Hassan Abol-Enein

Mansoura University, El-Manṣûra, Ad Daqahlīyah, Egypt

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Publications (111)319.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To develop two nomograms predicting disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) and to externally validate them in multiple series. Prospectively collected data from a single-centre series of 818 consecutive patients who underwent RC and PLND were used to build the nomogram. External validation was performed in 3,173 patients from 7 centres worldwide. Time to recurrence and to cancer-specific death were addressed with univariable and multivariable analyses. Nomograms were built to predict 2-, 5- and 8-year DFS and CSS probabilities. Predictive accuracy was quantified using the concordance index. Age, pathologic T stage, lymph-node density and extent of PLND were independent predictors of DFS and CSS (p < 0.05). Discrimination accuracies for DFS and CSS at 2, 5 and 8 years were 0.81, 0.8, 0.79 and 0.82, 0.81, 0.8, respectively, with a slight overestimation at calibration plots beyond 24 months. In the external series, predictive accuracies for DFS and CSS at 2, 5 and 8 years were 0.83, 0.82, 0.82 and 0.85, 0.85, 0.83 for European centres; 0.73, 0.72, 0.71 and 0.80, 0.74, 0.68 for African series; 0.76, 0.74, 0.71 and 0.79, 0.76, 0.73 for American series. These nomograms developed from a contemporary series are simple clinical tools and provide optimal oncologic outcome prediction in all external cohorts.
    World Journal of Urology 12/2014; 191(4). DOI:10.1007/s00345-014-1465-4 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the association of fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) expression with pathologic features and clinical outcomes of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemistry of FGF2 was performed on radical cystectomy specimens with pure SCC from 1997 to 2003. The relationship between FGF2 and pathologic parameters and oncological outcome was assessed. The study included 151 patients with SCC (98 men) with a median age of 52 years (range: 36-74y). Schistosomal infection was found in 81% of patients. Pathologic category was T2 and T3 in 88% of patients and the grade was low in>50%. Lymph node invasion and lymphovascular invasion were found in 30.5% and 16%. Altered FGF2 was associated with tumor grade (P = 0.014), lymph node invasion, and lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.042). Altered FGF2 was associated with both disease recurrence and cancer-specific mortality (P≤0.001) in Kaplan-Meier analyses and was an independent predictor of cancer recurrence (hazard ratio = 2.561, P = 0. 009) and cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio = 2.679, P = 0. 033) in multivariate Cox regression analyses. Adding FGF2 to a model including standard clinicopathologic prognostics (pathologic T category, lymph node status, and grade) showed a significant improvement (6%) in accuracy of prediction poor oncological outcome. FGF2 overexpression is associated with aggressive pathologic features and worse outcomes after radical cystectomy for SCC, suggesting a good prognostic and possible therapeutic role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Urologic Oncology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.urolonc.2014.09.020 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the rates of the available urinary diversion options for patients treated with radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in different settings (pioneering institutions, leading urologic oncology centers, and population based). Population-based data from the literature included all patients (n = 7608) treated in Sweden during the period 1964-2008, from Germany (n = 14,200) for the years 2008 and 2011, US patients (identified from National Inpatient Sample during 1998-2005, 35,370 patients and 2001-2008, 55,187 patients), and from Medicare (n = 22,600) for the years 1992, 1995, 1998, and 2001. After the International Consultation on Urologic Diseases-European Association of Urology International Consultation on Bladder Cancer 2012, the urinary diversion committee members disclosed data from their home institutions (n = 15,867), including the pioneering institutions and the leading urologic oncology centers. They are the coauthors of this report. The receipt of continent urinary diversion in Sweden and the United States is <15%, whereas in the German high-volume setting, 30% of patients receive a neobladder. At leading urologic oncology centers, this rate is also 30%. At pioneering institutions up to 75% of patients receive an orthotopic reconstruction. Anal diversion is <1%. Continent cutaneous diversion is the second choice. Enormous variations in urinary diversion exist for >2 decades. Increased attention in expanding the use of continent reconstruction may help to reduce these disparities for patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Continent reconstruction should not be the exclusive domain of cystectomy centers. Efforts to increase rates of this complex reconstruction must concentrate on better definition of the quality-of-life impact, technique dissemination, and the centralization of radical cystectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Urology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2014.06.075 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and objectives: We evaluated the association of multiple biomarkers with clinical outcomes in patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder to identify the best prognostic panel of markers. Methods Immunohistochemistry for 14 biomarkers was performed on tissue microarray sections of 151 RC specimens with SCC. Biomarker alterations, pathological features as well as oncological outcomes were evaluated. The panel of biomarkers that best predicted oncological outcome was determined. Outcomes were stratified based on a prognostic score according to the number of altered biomarkers. The accuracy of oncological outcome prediction was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. Results The study included 151 patients. Pathological stage was T2 in 50%, T3 in 38% and T1 and T4 in 6% of the patients. Median follow-up was 63.2 months. The best prognostic panel of markers included COX-2, FGF-2, p53, Bax and EGFR. A prognostic score (PS) based on marker alterations was an independent predictor of disease recurrence (intermediate risk: HR 3.2, and p=0. 008; high risk: HR 15.5 and p≤ 0.001) and bladder cancer-specific mortality (intermediate risk: HR 5.2, and p=0. 009; high risk: HR 19.4, and p≤ 0.001) in multivariable Cox regression analysis. A multivariable prognostic model incorporating PS demonstrated a significantly better performance in predicting outcome compared to clinicopathological parameters only (0.78 versus 0.64; respectively). Conclusions Biomarkers have significant potential to predict outcome after RC for SCC. An increased number of altered markers may identify high risk patients who might benefit from multimodal treatment approaches.
    The Journal of Urology 09/2014; 193(2). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2014.08.109 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence, risk factors and causes of hospital readmissions (HR) in a large series of patients underwent radical cystectomy (RC).
    BJU International 06/2014; 115(1). DOI:10.1111/bju.12830 · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2014; 191(4):e687. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2014.02.1888 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The urinary reconstructive options available after radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer are discussed, as are the criteria for selection of the most appropriate diversion, and the outcomes and complications associated with different diversion options. To critically review the peer-reviewed literature on the function and oncological outcomes, complications, and factors influencing choice of procedure with urinary diversion after RC for bladder carcinoma. A Medline search was conducted to identify original articles, review articles, and editorials on urinary diversion in patients treated with RC. Searches were limited to the English language. Keywords included: 'bladder cancer', 'cystectomy', 'diversion', 'neobladder', and 'conduit'. The articles with the highest level of evidence were selected and reviewed, with the consensus of all of the authors of this paper. Both continent and incontinent diversions are available for urinary reconstruction after RC. In appropriately selected patients, an orthotopic neobladder permits the elimination of an external stoma and preservation of body image without compromising cancer control. However, the patient must be fully educated and committed to the labour-intensive rehabilitation process. He must also be able to perform self-catheterisation if necessary. When involvement of the urinary outflow tract by tumour prevents the use of an orthotopic neobladder, a continent cutaneous reservoir may still offer the opportunity for continence albeit one that requires obligate self-catheterisation. For patients who are not candidates for continent diversion, the ileal loop remains an acceptable and reliable option. Both continent and incontinent diversions are available for urinary reconstruction after RC. Orthotopic neobladders optimally preserve body image, while continent cutaneous diversions represent a reasonable alternative. Ileal conduits represent the fastest, easiest, least complication-prone, and most commonly performed urinary diversion.
    BJU International 01/2014; 113(1):11-23. DOI:10.1111/bju.12121 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To assess the effect of internal ureteral stents (IUS) on renal function (RF) and to determine factors associated with the RF changes. Methods: Between February 2009 and September 2012, 103 patients with bilateral or IUS in a solitary kidney were retrospectively analyzed. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Equation (CKD-EPI). It was calculated from serum creatinine after adequate relief of obstruction (baseline) and at last follow-up. Deterioration of eGFR was considered if last eGFR declined by >20% from the baseline value. Predictors of RF changes were detected using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses. Results: The mean patients' age was 54 + 14 years with males constituting 71.4% of study population. During follow-up after IUS fixation, the median eGFR has declined from 50.6 ml/min/1.73m2 at baseline to 25 ml/min/1.73m2 at time of last follow-up (p<0.0001). Fifty two (50.5%) patients experienced decline in their RF by >20% of baseline value. On multivariate analysis, positive urine culture (OR: 3; p=0.026), baseline eGFR <60 ml/min (OR: 3.6; p=0.011) and extraluminal obstruction (OR: 2.9; p=0.035) were independent predictors of RF deterioration. Conclusions: One half of patients with IUS lasting more than 3 months experienced RF deterioration during follow-up. This decline was significantly associated with positive urine cultures, presence of CKD and extraluminal obstruction. All efforts should be exerted for active treatment of associated urinary tract infection and active follow-up of RF.
    Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 09/2013; DOI:10.1089/end.2013.0521 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to determine the possible impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on the expression of telomerase (TERT), retinoblastoma (RB1), E2F3, TP53, CDKN1A (p21) and fibroblast growth factor receptor- 3 (FGFR3) genes in patients with bladder cancer (BC).Materials and methods100 patients with bladder cancer (15 female and 85 male) were divided into 2 groups; Group I: 50 HCV negative subjects (age range 36--79), and Group II: 50 HCV positive subjects (age range 42--80). Expressions of the telomerase, retinoblastoma (Rb), E2F3, TP53 and FGFR3 genes were tested by immunohistochemistry and real time PCR in tumour tissues and healthy bladder tissues. Also, telomerase activity was assessed by telomeric repeats amplification protocol (TRAP). Bladder tumors associated with HCV infection were of high grade and invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Expressions of hTERT, Rb, E2F3, TP53 and FGFR3 as well as telomerase activity were significantly higher in bladder tissues of HCV-infected patients compared with bladder tissues of non infected patients (p<0.05). On the contrary, CDKN1A (p21) expression was significantly lower in bladder tissues of HCV-infected patients compared to bladder tissues of non infected patients (p<0.05). The expressions of hTERT, Rb, E2F3, TP53 and FGFR3 as well as the activity of telomerase were significantly high in malignant bladder tissues associated with HCV infection. On the other hand, CDKN1A (p21) expression was low in bladder tissues of HCV-infected subjects. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between HCV infection and expression of telomerase, E2F3, TP53 and FGFR3. There was a negative correlation between HCV infection and expression of Rb and p21.
    Infectious Agents and Cancer 06/2013; 8(1):24. DOI:10.1186/1750-9378-8-24 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background A high serum level of female protein (FP), found to be a constituent of Syrian hamster amyloid was associated with enhanced amyloidosis. In this work, we studied the sex-limited factors in the induction of amyloidosis in Syrian hamsters infected with either Schistosoma mansoni or S. hematobium cercariae. Methods Hamsters were infected with different species of schistosome cercariae and sacrificed after different time periods of infection. Kidney and liver specimens were processed in paraffin, stained with Congo-red and examined by ordinary light and polarized light microscopy. Results Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in intensity of kidney and liver amyloid deposits (P< 0.002 and < 0.007, respectively) between females and male hamsters with extensive deposits in the former. Amyloid deposits were correlated significantly to the duration of infection (P < 0.001) than the worm load recovered. Conclusion We conclude that, in a hamster model, Schistosoma-induced amyloidosis is enhanced in female compared to male hamsters. This may be due to the high serum level of FP that is normally detected in females. As an experimental model for schistosomal nephropathy, we recommend to use male hamsters instead of females to minimize the effect of amyloid deposits, which may mask other pathological changes associated with schistosomal infection.
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2013; 189(4):e722. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2013.02.2886 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2013; 189(4):e382-e383. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2013.02.507 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • European Urology Supplements 03/2013; 12(1):e1069. DOI:10.1016/S1569-9056(13)61544-4 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is considered to act as a tumour-suppressor gene because of its antiproliferative and antimigratory activities. Higher levels of BTG2 expression in tumour cells have been linked to a better clinical outcome for several cancer entities. Here, we investigated the expression and function of BTG2 in bladder cancer.Methods:The expression of BTG2 in bladder cancer cells was silenced by RNA interference. Cell motility was investigated by wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. The protein expression of BTG2 in bladder cancer was studied by immunohistochemistry.Results:We observed that targeted suppression of BTG2 by RNA interference did not result in growth stimulation but led to a substantial inhibition of bladder cancer cell motility. Tissue microarray analyses of bladder cancer cystectomy specimens revealed that higher BTG2 expression levels within the tumours correlated strongly with a decreased cancer-specific survival for bladder cancer patients.Conclusion:These results indicate that endogenous BTG2 expression contributes to the migratory potential of bladder cancer cells. Moreover, high levels of BTG2 in bladder cancers are linked to decreased cancer-specific survival. These findings question the conception that BTG2 generally acts as a tumour suppressor and typically represents a favourable clinical marker for cancer patients.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 8 January 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.573 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 01/2013; 108(4). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2012.573 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: A summary of the 2nd International Consultation on Bladder Cancer recommendations on the reconstructive options after radical cystectomy (RC), their outcomes, and their complications. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature regarding indications, surgical details, postoperative care, complications, functional outcomes, as well as quality-of-life measures of patients with different forms of urinary diversion (UD). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: An English-language literature review of data published between 1970 and 2012 on patients with UD following RC for bladder cancer was undertaken. No randomized controlled studies comparing conduit diversion with neobladder or continent cutaneous diversion have been performed. Consequently, almost all studies used in this report are of level 3 evidence. Therefore, the recommendations given here are grade C only, meaning expert opinion delivered without a formal analysis. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Indications and patient selection criteria have significantly changed over the past 2 decades. Renal function impairment is primarily caused by obstruction. Complications such as stone formation, urine outflow, and obstruction at any level must be recognized early and treated. In patients with orthotopic bladder substitution, daytime and nocturnal continence is achieved in 85-90% and 60-80%, respectively. Continence is inferior in elderly patients with orthotopic reconstruction. Urinary retention remains significant in female patients, ranging from 7% to 50%. CONCLUSIONS: RC and subsequent UD have been assessed as the most difficult surgical procedure in urology. Significant disparity on how the surgical complications were reported makes it impossible to compare postoperative morbidity results. Complications rates overall following RC and UD are significant, and when strict reporting criteria are incorporated, they are much higher than previously published. Fortunately, most complications are minor (Clavien grade 1 or 2). Complications can occur up to 20 yr after surgery, emphasizing the need for lifelong monitoring. Evidence suggests an association between surgical volume and outcome in RC; the challenge of optimum care for elderly patients with comorbidities is best mastered at high-volume hospitals by high-volume surgeons. Preoperative patient information, patient selection, surgical techniques, and careful postoperative follow-up are the cornerstones to achieve good long-term results.
    European Urology 08/2012; 63(1). DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2012.08.050 · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the long-term outcome of using the serous-lined extramural tunnel technique for construction of continent-cutaneous urinary reservoir in an objective way. Cases that were operated until the end of 2003 and were eligible for evaluation at the time of the study were included. Continence, upper tract status, and complications were the targets of evaluation. Clear definition of continence was used, and biochemical kidney function profile was assessed with calculation of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a measure of the overall renal function in addition to the standard radiological assessment tools. A modified Clavien scale was followed for grading of complications. After a median of 121.3 months, the final continence rate was 91.1%. Maintained upper tract status was in almost 96.6% of cases and stricture of ureterointestinal anastomosis (UIA) was diagnosed in 3 renal units, and ureteral reflux was diagnosed in 24 renal units. Biochemical kidney function profile showed mean percent reduction of total eGFR to be 14.2%, and 3 patients had ≥50% reduction of total eGFR. On the Clavien scale, low-grade complications (GI-II) occurred in 30 patients (33%) and high-grade complications (≥GIII) occurred in 36 patients (40%). Stoma complications were the most frequent complications. At last follow-up, 42 patients (47%) were free of complications. The serous-lined extramural valve is an efficient technique for maintaining unidirectional flow. Over a decade, good functional outcome of the cutaneous reservoir has been evident. However, with a clear definition of continence and objective assessment of the outcome, at least one third of patients will have high-grade complications, with excellent reintervention outcome maintaining efficacy of the technique.
    Urology 06/2012; 80(2):452-8. DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2012.02.068 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    Urology 06/2012; 80(2):459. DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2012.02.071 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To study the effects of a short ureter on renal function and histology in an orthotopic bladder substitution model using a long afferent limb, in a canine model.Materials and methodsThe study included nine adult mongrel dogs. A 40-cm segment of ileum was isolated, the distal half detubularized, configured into a U-shape and sutured to form a flat plate; this was then used to augment the bladder. The proximal half of the isolated ileum remained in continuity with the enterocystoplasty to form an isoperistaltic ileal ‘chimney’. The left ureter was divided at its lumbar part and anastomosed to the chimney using a refluxing end-to-side Nesbit technique. The contralateral ureter was divided at its lower end and then anastomosed directly to the augmented segment of the bladder in a similarly refluxing manner to act as a control. The assessment after surgery included biochemical studies, ascending cystography, intravenous urography (IVU) and radioisotope renography at 6 weeks. The last two methods were repeated at intervals of 3 and 6 months after surgery. Urine culture was obtained and both kidneys were examined histopathologically at 6 months.ResultsThe biochemical values assessed in all dogs were comparable to those before surgery. The urine culture obtained from the augmented bladders showed significant bacterial growth in all dogs. IVU at all follow-up sample times showed a normal configuration of both kidneys. Ascending cystography showed reflux in four of nine dogs on the right and six on the left side. There was a progressive decrease in the mean selective renographic clearance values of each of the right and left kidneys at intervals of 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months. The mean percentage reduction of renographic clearance was significantly higher in the left kidneys at 6 weeks and 3 months. Histopathological examination showed evidence of interstitial nephritis in all nine dogs and pyelonephritis in four of the left kidneys, while none of the right kidneys showed evidence of inflammation.Conclusion Adequate peristalsis in a healthy long ureter is superior to the ileal segment substitution for protecting the kidney tissue against inflammation in the absence of an anatomical antireflux mechanism.
    06/2012; 10(2):125–130. DOI:10.1016/j.aju.2012.02.008
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of an ileal urinary reservoir in children. This was a longitudinal study of pediatric patients who had undergone total ileal substitution of the bladder. Continence status was assessed, and all patients were evaluated for kidney function and biochemical profile. Standardized growth charts were used to assess linear growth. To assess bone mineral density, dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry scanning was performed. Clavien's scale was used to report and grade the long-term complications and their timing. We used a simple quality of life questionnaire to assess the effect of the procedure on the quality of life of the growing child. A total of 17 patients were included; 3 with orthotopic and 14 with continent cutaneous reservoirs. After a mean follow-up of 87.3 months, all patients were voiding with clean intermittent catheterization, with a 94% final continence rate. Two patients (11.7%) had an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≤ 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at the last follow-up examination. However, no clinically manifest metabolic acidosis was detected. No anemia or neurologic deficit was detected, with a low-normal serum level of vitamin B(12) in 2 patients (11.7%) and a low level in 1 patient (5.7%). One patient (5.7%) had chronic diarrhea. Low bone mineral density was found in 4 patients (22.8%), with 3 patients (17.1%) not exceeding the fifth percentile of height for age. High-grade complications (grade 3a-5) represented 64.5% of the complications, and the need for reintervention occurred late in the follow-up period. A high level of quality of life satisfaction was reported (88.5%). Ileal neobladder construction allows child to pass into adolescence dry with more confidence and self-esteem, with no external urine collection set. However, long-term follow-up is mandatory to maintain the positive outcome.
    Urology 05/2012; 79(5):1126-31. DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2012.01.033 · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2012; 187(4):e470. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2012.02.1383 · 3.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
319.16 Total Impact Points


  • 1994–2014
    • Mansoura University
      • • Department of Urology
      • • Urology and Nephrology Center
      El-Manṣûra, Ad Daqahlīyah, Egypt
  • 1993–2011
    • Urology and Nephrology Center
      • Urology
      El-Manṣûra, Muḩāfaz̧at ad Daqahlīyah, Egypt