction (TORe). METHODS: Patients with weight regain or inadequate loss after RYGB and GJ diameter > 2 cm were randomly assigned to groups that underwent TORe (n=50) or a sham procedure (controls, n=27). Intra-operative performance, safety, weight loss and clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Subjects that received TORe had a significantly greater mean percent weight loss, from baseline (3.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8%-5.3%), than controls (0.4%; 95% CI, 2.3% weight gain to 3.0% weight loss) (P=.021), using last observation carried forward intent-to-treat analysis. As-treated analysis also demonstrated greater mean percent weight loss in the TORe group than controls (3.9% and 0.2% respectively; P=.014). Weight loss or stabilization was achieved in 96% subjects receiving TORe and 78% of controls (P=.019). The TORe group had reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P<.001) and a trend toward improved metabolic indices. Additionally, 85% of the TORe group reported compliance with the healthy lifestyle eating program, compared with 53.8% of controls; 83% of TORe subjects said they would undergo the procedure again, and 78% said they would recommend the procedure to a friend. The groups had similar frequencies of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: A multi-center randomized trial provides Level I evidence that TORe reduces weight regain following RYGB. These results were achieved using a superficial suction-based device; greater levels of weight loss could be achieved with newer, full-thickness suturing devices. TORe is one approach to avoid weight regain; a longitudinal multidisciplinary approach with dietary counseling and behavioral changes are required for long-term results.
    Gastroenterology 04/2013; · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complications of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) include band slippage, material infection, and band erosion. Band erosion can lead to chronic infection, obstruction, delayed perforation, and ineffectiveness; therefore, removal is indicated. A myriad of approaches exist for band removal and many authors have described novel techniques. A minimally invasive approach, including laparoscopic or endoscopic assistance, is favored given the reduction of postoperative complications compared with laparotomy. We present a novel approach to band retrieval following partial erosion involving a complete endoscopic/transgastric technique. Perioperative management and a review of the literature also are described.
    Surgical Endoscopy 03/2013; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Gastric electrical stimulator (GES) implantation is effective in certain patients with gastroparesis; however, laparotomy is often employed for placement. The aim of this study is to review outcomes of patients who underwent laparoscopic GES therapy for diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis at a large referral center. METHODS: Patients who underwent GES (Enterra Therapy System; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) implantation with subsequent interrogation and programming between March 2001 and November 2011 were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 113 patients underwent GES placement or revision during the study period. One hundred eleven patients underwent primary GES at our institution, while two patients underwent GES generator revision at our institution. Primary operations were completed laparoscopically in 110 of 111 cases, with one conversion to laparotomy due to severe adhesions. At a mean follow-up of 27 months (1-113), symptom improvement was achieved in 91 patients (80 %) and was similar for both the diabetic and idiopathic subgroups. Need for supplemental nutrition (enteral and/or parental) decreased in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: GES placement is feasible using a laparoscopic approach. Medical refractory gastroparesis in the diabetic and idiopathic groups had significant symptom improvement with no difference between the two groups. Need for supplemental nutrition is decreased following GES.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 01/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 01/2013; 9(1):152-3. · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Bipan Chand
    Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 01/2013; 10(2):297-298. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Changes in the biliary system after gastric bypass are not well defined. Dilation may be normal or due to biliary tract pathology. The purpose of this study is to review patients who underwent imaging of their biliary system both before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in an effort to elucidate the effect this operation has on hepatic duct diameter. METHODS: Patients with imaging both before and at least 3 months after gastric bypass were analyzed. Hepatic duct was measured at the level of the porta hepatis to determine interval changes. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients had postoperative imaging at least 3 months following gastric bypass. Mean hepatic duct diameter was 5.2 ± 2 and 7.1 ± 2.6 mm preoperatively and postoperatively, respectively (p < 0.01). Patients with prior cholecystectomy had hepatic duct diameters of 7.9 ± 1.3 and 9.5 ± 3.5 mm preoperatively and postoperatively, respectively (p = 0.3). Patients who had not previously undergone cholecystectomy had hepatic duct diameters of 4.3 ± 1.1 and 6.4 ± 1.8 mm preoperatively and postoperatively, respectively (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic duct diameter increases after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A better understanding of this phenomenon may limit the need for further work-up in patients with incidentally detected biliary dilation.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 10/2012; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Data regarding the management of bariatric patients with cirrhosis are scarce, and there is no strong evidence that supports a specific approach for this group of patients. The aim of this study was to review our experience with cirrhotic patients undergoing bariatric surgery. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database was reviewed to assess the outcomes of bariatric surgery for patients with known cirrhosis and for patients with cirrhosis discovered at surgery (unknown cirrhosis). RESULTS: From April 2004 to September 2011, 23 patients (12 with known cirrhosis and 11 with unknown cirrhosis) met inclusion criteria. There were 14 females and 9 males with a mean age of 51.5±8.3 and a mean body mass index of 48.2±8.6 kg/m2. Child-Pugh classes were A (n = 22) and B (n = 1). Patients had a high frequency of diabetes (83%), dyslipidemia (61%), and hypertension (83%). Procedures performed were laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) (n = 14), laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) (n = 8), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (n = 1). Two patients underwent LSG successfully after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Mean length of hospital stay was 4.3±2.7 days. Complications developed in 8 patients. One patient died of unknown cause 9 months after surgery. No patients had liver decompensation after surgery. The patients lost 67.4%±30.9% of their excess weight at 12 months follow-up and 67.7%±24.8% at 37 months follow-up. CONCLUSION: LRYGB and LSG can be performed without prohibitive complication rates in carefully selected patients with cirrhosis. In our experience, bariatric patients with cirrhosis achieved excellent weight loss and improvement in obesity-related co-morbidities.
    Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 09/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intermittent, reversible intraabdominal vagal blockade (VBLOC® Therapy) demonstrated clinically important weight loss in feasibility trials. EMPOWER, a randomized, double-blind, prospective, controlled trial was conducted in USA and Australia. METHODS: Five hundred three subjects were enrolled at 15 centers. After informed consent, 294 subjects were implanted with the vagal blocking system and randomized to the treated (n = 192) or control (n = 102) group. Main outcome measures were percent excess weight loss (percent EWL) at 12 months and serious adverse events. Subjects controlled duration of therapy using an external power source; therapy involved a programmed algorithm of electrical energy delivered to the subdiaphragmatic vagal nerves to inhibit afferent/efferent vagal transmission. Devices in both groups performed regular, low-energy safety checks. Data are mean ± SEM. RESULTS: Study subjects consisted of 90 % females, body mass index of 41 ± 1 kg/m(2), and age of 46 ± 1 years. Device-related complications occurred in 3 % of subjects. There was no mortality. 12-month percent EWL was 17 ± 2 % for the treated and 16 ± 2 % for the control group. Weight loss was related linearly to hours of device use; treated and controls with ≥12 h/day use achieved 30 ± 4 and 22 ± 8 % EWL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: VBLOC® therapy to treat morbid obesity was safe, but weight loss was not greater in treated compared to controls; clinically important weight loss, however, was related to hours of device use. Post-study analysis suggested that the system electrical safety checks (low charge delivered via the system for electrical impedance, safety, and diagnostic checks) may have contributed to weight loss in the control group.
    Obesity Surgery 09/2012; 22(11):1771-1782. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There has been recent interest in using robots for general surgical procedures. This shift in technique raises the issue of patient safety with automated instrumentation. Although the safety of robotics has been established for urologic procedures, there are scant data on its use in general surgical procedures. The aim of this study is to analyze the incidence of robotic malfunction and its consequences for general surgical procedures. METHODS: All robotic general surgical procedures performed at a tertiary center between 2008 and 2011 were reviewed from institutional review board (IRB)-approved prospective databases. RESULTS: A total of 223 cases were done robotically, including 102 endocrine, 83 hepatopancreaticobiliary, 17 upper gastrointestinal, and 21 lower gastrointestinal colorectal procedures. There were 10 cases of robotic malfunction (4.5 %). These failures were related to robotic instruments (n = 4), optical system (n = 3), robotic arms (n = 2), and robotic console (n = 1). None of these failures led to adverse patient consequences or conversion to open. Six (2.7 %) cases were converted to open due to bleeding (n = 3), difficult dissection plane (n = 1), invasion of tumor to surrounding structures (n = 1), and intolerance of pneumoperitoneum due to CO(2) retention (n = 1). There was no mortality, and morbidity was 1 % (n = 2). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the largest North American report to date on robotic general surgical procedures. Our results show that robotic malfunction occurs in a minority of cases, with no adverse consequences. We believe that awareness of these failures and knowing how to troubleshoot are important to maintain the efficiency of these procedures.
    Surgical Endoscopy 06/2012; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease and hiatal hernia. Studies have demonstrated poor symptom control in obese patients undergoing fundoplication. The ideal operation remains elusive. However, addressing both obesity and the anatomic abnormality should be the goal. METHODS: This study retrospectively identified 19 obese (body mass index [BMI], >30 kg/m(2)) and morbidly obese (BMI, >40 kg/m(2)) patients who presented between December 2007 and November 2011 for management of large or recurrent paraesophageal hernia. All the patients underwent a combined primary paraesophageal hernia repair and longitudinal gastrectomy. Charts were retrospectively reviewed to collect preoperative, operative, and short-term postoperative results. Quantitative data were analyzed using Student's t test and qualitative data with χ(2) testing. RESULTS: Laparoscopy was successful for all 19 patients. The mean preoperative BMI was 37.8 ± 4.1 kg/m(2), and the mean operative time was 236 ± 80 min. Preoperative endoscopy showed that 5 patients who had undergone prior fundoplication experienced anatomic failures, whereas the remaining 14 patients had type 3 and one type 4 paraesophageal Hernia. Mesh was used to reinforce the hiatus in 15 of the 19 cases. The postoperative complications included pulmonary embolism (n = 1) and pulmonary decompensation (n = 2) due to underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The mean hospital stay was 5.3 ± 3 days. Upper gastrointestinal esophagography was performed for all the patients, with no short-term recurrence of paraesophageal hernia. Weight loss was seen for all the patients during the first month, with a mean BMI drop of 2.7 ± 1 kg/m(2). All the patients experienced near to total resolution of their preoperative symptoms within the first month. CONCLUSION: Combined laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair and longitudinal gastrectomy offer a safe and feasible approach for the management of large or recurrent paraesophageal hernias in well-selected obese and morbidly obese patients. In a short-term follow-up period, this approach demonstrated effective symptom control and weight loss.
    Surgical Endoscopy 06/2012; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite technical refinements of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement, complications such as early tube dislodgement remain relatively static. This study aimed to review the experience of a high-volume endoscopy center after the introduction of T-fastener placement in high-risk patients. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed PEG placement from October 2010 to September 2011, when their group began to use T-fasteners selectively in high-risk patients. Patients deemed to have an increased risk for early tube dislodgement underwent T-fastener placement at the time of PEG placement. Patients with PEG alone were compared with patients who had PEG with T-fastener (PEG-T) placement. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 18. RESULTS: During the study period, 195 patients underwent PEG placement. For 121 patients, PEG alone was performed, whereas PEG-T was performed for 74 patients. Six patients had tube dislodgement (five early, one late) in the PEG-T cohort versus none in the PEG-alone cohort (P = 0.003). The first patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy with replacement gastrostomy 2 days after tube dislodgement and was noted to have no contamination, with direct apposition of the stomach to the abdominal wall from the T-fasteners. The subsequent four patients with early tube dislodgement underwent non-emergent PEG replacement in the endoscopy unit within 24 h after tube dislodgement. In the short-term follow-up period, no repeat dislodgements were noted. Early mortality in the entire cohort was experienced by 38 (19.5 %) of the 195 patients. CONCLUSION: Placement of T-fasteners in high-risk patients may decrease overall morbidity if early tube dislodgement occurs. The findings show the safety of non-emergent endoscopic replacement of PEGs in certain patients. Early tube dislodgement may be a marker of overall mortality.
    Surgical Endoscopy 05/2012; · 3.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

537 Citations
309.01 Total Impact Points


  • 2013–2014
    • Loyola University
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
    • Loyola University Chicago
      • Department of Surgery
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Saint Michael's Medical Center
      Newark, New Jersey, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • Loyola University Medical Center
      • Stritch School of Medicine
      Maywood, Illinois, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • Bariatric Institute of Greater Chicago
      Hinsdale, Illinois, United States
    • George Washington University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2007–2012
    • Cleveland Clinic
      • Department of General Surgery
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
    • Permanente Medical Group
      Pasadena, California, United States
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • Kuwait University
      • Department of Surgery
      Kuwait, Muhafazat al `Asimah, Kuwait
    • Chulalongkorn University
      • Department of Surgery
      Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2009
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States